Ivey Publishing

The Psychology of Work and Organizations

Woods, S.A., West, M.A. (Singapore, South-Western Cengage Learning, 2010)
Prepared By Eunika Sot,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:

Bruce J. Avolio, Chelley Patterson, Bradford Baker

Product Number: 9B14C059
Publication Date: 3/25/2015
Revision Date: 7/20/2017
Length: 22 pages

Alaska Airlines has recently recovered from a period of operational instability, yet its executives worry the airline is draining its reserves of customer loyalty and goodwill, due to losses over the past two years and variability in its statistics for on-time flights and mishandled baggage. After focusing many resources on operations in an effort to regain stability, the senior executives wonder whether the organization could endure if performance were to slip again. Is remaining status quo good enough, or should the airline’s leadership take action to transform the performance culture? See the optional companion technical note 9B14C060.

Teaching Note: 8B14C059 (20 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Change management; leadership; corporate culture; process improvement; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Mary Weil, Julia Cutt

Product Number: 9B14C045
Publication Date: 10/15/2014
Revision Date: 10/28/2014
Length: 9 pages

By the spring of 2014, the founder of EarthWear Face & Body is in desperate need of part-time employees to help run her successful skin care retail business, which she runs out of her home in North Battleford, Saskatchewan. After eight years of hard work, she has turned her part-time hobby making all-natural skin care products into a thriving business. She sells her products online, through retail stores, at craft and trade shows and at the Saskatoon Farmers' Market. But her successful business has become too much work for her to manage on her own. A failed attempt to bring on a part-time employee made it clear that she needs to develop a targeted recruitment strategy. How can she effectively communicate her corporate culture to attract the best candidates? See supplement 9B14C046.

Teaching Note: 8B14C045 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Corporate culture; human resources; communication; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate

Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12C020
Publication Date: 4/24/2012
Revision Date: 5/3/2012
Length: 14 pages

On June 30, 2011, Research in Motion (RIM) co-CEOs Jim Balsillie and Mike Lazaridis unexpectedly found themselves facing serious public scrutiny, not from competitors, market analysts, or consumers, but from one of their own senior executives. In an attempt to have their voice heard, an anonymous senior-level RIM employee addressed an open letter to both Balsillie and Lazaridis; however, the letter was sent to the online technology news provider Boy Genius Report (BGR). In a year during which RIM already faced pressures from a dwindling market share, failed product attempts, and a sinking stock price, Balsillie and Lazaridis needed to figure out how to respond to the claims of the letter publicly, but more importantly how to communicate to RIM employees internally.

Teaching Note: 8B12C020 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Communications; Leadership; Corporate Culture; Employee Attitude; Organizational Behaviour; Uncertainty; Smartphones; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Research methods in Work and Organizational Psychology

Ronald Kleer, Singfat Chu

Product Number: 9B14E022
Publication Date: 11/21/2014
Revision Date: 11/20/2014
Length: 4 pages

End-of-month account closure at many firms often requires long work hours, which may lead to staff fatigue and attrition that will affect productivity and quality of work. This is true for GlaxoSmithKline’s Record to Report Finance team in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in August 2014. The company is a science-led global business that researches and develops a broad range of innovative products in three primary areas: pharmaceuticals, vaccines and consumer health care. The team in Malaysia has 40 employees who provide services including month-end accounts closure, financial reporting and analytics to business units operating in the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. At the end of every month, the team must perform within five days a sequence of 17 activities requiring varying man-hours. The activities must follow a specific flow according to information availability and must, for internal efficiency and quality control reasons, start and end on the same day. Is there a method by which management can help the team achieve work balance or minimize the number of work hours per day?

Teaching Note: 8B14E022 (7 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Work balance; project management; optimization; operations; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allison Johnson, Natalie Mauro

Product Number: 9B11A001
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Revision Date: 3/8/2018
Length: 14 pages

The Canadian Pillsbury ready-baked goods cookie line is experiencing disappointing performance, and the marketing manager at General Mills Canada Corporation is under pressure to make strategic decisions that will help turn around the segment. The marketing manager has engaged the help of the consumer insight team to conduct market research studies that will shed light on consumers and their attitudes, behaviours, and preferences towards the product. The results from the market research studies have arrived, and the students, assuming the role of the marketing manager, must filter through them to determine how this information can be used to improve the performance of the cookie segment. More specifically, students will need to determine where the greatest opportunities lie, who the team should target, what brand messaging is the most relevant, and what type of communication plan would be most effective.

Teaching Note: 8B11A001 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Differences; Customer Segmentation; Brand Positioning; Value Proposition; Market Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Individual differences at work

Jean Lee, Rebecca Chung, Jianhua Zhu, Chun (Jane) Xie

Product Number: 9B14C012
Publication Date: 3/27/2015
Revision Date: 3/27/2015
Length: 6 pages

Case A describes the difficult situation facing the recently appointed plant manager of Shanghai Michelin Warrior Tire, a joint venture between a poorly performing Chinese state-owned enterprise and a France-based private company, Michelin Corporation. Michelin headquarters was pressing the plant manager to implement the Management System of Daily Production to improve the factory’s performance, but the plant manager sensed that the plant’s employees were not yet ready. He contemplates what changes to make in this factory and how best to do so. Case B, 9B14C013, reports on the plant manager’s actions to improve the joint venture’s performance.

