Ivey Publishing

Modern Management: Concepts and Skills

Certo, S.C., Certo, S.T.,12/e (United States, Pearson, 2011)
Prepared By Jianhua Zhu,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introducing modern management: concepts and skills

YUNNAN TOURISM CO., LTD: DEVELOPING GARDEN EXPO '99 SITE INTO A FIRST–CLASS URBAN ECO–CULTURAL COMPLEX


Product Number: AB14010
Publication Date: 9/8/2014
Length: 13 pages

In 1999, the International Horticultural Exposition was held in Kunming, capital of Yunnan Province in China. Recognised as an international exposition by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE), the event was organised by the International Association of Horticultural Producers (AIPH), based in Paris, France.

It was the first international mega–exposition hosted in China, and had strong support from Kunming's local government agencies. The six–month long exposition (Expo Garden) attracted more than 9 million visitors from around the world with a daily average of 49,000 park visitors and hitting a peak of more than 110,000 visitors in a single day. After the exhibition ended, Kunming government decided to continue to keep the venue open as a tourist destination, and major transformations were made to Expo Garden's management structure and business operations.

A decade later, Expo Garden had lost its position as a prime tourist destination in Yunnan, as other destinations such as Dali, Shangri–la and Lijiang became the top tourist draws. During this time, domestic tourists emerged as the main engine of growth in Yunnan's tourism industry.

In 2012, the group that owned and managed Expo Gardens, Yunnan Tourism Co. Ltd, a state–owned company listed in the Shenzhen stock exchange, needed a turnaround strategy to enhance the attractiveness of Expo Garden, its major asset. The aim was to:

transform Expo Garden into a major player in Yunnan Province's tourism industry; and
to boost Expo Garden's income growth substantially and improve the financial performance of the company.


Teaching Note: AB14010T (5 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: real estate development; tourism; China; business strategy; international expositions
Setting: 1999-2013
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Managing: history and current thinking

LEGO GROUP: BUILDING STRATEGY
Darren Meister, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B11M086
Publication Date: 9/13/2011
Revision Date: 2/1/2013
Length: 12 pages

The world famous toymaker, The LEGO Group, assembled an internal management team to create a strategic report on LEGO’s different product lines and business operations. In recent years, numerous threats to LEGO had emerged in the toy industry. The acquisition of Marvel Entertainment by The Walt Disney Company created major implications for valuable toy license agreements. LEGO had also recently lost a long legal battle with major competitor MEGA Brands, makers of MEGA Bloks, with a European Union court decision that removed the LEGO brick trademark. Furthermore, the second-largest toymaker in the world, Hasbro, was preparing to launch a new rival product line called Kre-O. It was critical for the management team to identify where to expand LEGO’s product lines and business operations, in order to develop a competitive strategy to continue the organization’s recent years of financial success and dominance in the building toy market.

Teaching Note: 8B11M086 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Opportunity Recognition; Licensing; Competitive Strategy; Business Growth; Toy Industry; Denmark
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Corporate social responsibility, ethics and sustainability

CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 9/24/2018
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Management and diversity

LGBTA AT TORONTO-DOMINION BANK IN 2012
Cara C. Maurer, Andrew Cornies

Product Number: 9B12C027
Publication Date: 10/26/2012
Revision Date: 10/25/2012
Length: 8 pages

This case concerns the implementation and strategic direction of LGBTA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and ally) initiatives at TD Bank Financial Group (TD). In order to maintain its position as the “employer of choice” for the LGBTA community, TD must expand the measures it had taken since its Diversity Leadership Council was created in 2006 to promote a comfortable, barrier-free and inclusive work environment for all employees. TD’s corporate diversity group had been providing a growing number of resources, events and LGBTA-related sponsorships for the past six years, resulting in an exponential growth of engagement by LGBTA employees, but lately the bank’s competitors and other large companies were catching up. Moreover, a recent review showed that there was a large variance in the quality of experience between the different subgroups of TD’s LGBTA community. The bank’s senior manager of corporate diversity must report within a week to the Diversity Leadership Council on how to solve these issues.

Teaching Note: 8B12C027 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Change Management; Corporate Social Responsibility; Diversity Management; Social Values and Economic Value; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Managing in the global arena

HYUNDAI SECURITIES: INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Won-Yong Oh, Kyle Yoon

Product Number: 9B14M052
Publication Date: 7/8/2014
Revision Date: 7/7/2014
Length: 15 pages

Firms in Korea’s securities and brokerage industries have experienced fierce competition in the domestic market, which has led to international expansion being considered a popular strategic alternative. The chief executive officer of Hyundai Securities Co., Ltd., a Korean securities firm, envisions his company becoming the “pan-Asian market leader.” As a result, he is pursuing an international expansion strategy in Hong Kong and Singapore. However, given the popularity of international expansion in these areas, the markets are highly competitive. Has the CEO made an appropriate strategic decision?