Teaching Note: 8B14C012 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Change leadership; authentic leadership; humanistic management; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Sarah Perchey, Diana E. Krause

Product Number: 9B12C026
Publication Date: 5/29/2012
Revision Date: 5/22/2012
Length: 12 pages

The CEO of a multinational company wanted the new human resource team of their subsidiary in Guangzhou, China, to recruit and select 85 individuals for different positions throughout the company. These positions included finance managers, production managers, factory workers, secretaries, and interns. The members of the human resource team were highly diverse in terms of educational backgrounds (marketing, law, human resources, public relations, general business administration) and countries of origin (Canada, China, Germany). The team had to deal with a series of challenges to ensure the project’s success. These included a decision about task-specific job requirements, methods to assess job requirements, strategies for recruitment, methods for personnel selection, and final decision-making. The team also had to deal with diversity within the team, cross-cultural issues, and the leadership behaviour of its CEO.

Teaching Note: 8B12C026 (10 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Recruitment; Personnel Selection; Leadership; Diversity; International Teams; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Shaista E. Khilji, Chang Hwan Oh, Nisha Manikoth

Product Number: 9B11C010
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case examines how Samsung has grown to become one of the world’s leading companies. It presents a detailed description of Samsung’s “top priority to the people” philosophy and its strong cultural values, both of which have been instrumental in ensuring its continued success in recent decades. Since 1982, the Samsung Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) has played a critical role in supporting Samsung’s corporate strategy of achieving global competitiveness through programs that focus on maintaining Samsung values and developing a cadre of effective next-generation leaders. New Employee Orientation (NEO), an intensive four-week in-house program for all Samsung employees, is one example of an SHRD program. NEO aligns employees across Samsung affiliates to its strategic direction, thereby fostering a stronger “Single Samsung” culture.

In recent years, however, NEO has been faced with new challenges. First, Samsung’s pool of new employees has become more diverse, with the recruitment of more experienced and foreign (non-Korean) employees in addition to the fresh college graduates whom Samsung has always relied upon. Second, Samsung has become aware of stark value differences between the older employees, who are obedient and easily follow rules, and the younger “digital native” employees, who are more individualistic and prefer egalitarian and open policies. Managers at SHRDC are concerned that the “Single Samsung” spirit, which forms the core of Samsung culture, is being threatened from within.

Students must address issues related to the need for maintaining a unified organizational culture among diverse groups of employees with conflicting values, and propose ways for Samsung to effectively employ and utilize all of its employees.

Teaching Note: 8B11C010 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Culture; Generational Differences; Human Resource Development; Consumer Electronics; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
Attitudes and behaviour in organizations

Alison Konrad, Cameron Phillips

Product Number: 9B14C025
Publication Date: 11/7/2014
Revision Date: 11/7/2014
Length: 4 pages

The first female chief executive officer (CEO) of Vancouver City Savings Credit Union (Vancity) believes in the importance of developing a positive workplace culture. She feels that successful employers take a progressive attitude toward promoting a healthy work-life balance. She also serves as a role model to her employees by working hard but communicating clearly about needing to be present for her family. When an independent consultant surveys the attitudes around work-life balance at Vancity, however, he has a number of recommendations for the CEO to consider, all of them aimed at improving the work-life balance for men in order to improve the work-life balance for everyone at the firm. Also see supplemental case 9B14C026.

Teaching Note: 8B14C025 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Work and family; work-life flexibility; gender; fathers; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Lynda St. Clair, Lori A. Coakley, James C. Segovis

Product Number: 9B09C019
Publication Date: 1/25/2010
Length: 1 pages

What would you do if you witnessed an act of vandalism by one employee toward the property of another? This is the situation that Pat, an employee at The Heritage Business Group, faces when she witnesses a co-worker, Mark, keying a car belonging to another co-worker, Fran. Initially, Mark does not know that Pat saw him vandalize Fran's car. Pat is aware that Fran and Mark had been arguing over the past few months. Part A of the case ends with Pat wondering what she should do. Following Part A are three more parts to the story (found in the teaching note) that can be handed out or projected for the students to read. Each part sequentially adds information about the decision the individual actually made, and presents another decision required by one of the key players (Harry, the owner, in parts B and D) and Mark, the antagonist, in part C). There are three teaching objectives for this case: 1) demonstrate that limitations of a rational decision-making approach when confronted with a complex, emotionally-charged conflict situation 2) analyze a conflict situation in terms of the types of conflict observed, including antisocial work behaviour, and the conflict handling styles used by different individuals in the situation 3) evaluate the short- and long-term implications of making decisions related to antisocial workplace behaviour using different ethical frameworks.

Teaching Note: 8B09C19 (14 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Decision Making; Conflict Resolution; Human Behaviour
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Wee Ling Loo

Product Number: 9B09C007
Publication Date: 3/31/2009
Length: 2 pages

T.J., an undergraduate at a business school, was upset to find a group mate's contribution to his group project containing plagiarized and poorly paraphrased content (also without any citation as to source in some instances). T.J. and four others had to work with K.C., the errant group member, on three group projects that together made up 30 per cent of the final mark for the course. In particular, T.J. was upset by the shoddy corrections provided by K.C. when his error was highlighted. T.J. was also appalled at K.C.'s nonchalant attitude towards plagiarism and the group projects, especially after discovering that K.C. had done the same on their first group project. T.J. felt strongly that the matter should be brought up to the course professor but two of his group mates disagreed, fearing that the group harmony would be adversely affected, thus jeopardizing their last group project, which carried significantly higher weight at 20 per cent. The remaining two group mates did not seem to consider the matter a serious one. T.J. wondered what the right thing to do would be. This case was written for use in the introductory class to a business ethics course. However, it has potential for use in lessons on negotiation, conflict resolution and team dynamics. The case is based on an actual occurrence but names have been changed to provide anonymity. The subject of plagiarism and a poorly contributing group member to group assignments is one that resonates deeply with students pursuing any course that emphasizes group work as a necessary component of the course assessment. The case has practical relevance to the working world inasmuch as the incident can occur in that context. Apart from being a useful opener to any course on ethics, the case also serves as a good reminder to students about plagiarism. It provides opportunities for clarification and discussion on what exactly constitutes plagiarism and the professors'/universities' stand on the matter.

Teaching Note: 8B09C07 (6 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Plagiarism; Whistleblower; Group Behaviour
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Chapter 5:
Motivation at work

Wenhua Wu, Ann Peng, Gerard Seijts

Product Number: 9B15C001
Publication Date: 5/26/2015
Revision Date: 5/19/2015
Length: 16 pages

On June 6, 2014, the deputy general manager of the human resources department of Xiamen Airlines, based in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, discussed his company’s best practices at China's first national forum on aviation security. Since 2009, a significant reform in the company’s pilot compensation system had aimed to promote a stronger linkage between their pay and performance. Initial outcomes had been positive, with improved productivity and job satisfaction. Yet, there were ongoing challenges in recruiting and retaining pilots due to increasing shortages of qualified personnel in the domestic and global aviation labour market and greater competition from both state-owned and new private airline companies in China. How could Xiamen Airlines become an employer of choice? Was the high compensation sustainable if the industry became less profitable? What else could the company offer to retain talented pilots?

Teaching Note: 8B15C001 (12 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Compensation design; employee turnover; engagement; variable pay; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Shoma Mukherji, Neera Jain

Product Number: 9B14C061
Publication Date: 3/11/2015
Revision Date: 3/12/2015
Length: 13 pages

Several experts had drawn attention to a peculiar problem existing in public-sector banks in India. There seemed to be two distinct generations: experienced employees who would be superannuated in the next four to five years; and newer employees who had come on board in the last four to five years. Though these young employees were academically sound, they lacked competence acquired through experience and thus were hesitant in taking on responsibilities. The older generation was slowly withdrawing. Management at Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) knew that in order to improve motivation and encourage higher productivity, the company had to trigger change and transform the mindsets of its employees.

Harnessing the energies of young members of the marketing team, IOB ran a unique campaign involving all employees called Rang De Basanti. Initial results were encouraging. However, two problems continued to arise: the underperformance of one particular region and the problem of keeping up the momentum and sustaining the change.

Teaching Note: 8B14C061 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Persuasive communication; interpersonal relations; employee engagement; change; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Shih-Fen Chen, Yeh-Yun (Carol) Lin

Product Number: 9B14C030
Publication Date: 8/18/2014
Revision Date: 8/18/2014
Length: 16 pages

Like almost all companies in Taiwan, ASUSTeK Computer Inc., the world’s largest manufacturer of personal computer motherboards, shows its appreciation for its employees’ contributions by hosting an extravagant year-end party, called Wei-Ya. Although first started as a religious ceremony and practised only by small family businesses, these parties have gradually evolved into Taiwan’s biggest celebratory events, which are organized by all firms, big or small. Some parties feature formal banquets with celebrity performances and prize drawings. The parties receive intensive media coverage, particularly the extravagant programs hosted by high-tech companies, such as ASUSTeK Computer Inc.

Teaching Note: 8B14C030 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Employee motivation; retention; benefits; human resource management; Taiwan
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 6:
Recruitment and selection

Joo Yong Lowe, Fumiyuki Kosugi, Teng Hwee Ng, Andre Chun Mun Wai

Product Number: 9B13C004
Publication Date: 10/8/2014
Revision Date: 10/8/2014
Length: 16 pages

Yamato Transport Co., Ltd. innovatively used the field cast model of housewives as part-time employees to meet the increasing delivery demands of morning peak-load hours. The housewives provided Yamato with a cost-efficient source of human resources and the nimbleness to adjust its staff deployment to respond reliably and quickly to customers’ needs. A series of recruitment, training, and compensation and appraisal processes was designed for the field cast model.

The case outlines the challenges with the implementation of the field cast model and the decision facing Yamato’s managers of whether to expand it throughout the company’s Japanese operations. Yamato’s managers were largely satisfied with the progress of the field cast model; although field casts made up less than 2 per cent of the delivery manpower at Yamato, they played a crucial role in improving customer satisfaction levels and lowering parcel delivery costs. However, the implications of the expansion plan were multi-dimensional. At an operational level, the inconsistency in the field casts’ performance could be magnified as the number of field casts continued to increase over the coming months. As well, the sales drivers might struggle to cope with the additional responsibility to train and supervise field casts. More broadly, the sustainability of the field cast model was unknown because of Japan’s changing social structure. In addition, with the improvement of the global economy since 2010, the supply of part-time employees was threatened by competition from alternative employment opportunities.