Teaching Note: 8B14M052 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial services; international expansion; subsidiary; Korea; Hong Kong; Singapore
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate


Chapter 6:
Management and Entrepreneurship

ENTREPRENEURS AT TWITTER: BUILDING A BRAND, A SOCIAL TOOL OR A TECH POWERHOUSE?
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10M028
Publication Date: 3/22/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 10 pages

Twitter has become an incredibly popular micro-blogging service since its launch in 2006. Its founders have ambitious plans for the service, and are backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital funding, which values the company at $3.7 billion in 2011. Twitter seems to attract a diverse audience of users, such as political organizers looking to disseminate information to their followers; businesses looking to reach out, in real time, to potential customers; and social users. The company charges consumers nothing for its service. By 2011, competitors have emerged, some of whom are financially strong. It remains unclear - at least to some observers - whether the company will ever make money from its service.

Teaching Note: 8B10M28 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Social Networking Media; Strategic Positioning; New Venture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Principles of Planing
Chapter 8:
Making decisions

RESUMING INTERNATIONALIZATION AT STARBUCKS
Mario Koster, Rob Alkema, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M073
Publication Date: 9/23/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starbucks enjoyed tremendous growth over the previous two decades. In 2007, it had a global reach of over 17,000 stores in 56 countries. Between 2007 and 2009, however, Starbucks' relentless march was slowed by three forces: increasingly intense competition, rising coffee bean prices and a global economic recession. In order to remain profitable, the company started to scale back its overseas operations. In 2010, Starbucks was faced with a critical strategic decision: Should the company resume its international expansion and once again intensify its commitments in overseas markets? If so, what approach should the company take? Had the pace of Starbucks' internationalization (i.e. the rate of opening new stores abroad), the rhythm of its internationalization (i.e. the regularity by which stores were opened abroad) and geographical scope of its internationalization (i.e. number of new countries entered) had an impact on the company's performance in previous years? Could Starbucks learn from its prior internationalization within the coffee industry in order to guide its future international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B10M73 (10 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; International Strategy; Market Entry; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Strategic planning: strategies, tactics, and the competitive dynamics

STRATEGIC PLANNING AT APPLE INC.
Kyle Murray, Miranda R. Goode, Fabrizio Di Muro

Product Number: 9B09A026
Publication Date: 1/11/2010
Length: 12 pages

Apple Inc. is one of the world's most successful and most recognizable companies. Over its 30 year existence, the company had seen a lot of changes in the computer industry. What would the future hold for the computer giant in a rapidly changing world? How should the company allocate resources between its more traditional offerings (computers) and its newer products (iPods, iPhones, Apple TV, etc.) in order to maintain and improve its market position. Also, how should Apple's unique retail strategy be used to support the company's product decisions, and by capitalizing on new and emerging trends thus further maintaining its competitive advantage.

Teaching Note: 8B09A26 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Competitive Advantage; Strategic Planning; Retailing; New Products
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Plan and planning tools

HANSON PRODUCTION: PRICING FOR OPENING DAY
June Cotte, Peter Famiglietti

Product Number: 9B10A011
Publication Date: 5/21/2010
Length: 14 pages

The president of production at Hanson Productions, an off-Broadway production company, was faced with the same situation for every Broadway production: where to locate, how many seats, what to charge and how to promote and market the production. There are three separate venues, with three separate value propositions to the studio, case and audience. While bigger means more seats and more revenue for each show, there is a capacity percentage that must be factored in to the decision due to the increased rental costs. Smaller venues may lead to higher capacity percentages, but ultimately leave money on the table. The ticket prices must be set for advance sales; any change in price after this period will effectively hurt future sales - more so if the price is discounted. Determining a promotion partner may lessen the risk of a potential failure, yet cost more profit and affect the recoup schedule.

Teaching Note: 8B10A11 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Sales Forecasting; Pricing; Pricing Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Fundamentals of Organizing

ARLA FOODS - MATCHING STRUCTURE WITH STRATEGY
Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13M112
Publication Date: 10/30/2013
Revision Date: 10/30/2013
Length: 17 pages

In early 2013, the head of business development and commercial operations of Arla Foods, a dairy enterprise focused on Northern European markets, is examining, in the light of a new five-year strategy, alternatives to the existing organization structure. His dilemma is to determine the best structure that can deliver the strategy, which is focused on renewed international expansion. The new structure must support the company's strategy in relation to both the existing core markets in Northern Europe and also the growth markets of the future in countries of Asia and Africa. It must ensure that Arla Foods has the right competitive stance in individual markets, which vary widely in terms of customer buying habits and retail formats. It must also ensure regular innovation of dairy categories developed from local resources and marketable globally.