Teaching Note: 8B13C004 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Human resource management; change management; diversity in the workplace; women in management; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Stephen Grainger

Product Number: 9B14C010
Publication Date: 5/23/2014
Revision Date: 5/21/2014
Length: 5 pages

The human resources department at China Sunwah Bank had to decide on 22 new appointments — only 12 of which were officially advertised — to Sunwah Bank’s 28 branches. More than 4,000 applications had been received and the final list of candidates based on merit had been reduced to 48. The department members had spent many hours reading applications and conducting interviews; however, some members had been coping with specific endorsements for certain applicants from government officials, friends, former teachers and bank managers in a system known as “guanxi,” which was based on a reciprocal exchange of favours that bound individuals together. The challenge was how to choose the most qualified and talented recruits for the new positions at Sunwah Bank, keeping in mind the guanxi-based requests for favours from important stakeholders and friends — including some who had granted significant favours to Sunwah Bank executives in the past. The choice would require sensitivity and cultural awareness. Who would the department hire and why?

Teaching Note: 8B14C010 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Guanxi versus merit; recruitment; Chinese banking; human resource management; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Mark Julien, Cathy McCann

Product Number: 9B11C015
Publication Date: 6/6/2012
Revision Date: 5/29/2012
Length: 6 pages

The district manager of Sodexo was faced with the task of increasing the company’s staffing levels in its food-service operations within the Ontario Power Generation plant facilities. He knew his team was anxious about the prospect of hiring more food-service workers in order to deal with the anticipated increase in the number of customers served. Such a recruitment initiative would be challenging given the perception that all possible recruitment channels had already been explored.

Teaching Note: 8B11C015 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Recruitment; Retention; HR Planning; Branding; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:
Learning, training and development

Nida Mahmud, Shafiq-Ur Rehman, Usama Habib, Zunaira Saqib

Product Number: 9B14C051
Publication Date: 11/18/2014
Revision Date: 11/12/2014
Length: 6 pages

In late 2005, Risk Control Strategies, a canine training security company in Islamabad, Pakistan was formed. To ensure that the company was a class apart in security provision, the company founder designed an induction procedure based on employee referrals followed by a thorough two-month training program that encompassed both pure theory and practical dog-handling sessions. The extensive training increased employees’ market value, and they often left for higher salaries in other companies, without considering the added compensations Risk Control Strategies offered, such as medical benefits, free accommodation and basic health and education coverage for their families. The hiring process also contributed to the turnover; many of the friends and relatives who were given references by current employees came from villages and often returned to help their families with harvests. The founder needed to address the problem of employee retention before considering the future expansion of the company.

Teaching Note: 8B14C051 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Human resources; reducing turnover; training programs; Pakistan
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate

Zunaira Saqib

Product Number: 9B12C032
Publication Date: 7/10/2012
Revision Date: 7/3/2012
Length: 4 pages

The case is about a non-profit organization located in Manchester, England. As a regional association helping smaller voluntary organizations and groups survive and grow, the organization itself depends on fundraising and donations and runs on project-based funding. The projects normally run for three to five years. Hiring and training new employees every two to three months is common. Due to project timelines, employees leave as soon as they find another job. Many complain about the lack of development opportunities within the organization. The chief executive officer has seven people working for him and needs to make a plan to retain his employees for the whole life of each project. For this purpose, he has decided to devise training and development programs for them. There are different options available for this purpose, each with pros and cons. Considering scarce funding, small project tenure, and his goal to provide fair opportunities for all, he must decide which option best fits his organization’s needs and resources.

Teaching Note: 8B12C032 (8 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Nonprofit Organizations; Training and Development; Human Resources Management; United Kingdom
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee

Product Number: 9B07C029
Publication Date: 6/15/2007
Length: 5 pages

The recently hired human resources (HR) director had to come up with a program that would meet the needs of transferring knowledge from older, more experienced project consultants to the junior and newly hired inexperienced associates. The HR director designed a program called the Mentoring Management Project for Professionals (MP^2). The program met with great resistance from all levels of the organization, which made the development and the implementation process more difficult. The MP^2 program was implemented on a trial basis and after four months, due to mixed results, the HR director was more confused than ever. He had three days left to prove to the executive board that the program is worth the cost, the time and the resources to implement.

Teaching Note: 8B07C29 (6 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Employee Training; Career Development; Employee Retention; Change Management
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Chapter 8:
Performance measurement and management

Sadia Nadeem, Ruhma Islam

Product Number: 9B15C015
Publication Date: 5/5/2015
Revision Date: 5/4/2015
Length: 18 pages

In November 2013, the senior manager of Human Resources at Attock Refinery Limited, headquartered in Morgah Rawalpindi, Pakistan, is considering whether to amend the current performance appraisal system to bring it in line with the goal of creating a performance-oriented culture in the company, which refines 70 per cent of the country’s crude oil. Significant changes had been made over the last 14 years, but the current performance management system is still not distinguishing between different categories of performers, and employees continue to complain that everyone gets more or less the same ratings and pay increments regardless of the amount or quality of the work they do. Should the weights for objective setting and competencies in the appraisal forms be adjusted? Should competencies be better defined and training sessions held on how to objectively evaluate them? Should there be more direction at all levels in setting specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely objectives? Considering the views of employees and managers in all departments, he must decide what, if any, changes should be made to promote the desired company culture.

Teaching Note: 8B15C015 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Objective setting; competencies; performance rating; Pakistan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Caren Scheepers, Schalk Marais

Product Number: 9B12C015
Publication Date: 4/24/2012
Revision Date: 4/27/2012
Length: 19 pages

Medupi was the first baseload project in South Africa in 20 years. It would be the largest dry-cooled, coal-fired power station in the world and was being developed by Eskom, which generated 90 per cent of Southern Africa’s power, at an estimated cost of R125 billion. In spite of the worldwide concern about greener energy, coal remained the most popular power station fuel for South Africa, due to the country’s vast resources of 224 million tonnes annually. The new capacity that Medupi would offer was sorely needed.

It had been challenging to follow a project schedule that involved various suppliers providing different packages at different dates and that required accommodating several interfaces during both design and implementation. Due to the massive scale and complexity of the project, three companies had joined forces to tackle the job, namely Murray & Roberts, Aveng, and Concor. Murray & Roberts had appointed Coenie Vermaak as project director at Medupi and, at 34, he was the youngest project director in the group. The managers of the joint venture had realized quickly that this would be “a project like no other.” The three companies’ different ways of working necessitated much more integrated coordination. For instance, employees from the different parent organizations had different job descriptions, remuneration, benefits, structures, processes, and cultures. Medupi’s uniqueness provided an opportunity to be pioneers in the construction industry and to “reconstruct construction.” A culture of employee engagement and alignment was required.

Teaching Note: 8B12C015 (18 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Change Management; Transformational Leadership; Performance Management; Organizational Culture; Coal Power; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Jane M. Howell, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11C024
Publication Date: 7/12/2011
Length: 4 pages

This role-play case involves a series of sessions in which the student (and each member of his or her team) will play the role of Benjamin Cheung, the vice president of HCM Asia Private Limited, a financial services firm based in Hong Kong. Cheung has an open-door policy where any manager can drop by to see him, on their own initiative, to ask for ideas, guidance, or a decision on an issue. He has only six minutes to see each manager in this informal coaching session since he has to leave for another important meeting at head office. Cheung knows the key details of each manager’s background and development needs, but does not know in advance what the manager’s specific concerns are. It will be necessary for Cheung to explore the manager’s concerns through active listening, asking questions, and summarizing. Each of the manager roles is typical of those you might meet in an Asian organization, such as a highly skilled, technically focused leader who defaults to top-down management, an associate who lacks self-confidence and avoids confrontation at all cost, an ambitious associate who wants an international assignment but struggles with his current workload, and a detail-oriented leader who focuses on processes while losing sight of the big picture.

Teaching Note: 8B11C024 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Coaching; Asian Management
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 9:
Careers and career management

John S. Haywood-Farmer, Samantha Winkler

Product Number: 9B13C020
Publication Date: 5/31/2013
Revision Date: 5/27/2013
Length: 8 pages

A graduating fourth-year HBA student faces an ethical dilemma as she struggles to decide which one of two job offers to accept. The situation is complicated by the fact that she has received an exploding offer from one firm and she must respond to it on the same day as she participates in a final-round interview with the other firm. The stakeholders in this case include the student, the two firms, the university and its career-management program, and the other graduating students in the HBA program. The (B) case 9B13C021 is set about two weeks later, when Patricia Coulter is wrestling with another decision.

Teaching Note: 8B13C020 (8 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Ethical Decisions; Personal Values; Recruiting; Career Planning; Professional Firms; Customer Services; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jamie Ladge, Cynthia Ingols, Jeanne McNett

Product Number: 9B12C049
Publication Date: 11/29/2012
Revision Date: 11/29/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case looks closely at the management of a branch of the YMCA in Boston during periods of growth and contraction and at the development of Wendy Zinn’s career, all in the context of the YMCA’s organizational culture. The roles of strategy, decision-making, leadership and organizational culture are described as critical both to the organization’s development and to the career development the organization affords. Social capital and networking skills are also critical success factors in the YMCA’s growth.

Teaching Note: 8B12C049 (8 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Corporate Culture; Career Development; Staffing; Human Resources Management; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Malcolm Munro, Michael Maher

Product Number: 9B12M086
Publication Date: 9/18/2012
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 11 pages

Enerplus Corporation was a company transitioning from being a buy-and-sell energy trust to one engaged in exploration and exploitation. The company required two new board members and Sue MacKenzie’s name was proposed to the CEO by the Enerplus vice president of corporate services. While MacKenzie was intrigued with the idea, she had never actively considered board service as a career step and she now had a new career direction at the Banff Centre. She undertook a thorough assessment of this board opportunity with attention to the career benefits, personal benefits, potential risks, impact on her personal life, and “match” with her new career. Following a series of meetings, MacKenzie was invited to serve on the board and she now had to make a decision: should she accept or decline the invitation?

Teaching Note: 8B12M086 (11 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Board of Directors; Board Appointment; Corporate Governance; Career Planning; Canada
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 10:
Safety, stress and health at work

Mary Weil, Chen Rao

Product Number: 9B14C039
Publication Date: 8/12/2014
Revision Date: 8/11/2014
Length: 5 pages

In July 2001, the newly elected president of the board of directors at Dovercourt Recreation Centre in Ottawa, Ontario, faces a dilemma. The facility’s executive director has suggested that in light of a poor performance review, his only option might be to resign. He is revered by his staff and the community for his passionate advocacy of outreach to disadvantaged and marginalized populations and has a successful track record in running the organization and popularizing its programs throughout the city. However, he is under great stress because his informal management style does not fit well with the board’s need for specific monthly accounting. The new president was recruited to improve unproductive board meetings, but he has quickly realized the root issue is the escalating tension between the executive director and the board. Confident that he can use his consulting background to deliver a solution to the conflict that threatens to undermine the centre’s strong reputation, he needs a plan and must act on it decisively and immediately.