Teaching Note: 8B13M112 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Strategy implementation; organization structure; innovation; globalization; key success factors; customer focus; United States.
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 12:
Presonsibility, authority, and delegation

VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Human resource management

SPARK SCHOOLS: KINDLING INNOVATION IN SOUTH AFRICA'S PRIMARY SCHOOLS
Margaret Sutherland

Product Number: 9B16C002
Publication Date: 1/28/2016
Revision Date: 1/22/2016
Length: 8 pages

In response to the education crisis in South Africa, two young MBA graduates start SPARK Schools, a network of low-fee, private primary schools; however, teacher candidates often lack the skills, knowledge and attitudes required in this innovative schooling system. SPARK Schools has implemented a range of human resource practices that show how an integrated, intensive, systemic approach to human resource policies and practices can help to optimize teachers’ performance. The two leaders wonder whether their human resource practices are suitable for scaling up their social entrepreneurship organization from four schools to 60 in their effort to make a positive national impact on education.

Teaching Note: 8B16C002 (13 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Social entrepreneurship, human resource management, effectuation, scaling up, motivational theories, school management, performance management, business in Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 14:
Organizational change

BANK OF BARODA: LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES
Asha Bhandarker, Snigdha Rai

Product Number: 9B15C036
Publication Date: 12/17/2015
Revision Date: 12/17/2015
Length: 8 pages

In 2008, the newly appointed chairman and managing director (CMD) of Bank of Baroda, one of India’s largest public-sector banks, was exploring ways to implement the vision of making the bank one of the most popular and customer-oriented public-sector banks in the country. Under the tenure of the previous CMD, a strong foundation for growth had been built, and subsequently, the bank had made tremendous progress and had been ranked third among its peers. However, the bank continued to suffer from the typical malaise of large public-sector organizations — although change was taking place, the firm was sluggish, inadequately responsive to customers, and using outdated processes and technology. Consequently, the new CMD was faced with the challenge of managing the legacy of his predecessor. To accomplish his goal, he took on the task of reinventing the bank by dispelling the culture of fear and caution that prevailed. Could he make the firm more agile and customer-savvy, while quadrupling revenue?

Teaching Note: 8B15C036 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Transformational leaders, organizational culture, organizational change, change leadership
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 15:
Influencing and communication

INTEL IN CHINA
Kathleen E. Slaughter, Donna Everatt, Xiaojun Qian

Product Number: 9A99C007
Publication Date: 6/23/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 8 pages

The newly appointed division head must examine organizational or communication problems within a division of a billion dollar semiconductor manufacturer. The manager made a decision, which an employee emotionally responded to, creating the potential for conflict within the department. Cross-cultural issues come into play given that the manager, although originally from China, was educated and gathered extensive experience in the West and was thus considered an expatriate by his employees. The manager must also examine the effect of organizational culture on an employee's behavior.

Teaching Note: 8A99C07 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Interpersonal Relations; Intercultural Relations; Conflict Resolution; Management Communication
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
Leadership

KOREAN AIR: THE NUT RAGE INCIDENT
Thompson S.H. Teo, Mei Jie Zhao

Product Number: 9B15D017
Publication Date: 11/30/2015
Revision Date: 11/27/2015
Length: 10 pages

In December 2014, after receiving poor service on a flight, a senior vice president at Korean Air lashed out at the flight attendants and delayed the flight’s departure until the chief attendant was returned to the gate. Following a tepid apology from her father, Korean Air’s chief executive officer, her actions drew a public backlash because they exposed the sense of entitlement prevalent among rich family conglomerates in South Korea. How should she have reacted in the face of the service failure? Why had she become the target of a public backlash? What could Korean Air do to mitigate the negative effects of this incident?

Teaching Note: 8B15D017 (8 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Customer service, leadership, chaebols, dynasty, service gap, public relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
Motivation

GRAVITY PAYMENTS: $70,000 MINIMUM SALARY COMPANY
Won-Yong Oh, Youngkyun Chang

Product Number: 9B16C001
Publication Date: 1/21/2016
Revision Date: 1/21/2016
Length: 5 pages

In April 2015, Dan Price, chief executive officer and founder of Gravity Payments, a private credit card processing and financial services company, announced that every employee would receive a minimum annual salary of US$70,000 over the next three years. Price said he was concerned about the increasing pay gap in the United States and news of his bold move went viral, causing debate over employee compensation plans and the wealth gap in society. At first, there was applause for his radical actions, causing an initial rise in new business. However, there was almost an immediate backlash both internally and externally. One senior worker at the company resigned, claiming that lesser-skilled workers would simply clock in and out while highly skilled workers were not similarly compensated with raises. A lawsuit was filed by Price's brother, a minority shareholder, who believed that the move would hurt the company. A number of clients left Gravity Payments while other companies criticized the move, saying it made them look stingy. Price attempted to tackle pay inequality by increasing salaries, but this created controversy. Employees were not the only stakeholders affected by Price's actions. What should Price do now?