Teaching Note: 8B14C039 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Corporate governance; negotiations; internal communications; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Srinivasan Tatachari

Product Number: 9B14C002
Publication Date: 3/12/2014
Revision Date: 3/7/2014
Length: 7 pages

This case traces the various events that happen in the organizational journey of a newcomer to the corporate world. It is based on the real-life incidents of a new employee in a leading information technology (IT) services company, Xciting, in India. Xciting is one of India’s top IT and IT-enabled services companies, with offices around the globe. With revenues in excess of $6 billion in 2010 and a global headcount of around 100,000, Xciting is a popular and reputable company in the global software services industry.

The case covers the initial year of the employee’s work with Xciting, following college graduation. She undergoes a training period with examinations in order to determine an appropriate work domain and relocation destination within India. She experiences organizational culture shock and location anxiety, and must respond to difficult co-workers and cancelled projects. In September 2011, with the first yearly review approaching, she reflects on her journey at Xciting and has to decide on what she wants to do with her career. Is there a mismatch between her expectations and those of Xciting?

Teaching Note: 8B14C002 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Socialization; social identity; newcomer; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

W. Glenn Rowe, Sean Tucker

Product Number: 9B13C018
Publication Date: 5/27/2013
Revision Date: 11/1/2013
Length: 13 pages

The new executive director is reflecting on her first two months at Carmichael Outreach, a non-profit organization that helps homeless people and others in need in Regina, Saskatchewan. She has already identified several risks to staff and client safety but must also address longer-term issues. Many believe the organization should do more to address the city’s chronic shortage of safe and affordable housing. Although clients, volunteers, staff and the board of directors expect her to develop and express her longer-term vision for Carmichael Outreach, she also needs to manage the day-to-day operations, which include ensuring the safety of clients and staff.

Teaching Note: 8B13C018 (7 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Leadership; Strategy; Non-profit Organization; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 11:
Organizations: strategy and structure

Karin Schnarr, Anne Snowdon

Product Number: 9B13M075
Publication Date: 6/24/2013
Revision Date: 6/24/2013
Length: 11 pages

A large, international benevolent association operating 22 children’s hospitals and four research centres in three countries has been negatively impacted by a number of external factors. The effect of the 2008 global financial crisis on its endowment funds coupled with rising health care costs and flat donations, have resulted in the hospitals running at a loss. To ensure the long-term viability of their not-for-profit hospital system, management feels it must present drastic options to delegates at its annual general meeting, including reconsidering the policy of providing free medical care to children regardless of their ability to pay, shutting down research facilities and closing over a quarter of their hospitals. While management is confident that the quality of care for pediatric patients will not be compromised, all of the options being considered will significantly impact hospital operations and the organization’s culture. For the first time in the 87 years of the organization’s existence, some very difficult options are on the table.

Teaching Note: 8B13M075 (10 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Governance structure; not-for profit; strategy formulation; staff retention; United States; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Justin Paul, Marc Chaix, Shruti Gupta

Product Number: 9B11C018
Publication Date: 7/11/2011
Length: 15 pages

This case deals with the challenges faced at L’Oseraie, a nursing home located in the northeast of France. The director of L’Oseraie had to meet her new boss and brief him on the organization’s challenges while offering suggestions. A key obstacle involved employee motivation and engagement, particularly after a recent absenteeism episode. Furthermore, the lack of health care staff in France meant that employees might need to be sourced from abroad, perhaps from Eastern Europe or the French-speaking countries of North Africa. How could the director implement a strategy that would alleviate the day-to-day problems of the nursing home?

Teaching Note: 8B11C018 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Health Care Administration; Organizational Structure; Employee Retention; Human Resource Management; France
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Mitch Rothstein, Lily Jiao Li

Product Number: 9B09C005
Publication Date: 3/31/2009
Length: 9 pages

Beijing EAPs Consulting Inc. (BEC) is a rapidly growing consulting company whose number of employees has increased from six to 16 in just one year. BEC has adopted a new project management system, using project managers to coordinate several employees from various departments. Due to the heavy workload, most employees must work on multiple projects. Collaboration between projects and department managers is not very smooth. The chief executive officer must decide how he can improve the collaboration efforts across the company's different departments.

Teaching Note: 8B09C05 (4 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: China; Organizational Change; Communications; Project Management; Organizational Structure
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Chapter 12:
Leadership in organizations

Caren Scheepers, Sonja Swart

Product Number: 9B15C004
Publication Date: 3/3/2015
Revision Date: 3/3/2015
Length: 18 pages

The merger of Momentum and Metropolitan into MMI Holdings Limited, one of South Africa’s largest insurers, played out against the setting of South Africa’s volatile currency and post-apartheid environment, with sensitive employees and a Competition Tribunal that prohibited the retrenchment of around 2,000 employees. The two companies with very different cultures were merged, with only one of the CEOs attaining the Group CEO position. The leaders’ clear vision and focus on change management enabled a successful merger process. How can the Group CEO derive synergies and grow capital from the integration’s next phase to prevent MMI from becoming another merger that fails to provide returns for shareholders?

Teaching Note: 8B15C004 (11 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Transformational leadership; merger; organizational change; insurance companies; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Mary Weil, Chitra P. Reddin

Product Number: 9B15C002
Publication Date: 2/3/2015
Revision Date: 1/20/2017
Length: 13 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE – This case won the Responsible Leadership category at the 2015 EFMD Case Writing Competition. The president and CEO of Providence Healthcare needs to devise a plan to sustain positive change at the health care company. In just four years, she has led the organization through massive change and turnaround, from potential crisis to financial health and innovation. She now needs to consider how to integrate and embed the values that helped her drive change and foster collaboration, both at Providence and with its key partners. What more can she do to sustain positive change at Providence Healthcare through her values-based leadership and to win the support of key stakeholders well into the future? Much of the success thus far has depended on her values and character as a leader.

Teaching Note: 8B15C002 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Change management; leadership character; values; communications; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Caren Scheepers, Jabu Maphalala, Chantel van der Westhuizen

Product Number: 9B14C027
Publication Date: 6/18/2014
Revision Date: 6/18/2014
Length: 14 pages

In 2013, the chief executive officer of South Africa’s fourth largest bank, the Nedbank Group Limited, is considering the past and future of his organization. The company is in the process of transformation from a low point in 2003 of poor staff morale and falling share prices, with the threat of losing its licence because of poor capital liquidity, to the best bank in Africa, winning praise for its efforts in environmental sustainability and promoting the post-Apartheid government’s broad-based black economic empowerment policy. Through acquisitions and joint ventures, the company is expanding into neighbouring countries with the result that, after a period of retrenchment, the number of branches and staff has grown. Clearly, his and his predecessor’s clear vision, measurement and focus on culture have enabled the turnaround and subsequent organizational transformation. Yet, in the midst of the global financial crisis, the company is facing increasing competition not only from other banks throughout Africa but from telecommunications companies and retailers that operate financial services. The question now is: Can these transformation efforts be sustained?

Teaching Note: 8B14C027 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Transformational leadership; turnaround; organizational culture; management succession; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 13:
Teams and teamwork

Rupali Pardasani, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B13C025
Publication Date: 8/19/2013
Revision Date: 8/9/2013
Length: 10 pages

The COO of a global knowledge-outsourcing and technology-services firm has been selected by his company’s board of directors to step in and rescue a large-scale digitization project that is in danger of missing its rapidly approaching deadline. The project requires the firm to create digital archives of a daily American newspaper, spanning a coverage time of 150 years. With teams from two different countries paired to work on this significant venture, things quickly go awry on several levels as a result of misunderstandings about client expectations, lack of employee training (both from a standpoint of cultural awareness and with respect to the use of new technology) and poor project management. The COO must quickly develop an action plan to address these issues and ensure the success of the project in the face of an ultimatum from the client: deliver the project on time or lose it completely.

In the role of the COO, students must create an action plan to overcome the issues that threaten to derail the project.

Teaching Note: 8B13C025 (10 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Planned change; cross-cultural communication; globally distributed team; project failure; India; Philippines
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Padhmanabhan Vijayaraghavan

Product Number: 9B12C019
Publication Date: 5/7/2012
Revision Date: 2/11/2013
Length: 5 pages

FIS Consulting Services was a business process outsourcing company specializing in consulting and financial advisory for global clients. This case deals with an offshore project team in the United States that was characterized by intra-group competitiveness, poor leadership and resource sharing, poor coordination, and limited cooperation. At the outset, the team developed a one-sided focus on achieving a high performance appraisal rating rather than completing the project as a team. The team underwent an inadequate group development process, which was manifested in the team’s immaturity. Poor leadership and lack of behavioural norms led the team to move forward with conflicting beliefs, structural inadequacy, lack of guidance, and low cohesiveness. These factors led to a decline in the team’s performance and stood as obstacles to the project’s progress. Furthermore, these events damaged the reputation of the firm. The human resources manager needed to take urgent measures to save the project team.

Teaching Note: 8B12C019 (8 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Team Development Process; Team Conflict; Consulting and Financial Advisory; India; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gerard Seijts, Helen Wojcinski

Product Number: 9B12C009
Publication Date: 4/23/2012
Revision Date: 6/28/2012
Length: 18 pages

The world had changed as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Canada was engaged in the Afghanistan War, and the first casualties were being felt. It was November 28, 2005, as Rene LaRose, the director general of Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) Toronto, sat in his office preparing for an all-staff briefing the following day. He knew that for his research institute to remain relevant and be a major contributor to the emerging needs of the Canadian Forces and national security in this rapidly changing landscape, a major transformation of his centre was required. The Canadian Forces was undergoing its own metamorphosis under its new Chief of Defence Staff, General Rick Hillier, and DRDC Toronto needed to be in synch with this development. LaRose had spent several years trying to convey the message that profound changes at DRDC Toronto were needed — changes that were as much cultural as they were structural. The sense of urgency was now acute with Canada at war, and DRDC Toronto was poised to embark on a major organizational alignment program.

Teaching Note: 8B12C009 (21 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Organizational Change; Change Management; Teamwork; Military; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 14:
Organizational culture, climate and change

Himanshu Dhaka, Rajen Gupta, Tanuja Sharma

Product Number: 9B14C062
Publication Date: 5/7/2015
Revision Date: 5/7/2015
Length: 8 pages

The Friends of Western Buddhist Order, an organization dedicated to spreading the teachings of Buddha in modern context, started a giftware company called Windhorse, with a two-part vision of making work a context for spiritual growth and raising money for charity. After operating for more than 20 years, Windhorse experienced challenges in keeping up with its rapid business growth. To bridge this gap, the company recruited non-Buddhists to the organization; however, many of the Buddhist members felt that the purpose and meaning that had bonded the members to the organization was fading. As a result, an increasing number of Buddhists started leaving the organization, while many new members were unwilling to work for the low remuneration. Was it viable for such a value-based organization to continue to pursue financial prosperity?