Teaching Note: 8B16C001 (8 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Compensation, salary, motivation, pay inequality, equity theory
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 18:
Groups and teams

ELLEN MOORE (A): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA
Henry W. Lane, Chantell Nicholls, Gail Ellement

Product Number: 9A97G029
Publication Date: 6/3/1998
Revision Date: 2/23/2017
Length: 16 pages

Ellen Moore, a systems consultant, was sent to Korea to manage a project involving a team of North American and Korean consultants representing a joint venture between a major Korean conglomerate and a significant North American information technology company. The Americans were to be involved for the first seven months in order to transfer expertise and knowledge to the South Koreans, who had little experience in this area. Ellen's superior had played an integral part in securing the contract in Korea due to his depth of knowledge on the subject. He chose Ellen to be the key North American project manager because she had significant project management skills and impressive international experience. Upon Ellen's arrival, she discovered that the Korean consultants were far less skilled than she had expected. In addition, Ellen had understood that she and the Korean manager were to be co-managers, but immediately tensions arose regarding who was giving direction to the team, and the scope of the project. Tensions escalated until it was clear that the project was behind schedule and the Koreans were not taking direction from Ellen. The Koreans insisted that Ellen was the problem. Ellen’s superior disagreed; he and Ellen needed to decide how to proceed. The challenge was to balance strategic goals with individual action.

Teaching Note: 8A97G29 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Group Behaviour; Cross-cultural Relations; Women in Management; Team Building; United States; Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 19:
Managing organization culture

TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN TRANSFORMATION AT COMAIR LIMITED
Maxine Jaffit, Caren Scheepers, Jabu Maphalala

Product Number: 9B15C003
Publication Date: 3/23/2015
Revision Date: 3/20/2015
Length: 12 pages

Comair Limited was South Africa’s largest private airline and consisted of British Airways SA and the low-cost airline kulula.com. After acquiring more fuel-efficient aircraft, Comair decided to adopt Sabre, a reservation and scheduling technology platform. Initially, some Comair executives thought that the Sabre implementation was an IT project, but they soon realized that all employees were affected and that a culture change was required to successfully implement the new standardized way of working. An organizational transformation company was hired and “Operation Crossover” was created as a reference point for employees and metaphor for change in order to enable the change process, starting with a change readiness assessment and culture change roadmap. How could Comair’s CEO capitalize on the positive changes from this project and maintain the profitability and growth of the last 68 years?

Teaching Note: 8B15C003 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Transformation; change leadership; organizational culture; technology implementation; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 20:
Encouraging creativity and innovation

NETFLIX INC.: STREAMING AWAY FROM DVDS
Luis Alfonso Dau, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B12M040
Publication Date: 4/5/2012
Revision Date: 4/5/2012
Length: 10 pages

This case examines two of the leading video rental services in the United States, Blockbuster and Netflix, and how each adapted to changing technology and market forces. At the end of the case, Blockbuster has declared bankruptcy and Netflix has seen its first decline in subscribers since its founding in 1997. Netflix also faces a number of new threats, including illegal file sharing, rental kiosks, and new low-cost video-on-demand (VOD) services. Netflix responds to these threats by announcing that it will split the company in two — Netflix will focus exclusively on streaming content, while a new subsidiary called Qwikster will be restricted to providing DVDs by mail. Customers overwhelmingly react negatively to the announcement, and Netflix’s stock price plunges by more than 50 per cent.

Teaching Note: 8B12M040 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Competitive Advantage; Innovation; Technological Change; Technological Disruption; Movie Rental Industry; United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate


Chapter 21:
Controlling, information and technology

IBM CANADA LTD.: IMPLEMENTING GLOBAL STRATEGY
Deborah Compeau, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10E008
Publication Date: 10/13/2010
Revision Date: 11/9/2010
Length: 10 pages

A senior manager at IBM Canada Ltd. is trying to determine how best to implement strategy developed at the global level. The Business Transformation Executive, Sales & Distribution, IBM Canada Ltd., is responsible for introducing, maintaining and retiring software programs to support IBM Canada's business needs. In October 2009, the senior manager is trying to assess if the customer relationship management (CRM) developed locally should continue to be supported or if the planned switchover to a global standard CRM should continue as scheduled. The case is intended for students to discuss the challenges of implementing global IT strategy at the local or country unit level.

Teaching Note: 8B10E008 (6 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Information System Design; Change Management; Information Technology; Strategic Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 22:
Production and control