Teaching Note: 8B14C062 (9 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Buddhist business; culture; values; socialization; mentoring; United Kingdom
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Maxine Jaffit, Caren Scheepers, Jabu Maphalala

Product Number: 9B15C003
Publication Date: 3/23/2015
Revision Date: 3/20/2015
Length: 12 pages

Comair Limited was South Africa’s largest private airline and consisted of British Airways SA and the low-cost airline kulula.com. After acquiring more fuel-efficient aircraft, Comair decided to adopt Sabre, a reservation and scheduling technology platform. Initially, some Comair executives thought that the Sabre implementation was an IT project, but they soon realized that all employees were affected and that a culture change was required to successfully implement the new standardized way of working. An organizational transformation company was hired and “Operation Crossover” was created as a reference point for employees and metaphor for change in order to enable the change process, starting with a change readiness assessment and culture change roadmap. How could Comair’s CEO capitalize on the positive changes from this project and maintain the profitability and growth of the last 68 years?

Teaching Note: 8B15C003 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Transformation; change leadership; organizational culture; technology implementation; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Colleen Sharen

Product Number: 9B14C001
Publication Date: 2/13/2014
Revision Date: 2/12/2014
Length: 10 pages

In May 2013, the founder and executive director of the St. John the Compassionate Mission, a faith-based, non-profit social service organization located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, needs to plan for his retirement. He has been the driving force behind the organization for the past 27 years, and it reflects his vision that meaningful work helps people get off welfare, attaining dignity and a sense of personal value in the process. To that end, the Mission provides opportunities for everyone in the community to work through employment in one of its two social enterprises — a thrift store and a bakery — or through volunteer opportunities. Because its organizational culture emphasizes collaboration and consultation not only with its staff leadership council and board of directors but also with all members of the community, its decision making has been fluid and in response to perceived needs rather than forward planning. Now he needs to ensure an effective succession that protects the organization's culture, values and beliefs and ensures the safety of a vulnerable population.

Teaching Note: 8B14C001 (10 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Servant leadership; succession planning; organizational culture; leadership; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 15:
The psychology of work and organizations

Chetan Joshi, Hari Bapuji, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13C044
Publication Date: 12/10/2013
Revision Date: 12/9/2013
Length: 7 pages

In the hotel industry, the reuse of towels is considered a main step toward reducing hotels’ high carbon footprint. Windermere Manor, a private, high-end hotel, has established a routine to encourage its guests to reuse towels; however, the hotel’s towel-replacement rate exceeds its towel-reuse rate. The intended routine for identifying towels for reuse is not being followed, even by the hotels’ own housekeeping staff. The hotel's general manager examines the reasons for the breakdown of routine and considers ways of correcting the situation.

Teaching Note: 8B13C044 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Organization design; communication to stakeholders; sustainability; research methods; operations; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Michael A. Roberto

Product Number: 9B11C035
Publication Date: 10/18/2011
Length: 19 pages

On the night of April 20, 2010, a series of explosions rocked the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. Gas in the Macondo well had surged upward unexpectedly, causing a mix of drilling mud and seawater to spew uncontrollably into the air, much like a volcanic eruption. Eleven crew members died during the explosion. The nation mourned their loss, and people watched as BP struggled to contain the environmental damage. Millions of barrels of oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico in the weeks that followed. The federal government relied on BP to manage the accident’s aftermath, in part because government officials lacked the expertise required to stop the spill. Meanwhile, BP downplayed its responsibility for the failure. As the firm failed repeatedly to stop the spill, the public became angry. This industrial disaster became the largest offshore oil spill in U.S. history.

The case provides a detailed description of the events leading up to this catastrophe. Readers examine the key decisions that BP and its partners made as they drilled this well. They discover the alternative choices that could have been made and learn about the disagreements that took place (as well as those that failed to surface). Moreover, the case provides an opportunity to examine how BP’s history and organizational culture shaped the way those decisions were made. The case describes how Tony Hayward and his predecessor, John Browne, led the firm and shaped the culture during the past two decades. In addition, the case explains how the regulatory environment and political forces shaped decision-making in the oil industry. The case concludes by examining the aftermath of the accident, particularly BP’s public relations miscues as it tried to manage the crisis.

Teaching Note: 8B11C035 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Decision Making; Safety; Organizational Change; Risk Analysis; Ethics; Oil Industry; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate

G. Ramesh, L. Prasad, G.S. Goutham

Product Number: 9B09C022
Publication Date: 7/29/2010
Length: 17 pages

The literature on change and transformation mostly focuses on for-profit organizations, even though not-for-profit organizations offer a richer context for study, and social entrepreneurs are most often at the forefront of large-scale change. The case is an attempt to examine the evolution of a development organization. It centres on a medical professional and his thirty-year struggle in ushering in social transformation in the BR Hills of Southern India, working for tribal and forest development based on a foundation of ethics, self-organization and the assertion of human and individual rights. In 1994, he was awarded the Right Livelihood Award (also known as the Alternative Nobel Prize) for his efforts.

This case can teach the evolution of a) a social entrepreneur into a leader; b) an amorphous service entity into an institution with a network of organizations and c) a low-profile, undemanding clientele with no voice to a demanding clientele expecting choices and rights. The case can also be used to explore the growth of a social enterprise (in terms of objectives, service delivery, roles, scale, etc.); concepts of change and social transformation; and the organizational life cycle and evolution of systems over the cycle. The case highlights the path civic service organizations (CSOs) and social actors tread over time in undertaking to provide public service.

Teaching Note: 8B09C22 (11 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Organizational Change; Evolution of Social Organization; Leadership Development; Social Entrepreneurship
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate