Ivey Publishing

Effective Small Business Management: An Entrepreneurial Approach

Scarborough, N.M.; Cornwall, J.R.,11/e (United States, Pearson, 2014)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Entrepreneurs: The Driving Force Behind Small Business

SAWCHYN GUITARS: CAN AN OLD BUSINESS LEARN NEW TRICKS?
Meredith Woodwark, Matthew Wong

Product Number: 9B13M084
Publication Date: 8/23/2013
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 13 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Laurier School of Business and Economics Best Case Award 2013. The owner of Sawchyn Guitars makes fine handmade acoustic guitars and mandolins. After 40 years of operating from a two-storey backyard garage, he contemplates a shift from a solely custom-order business to a storefront location. Although his custom-order business is still strong, the owner sees the opportunity to realize his dream of providing a full-service musical instrument haven for the local music community through a proper storefront. After opening a new retail location, public reception to the new store is overwhelmingly positive, but the success in new business lines restricts the capacity to build new instruments. Despite the enthusiastic response to the store, the business is experiencing unanticipated growing pains related to managing small-business growth.

Teaching Note: 8B13M084 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Small Business Management; Change Management; Opportunity Assessment; Canada
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



THE FISH WHISPERER
Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B12M060
Publication Date: 6/13/2012
Revision Date: 6/9/2012
Length: 12 pages

This case depicts the start-up and business development challenges faced by a streetwise entrepreneur who has invented a unique fishing rod. The capabilities necessary to invent, prototype, and bring to market a limited quantity of product versus the challenges of larger-scale commercialization and management of a growing business are illustrated. The case primarily addresses why some entrepreneurial ventures succeed and grow while others stay insignificant, and why a majority of entrepreneurial initiatives eventually fail. Indigenous constructs such as entrepreneur- and organization-specific factors and exogenous constructs such as industry, location, and time-specific factors that may predetermine the outcome of an entrepreneurial venture are illustrated. A business plan, which has attracted angel investment, is presented for critical assessment. The case’s background story shows that all businesses face resource constraints and trade-offs and that managers must continuously adapt and upgrade their business models, competencies, and management styles to match evolving market standards.

Teaching Note: 8B12M060 (6 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Entrepreneurial Behaviour; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Sales Strategy; Business Planning; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND PRESERVE COMPANY: TURNAROUND
Paul W. Beamish, Nathaniel Lupton

Product Number: 9B08M049
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 18 pages

In April 2008, Bruce MacNaughton, president of Prince Edward Island Preserve Co. Ltd. (P.E.I. Preserves), was focused on turnaround. The company he had founded in 1985 had gone into receivership in May 2007. Although this had resulted in losses for various mortgage holders and unsecured creditors, MacNaughton had been able to buy back his New Glasgow shop/cafe, the adjacent garden property and inventory, and restart the business. He now needed a viable product-market strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B08M49 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing, Retail Trade
Issues: Bankruptcy; Product Diversification; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Ethics and Social Responsibility: Doing the Right Thing

ECOVATIVE DESIGN LLC: A BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS STARTUP
Chris Laszlo, Abdel Latif Ladki, Abraham Weiner

Product Number: 9B13M125
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 12/20/2013
Length: 8 pages

Ecovative Designs (Ecovative), a start-up company in upstate New York, uses an innovative process to combine agricultural waste and mycelium (mushroom “roots”) to grow forms for use in a wide variety of applications, especially a protective packaging material. Not only does this new product replace the need for the environmentally harmful alternative, extruded polystyrene, but the production process is less energy intensive. It exemplifies the cradle-to-cradle design indicative of a sustainably embedded product and attractive to companies looking to reduce their carbon footprint. In just a few years, Ecovative has expanded from a lab to a large facility funded partly through research grants and partly from contracts with two large corporations. In 2013, the partners are considering whether to sign a contract with Sealed Air, one of the largest distributors of packaging materials in the world, but the deal would mean relinquishing control over the only profitable segment of their company. They are considering alternative growth strategies to find the one that fits best with their goal: to have the largest impact on the planet while remaining profitable.

Teaching Note: 8B13M125 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sustainability; science, biomimicry; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CLARKE: TRANSFORMATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Chris Laszlo, Katey McCabe, Eric Ahearn, Indrajeet Ghatge

Product Number: 9B12C012
Publication Date: 3/19/2012
Revision Date: 2/7/2014
Length: 17 pages

Clarke, a mosquito abatement company seen as having a core business that is environmentally harmful by its very nature — selling pesticides — faces unique challenges in its transformation into a sustainable enterprise. Should it shift its focus entirely towards offering “green” pesticides and risk losing some of its customers, or should it keep offering its less expensive, more toxic products? This case shows how even when innovation leads to new green products, processes, technologies, and business models, the leadership of a company must cope with the daunting task of engaging employees and customers in the idea that green can be effective and profitable.

Teaching Note: 8B12C012 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environmental Sustainability; Environmental Performance; Pesticides; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VEJA: SNEAKERS WITH A CONSCIENCE
Oana Branzei, Kim Poldner

Product Number: 9B10M089
Publication Date: 11/26/2010
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Latin American Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case illustrates the founding and growth of Veja, the first eco-sneaker company in the world, in the broader context of the evolution of the fashion industry and the emergence of the eco-fashion movement. By September 2010, the five-year old venture had become a reference in ethical fashion, and an inspiration for other eco-fashion start-ups. Its path, its successes and its aspirations made it a perfect acquisition target; like-minded companies like Timberland were already feeling out the two founders.

Sebastien Kopp and Francois-Ghislain Morillion were still fulfilling their dream. They had fun trying to craft ever more sustainable business approaches. They were still excited about the opportunity to develop solutions or workarounds for socially- and environmentally-problematic business practices. The case presents several solutions, focusing on the development of sustainable business practices in organic cotton, wild natural rubber and traditional veggie-tanned leather. The case also deals with the issue of how ventures integrate sustainable practices into a holistic and ever improving offering, which engages multiple supply chain participants (employees, consumers, suppliers, partners, even artists) in co-devising a value proposition that appeals not just to our sense of fashion, but also to our conscience. Essentially, the case is a story of fashioning identities by artfully bending consumers' appreciation towards the expression of unity with the earth and across cultures.


Teaching Note: 8B10M89 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing, Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Corporate Responsibility; Ethical Issues; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Leadership; Strategy Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Creativity and Innovation: Keys to Entrepreneurial Success

BEER FOR ALL: SABMILLER IN MOZAMBIQUE
Margaret Sutherland, Tashmia Ismail

Product Number: 9B14M026
Publication Date: 5/12/2014
Revision Date: 5/12/2014
Length: 11 pages

SABMiller, the world’s second largest brewer, has developed a business model in Mozambique that represents a radical departure from the firm’s traditional approach to beer production. Despite this multinational’s well-developed global supply chains and heavily centralized processes, it has disrupted both established processes and products and has, instead, innovated to produce a cassava-based beer in an effort to serve the low-income consumers who comprise the bulk of the African economic pyramid. In a marked departure from corporate best practices, the manufacturing process begins outside of the brewery and in the vicinity of the scattered and rural cassava farming plots.

Teaching Note: 8B14M026 (23 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Innovation; low income markets; bottom of pyramid; Mozambique
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



DRIVING INNOVATION AT PAR SPRINGER-MILLER (A)
Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C022
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 12 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future. See B Case 9B14C023.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WHOLE FOODS MARKET INC.: EXPANSION IN CANADA
Cara C. Maurer, Valentina Bardorf

Product Number: 9B13M127
Length: 18 pages

In December 2012, the senior management team of Whole Foods Markets, Inc. was contemplating the company’s options for international expansion. Headquartered in Austin, Texas, the company was a natural and organic foods supermarket that was known as, and trademarked as “America’s Healthiest Grocery Store.” Since 1977, the company had grown from a single small store to a multinational chain with a presence in Canada and the United Kingdom. Its goal was to achieve a total of 1,000 stores by 2022 across all markets. Now, counting on the demand for organic products from the growing demographic of well-educated and wealthy professionals concerned about obesity and its related health issues, senior managers were wondering if it was time to expand further into Canada and, if yes, into which provinces. With unions being a clear factor in a Quebec expansion, would it be possible to enter the province without risking cultural inconsistency? Would its current U.S. team facilitate the expansion, or should a Canadian management team be developed? These issues must be resolved before the company can move forward.

Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Organic food industry; international expansion; growth strategy; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Strategic Management and the Entrepreneur

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: RESTRUCTURING A SUCCESSFUL STARTUP
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M097
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 14 pages

This case and the three others in this series (9B13M098, 9B13M099 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. The issues are strategic in nature and typical of a growing business. Following the successful establishment of her company, she faces issues related to rapid growth; she is a “one-woman show” who controls everything in the company including marketing, operations, human resources and finance. Although she enjoyed a successful start, the tremendous growth of her company has culminated in management difficulties. Thus, she is considering how to transform her business from an entrepreneurial firm to a structured organization.


Teaching Note: 8B13M097 (7 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; institutionalization; local strategy; female entrepreneurship; marketing; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHARLES CHOCOLATES (A)
Charlene Zietsma

Product Number: 9B13M094
Publication Date: 8/27/2013
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 15 pages

A new president has been hired to double or triple the size of Charles Chocolates, a high end chocolate producer and retailer in Portland, Maine. The case allows a comprehensive analysis of marketing, manufacturing, human resource, financial and strategic positioning issues in a small company with manufacturing, retailing, wholesaling and Internet operations.

Teaching Note: 8B13M094 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Strategic Positioning; Strategy Implementation; Strategic Change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ENTREPRENEURS AT TWITTER: BUILDING A BRAND, A SOCIAL TOOL OR A TECH POWERHOUSE?
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10M028
Publication Date: 3/22/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 10 pages

Twitter has become an incredibly popular micro-blogging service since its launch in 2006. Its founders have ambitious plans for the service, and are backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital funding, which values the company at $3.7 billion in 2011. Twitter seems to attract a diverse audience of users, such as political organizers looking to disseminate information to their followers; businesses looking to reach out, in real time, to potential customers; and social users. The company charges consumers nothing for its service. By 2011, competitors have emerged, some of whom are financially strong. It remains unclear - at least to some observers - whether the company will ever make money from its service.

Teaching Note: 8B10M28 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Social Networking Media; Strategic Positioning; New Venture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HOLEY SOLES
Jean-Louis Schaan, Huanglin Wang

Product Number: 9B09M057
Publication Date: 12/11/2009
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 19 pages

The president and chief executive officer (CEO) of Holey Soles - a developer, manufacturer and distributor of injected-molded footwear - was optimistic and upbeat. Sales had grown at 300 per cent in each of the past two years, it ranked number four in a leading publication's 2006 Canada's Emerging Growth Companies, and the CEO herself was a finalist for the 2007 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award. Sustaining the momentum that had been building since the company had been bought in 2004 was proving to be a challenge. Fast growth was stretching the capabilities of Holey Soles in all areas: securing financing, sourcing, developing new markets, maintaining high quality, expanding the product portfolio and management talent. The CEO wondered what the available options, priorities and next steps would be to continue to build a strong foundation for growth, and to reach her aggressive target of $40 million in sales by 2009.

Teaching Note: 8B09M57 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy; Planning; Corporate Strategy; Market Strategy; Growth
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Choosing a Form of Ownership

NAMASTÉ SOLAR
Anne T. Lawrence, Anthony I. Mathews

Product Number: 9B10M049
Publication Date: 7/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 12 pages

Should a fast-growing, employee-owned solar electric company accept a buyout offer from a private equity investor? Could it do so without sacrificing its distinctive, high-involvement culture? Namasté Solar, a 55-person firm based in Boulder, Colorado, designed and installed solar electric systems for residential, commercial, non-profit and government customers. In 2008, the company had been growing at breakneck speed for the past four years, since government incentives for the purchase of renewable energy had created a market for solar electric systems in Colorado. Now, two investors had approached the firm with serious buyout offers. A buyout would bring a new infusion of capital to the firm, enabling it to expand more quickly and install more solar systems, and employees with vested shares would benefit from an attractive sales price. However, Namasté, from the outset, had been committed to building a democratic, high-involvement culture. Ownership was widely shared, and all employees, whether or not they held equity, were encouraged to participate in strategic decisions facing the firm. Many were concerned that selling the company would mean sacrificing the firm's carefully crafted culture. What was the best way forward for Blake Jones and the green energy company that he and two partners had founded?

Teaching Note: 8B10M49 (8 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Solar Electric Industry; Employee Ownership; High-involvement Culture; Acquisitions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SILVER SALES COMPANY
Gary Whitney, Stephen Standifird

Product Number: 9B09M095
Publication Date: 3/2/2010
Length: 8 pages

Silver Sales Company's president is building a growing company that sells extremely accurate flow meters used to measure water flow in pipes and channels. In addition, Silver Sales Company provides inspection and assessment services to water agencies. The president owns 31 per cent of the company. Ring Manufacturing, the sole owner of the intellectual property and manufacturing facility for the flow meters, controls 62 per cent of the ownership of Silver Sales Company. The president is considering his long-term stake in the organization. Recently, the president has been approached by a U.K. company that is a sales agent for Silver Sales Company's products. The company has expressed an interest in a possible merger or acquisition between the two companies and has further indicated that it has an investor to support its desires. The president is now trying to determine whether a closer relationship with, or sale to, the U.K. company might be a way for him to capture some of the value he has created over the last several years.

Teaching Note: 8B09M95 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Valuation; Mergers & Acquisitions; Exit Strategy; Decision Making
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MEDIAGRIF INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: THE IPO DECISION
James E. Hatch, Louis Gagnon

Product Number: 9B01N007
Publication Date: 1/22/2002
Revision Date: 1/5/2010
Length: 20 pages

Mediagrif Interactive Technologies operates vertical business-to-business e-commerce marketplaces. The chief executive officer must decide whether to go forward with a previously delayed initial public offering. He must consider the effect of changing market conditions and how to value the company in order to determine the price range that would be used.

Teaching Note: 8B01N07 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Initial Public Offerings; Valuation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Franchising and the Entrepreneur

KAYTEK: MANUFACTURING HOUSING AND LIVELIHOODS IN HAITI
David Wood, Taylor Sekhon

Product Number: 9B13M040
Publication Date: 3/26/2013
Revision Date: 9/4/2013
Length: 11 pages

After a massive earthquake destroyed many buildings in Haiti, reconstruction has become a source of opportunity and competition for non-governmental organizations, international business and local companies. The Haitian chairman and CEO of a very successful, multi-million dollar information technology company wants to provide affordable quality housing, especially for the disadvantaged poor, using steel frame technology from his start-up, KayTek. What he has not yet determined is how to get his product to market. He has three options: to keep sales and construction in-house, to outsource, or to franchise in order to create opportunities for young Haitian engineers to become entrepreneurs. Each option has costs, in terms not only of finances and time but also of control of brand quality and accessibility.

Teaching Note: 8B13M040 (12 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Strategic Positioning; New Venture; Competitive Advantage; Sustainable Development; Franchising; Haiti
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MASTER INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISING IN CHINA: THE ATHLETE'S FOOT INC.
Ilan Alon, Amber Xu

Product Number: 9B06M054
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 11 pages

Franchising in China is a relatively new and growing phenomenon. Among the franchising pioneers in China are the large and well-known food and beverage brands such as Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald's. Less known, but equally important, are the non-food retailing and service industries, such as The Athlete's Foot company. This U.S. born company made early entry into China using master international franchising. As the industry continues to grow, The Athlete's Foot franchise is losing its first-mover advantage and faces increased competition from department stores and brand-specific retailers, among other challenges. The case describes franchising in China, the Athlete's Foot company, and the experiences of the Chinese master franchisee.

Teaching Note: 8B06M54 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Competition; Franchising; Retailing; CEIBS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARTRIDGE WORLD: THE MASTER FRANCHISE OPPORTUNITY
Stewart Thornhill, Ken Mark, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05M071
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 12 pages

An entrepreneur has received additional information on the Cartridge World franchising concept - a store focused on the refilling of printer cartridges. The idea for Cartridge World began in Australia in 1988 and has grown to almost 200 locations in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The entrepreneur must look at the market opportunity in Canada and decide whether he should apply for the country's master franchise, a single franchise, or abandon the concept altogether. Students will evaluate a franchise concept based on market opportunity and the franchise contract.

Teaching Note: 8B05M71 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Models; Franchising; Investment Analysis; Market Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Buying an Existing Business

LISCO ACQUISITION OF A MINORITY INTEREST OF ORION
Richard Howard, Kimberley Howard

Product Number: 9B13N008
Publication Date: 6/12/2013
Revision Date: 7/27/2017
Length: 11 pages

A wealth management company in Chile that provided financial advisory services to high net worth individuals and pension funds was at a crossroads. After 15 years in business, the company had become very successful. To increase its value without incurring undue corporate financial risk, the owner, who has invested most of his personal wealth in the company, has the opportunity to make an investment in a similar wealth management company in Colombia. What are the risks and rewards of such a complex international merger and acquisition for this medium-sized enterprise operating in an uncertain political and economic environment?

Teaching Note: 8B13N008 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Company valuation; minority acquisitions; Chile; Colombia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SCHOLTES WATERSERVICES
Vanessa M. Strike, Lisa Barendse

Product Number: 9B12M067
Publication Date: 8/10/2012
Revision Date: 8/9/2012
Length: 8 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - Family Business Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. Scholtes Waterservices was a second-generation family firm in the Netherlands that specialized in installing and selling water pipes, primarily for the horticultural industry. In 2008, Rijk Scholtes Jr. and his brother, Ben, took over management of the firm from their father and gradually assumed ownership through a buyout plan. It soon became evident that their father, Rijk Sr., could not let go of the company. This especially affected Rijk Jr., as he worked in an office close to the place where Rijk Sr. lived. As a result, the relationship between father and son began to steadily deteriorate. Moreover, Rijk Jr. began to feel isolated as the relationship and collaboration between Rijk Sr. and Ben was not adversely affected. Instead, the once-strong relationship between the brothers began to deteriorate. Rijk Jr. was left wondering whether anything could be done to rectify the situation or whether it was time to leave the family firm.

Teaching Note: 8B12M067 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Family Business; Family Succession; Family Firm Governance; Communication; Netherlands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IMAGE PIPELINE SERVICES: WEIGHING THE BUYOUT OFFER
David Sparling, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11D004
Publication Date: 4/13/2012
Revision Date: 2/10/2012
Length: 12 pages

The president of Image Pipeline Services, a pipeline flushing and inspection firm, is taking a step back from the past few weeks, where he has spent virtually all his waking time working on his new business in Edmonton’s oil sands industry. A few months after starting his business, he controls virtually the entire market, but competitors will be encroaching soon. One competitor has offered to purchase his business and the president wants to weigh his options before agreeing to sell or continuing to compete.

Teaching Note: 8B11D004 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Valuation; Uncertainty; Competition; Buyout; Alberta Oil Sands; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRIVATE EQUITY AT WORK: PURCHASING CAKE MASTERS
Craig Dunbar, Ken Mark, Michael Comisarow

Product Number: 9B06N007
Publication Date: 6/21/2006
Revision Date: 9/23/2008
Length: 13 pages

An entrepreneur must decide if he should bid to acquire a commercial bakery, Cake Masters, given his objectives in his search and his investors' expected returns of 20-30 per cent. If he bids, he must decide how much to bid and in what form of consideration. Students are introduced to valuation methodologies and will evaluate an acquisition or opportunity, understand the process of acquiring a small company, learn how preceding transactions are considered and learn about discounted cash flow analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B06N07 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Entrepreneurial Finance; Valuation; Financial Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
New Business Planning Process: Feasibility Analysis, Business Modeling, and Crafting a Winning Business Plan

SCUBY'S ENTERPRISES: STARTING A BUSINESS IN GHANA
Francis Ayensu, Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Julianna Faircloth, Helen Fisher, David MacNicol

Product Number: 9B14M041
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 5 pages

In October 2011, a young entrepreneur in Ghana faced a critical moment. Given his degree in marketing from the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration and his past work experience running a retail clothing store, he was confident he could branch out and start his own photocopying service in his hometown of Koforidua, where there was a distinct undersupply of photocopying services. The proposed store would be located near All Nations University, whose students and faculty would provide a stable demand for his offerings. Now he must perform a breakeven analysis and return on investment calculation to assess whether he should go forward with the venture.

Teaching Note: 8B14M041 (8 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Breakeven analysis; return on investment; new venture; emerging markets; Ghana
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FLY ASH BRICK PROJECT: FEASIBILITY STUDY USING CVP ANALYSIS
S.K. Mitra, Shubhra Hajela

Product Number: 9B13B022
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 12/19/2013
Length: 6 pages

A budding entrepreneur in India is planning to set up a fly ash brick manufacturing plant near a thermal power plant. Not only does making bricks out of the residue of coal power generation reduce the amount of fly ash waste dumped on the ground, but the government is actively supporting the fly ash brick industry as a way to meet the increasing demands for construction materials that are environmentally sustainable. On the basis of preliminary analysis, the entrepreneur decides to set up a plant that will have the capacity to manufacture four million bricks. Though actual production will depend on market demand, he and his potential partner estimate that 2.4 million bricks can be sold per year at an average Rs 7,000 per 1,000 bricks. He wants to ascertain the feasibility of the project using a cost-volume-profit analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B13B022 (10 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: CVP Analysis; Feasibility analysis; breakeven point; cost analysis; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



UNITED CHURCH HOUSING CORPORATION
Peter W. Moroz, Edward Gamble, Stewart Thornhill, Peter Mayne

Product Number: 9B12M061
Publication Date: 6/8/2012
Revision Date: 6/8/2012
Length: 14 pages

The chairperson of the United Church Housing Corporation (UCHC) of Regina, Saskatchewan, received some information from an external consultant who was hired to assess the state of affairs of the UCHC. This non-profit organization had operated for over 50 years and had built accommodations for many seniors that were both affordable and offered personal independence. In 2005, the UCHC board approved a new four-storey assisted living facility, Wascana Wing, which was to be built in response to long waitlists. With this decision, the UCHC board had taken out a $3 million mortgage to finance the project. Since opening the new facility, UCHC had been plagued by high vacancy rates as new for-profit competitors entered the market for senior accommodations. The combination of high vacancy rates and UCHC's highly leveraged financial position were the source of losses from 2006 to the present. The board's break-even mentality was not working. UCHC was at a major crossroads - the housing situation of more than 100 seniors residing in assisted living apartments and cottages would need to be decided upon at the next meeting. The question was whether or not June, a retired nurse, would recommend that the board proceed with winding up UCHC or make suggestions that would call for major changes to the current business model.

Teaching Note: 8B12M061 (14 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Social Enterprise Management; Non-profit Decision Making; Feasibility Analysis; Business Models; Financial Analysis; Break-even Analysis; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



EASY BUSINESS COMPANY LIMITED: COST ANALYSIS ON A SMALL BUSINESS START-UP IN CHINA (A)
Claude P. Lanfranconi, Peter Yuan

Product Number: 9A99B033
Publication Date: 4/4/2000
Revision Date: 1/14/2010
Length: 7 pages

A 23-year-old sales executive for a multinational office furniture and supply company was thinking of leaving the company over a dispute regarding her compensation. A friend had suggested setting up her own business: a recruiting agency. The sales executive had known some human resources managers and office managers throughout the years, however, she also realized that it was a very competitive business and she had no experience. She did some cost analysis and had to decide whether it was worth doing. This case could be used as an introduction to management accounting or entrepreneurial finance.

Teaching Note: 8A99B33 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: China; Cost Accounting; Entrepreneurial Finance; Management Accounting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Building a Bootstrap Marketing Plan

VICE MEDIA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND GLOBAL EXPANSION
Farzad H. Alvi

Product Number: 9B14M039
Publication Date: 3/17/2014
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 13 pages

Vice Media has gone from a startup in Canada to landing in New York City and assiduously building a global youth brand through unique and seemingly inimitable competitive advantages. While globalizing its operations, Vice Media appears to have developed expertise in standardizing certain aspects of its business, adapting others to local context and, increasingly, building a global chain. Given Vice Media’s explosive growth, how can its global value chain be structured to maintain the carefully cultivated emotional connection the company has created with its audience?

Teaching Note: 8B14M039 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Competitive advantage; growth; Canada; United States; Global
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TESLA MOTORS: BURNING UP THE ROAD TO MARKET DOMINATION OR DOOM
Dante Pirouz, Karam Putros

Product Number: 9B13A050
Publication Date: 2/4/2014
Revision Date: 4/16/2014
Length: 10 pages

Ten years after its founding, California-based Tesla Motors is close to becoming one of the world’s premier luxury car manufacturers. Its innovative design — using carbon fibre and aluminum rather than steel to construct body and parts — and technology — lithium ion battery packs rather than gasoline for power and a simple powertrain to provide maximum acceleration — make its models treasured options for eco-friendly and tech-savvy consumers as well as wealthy professionals. Relying almost entirely on word-of-mouth promotion through social media, the company sells its cars through factory stores in upscale malls rather than through dealerships and has built service centres to provide free battery charging. However, just as it is expanding into Europe and Asia and is contemplating buying its own factory to secure its battery supply, three of its cars have burst into flames following collisions, although no one has been injured. In addition, analysts claim that the company has been covering up its lack of cash flow by using non-generally accepted accounting principles for reporting its revenue. The CEO knows that the company has tremendous potential but is struggling with public relations problems arising from the crashes and questions about its financial stability and return on investment to investors.

Teaching Note: 8B13A050 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Electric cars; premium; sales; public relations; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Creative Use of Advertising and Promotion

GROWING TENTREE: SOCIAL ENTERPRISE, SOCIAL MEDIA AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Peter W. Moroz, Simon Parker, Edward Gamble

Product Number: 9B14M030
Publication Date: 3/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/2/2014
Length: 12 pages

Two friends have launched tentree (TT), a Canadian entrepreneurial venture that sells an environmentally sustainable and trendy brand of apparel. For every product sold, TT plants 10 trees in locations around the world. Although TT is still in its infancy, it is already experiencing huge growth. The entrepreneurial founders now face several challenges: how to keep pace with the growing demand; how to plant as many trees as they can while staying true to their sustainable, environmental philosophy; how to break into the U.S. and other markets; and where to source their product.

Teaching Note: 8B14M030 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Social enterprise; media; sustainability; growth; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MISSION IMPOSSIBLE: MEASURING SOCIAL MEDIA RETURN ON INVESTMENT
Miranda R. Goode, Daniel Samosh

Product Number: 9B12A015
Publication Date: 5/17/2012
Revision Date: 5/18/2012
Length: 10 pages

In August 2011, the digital strategist at Online Advertisers, a small digital media company (web development, affiliate marketing, and social media management), was faced with finalizing a value proposition for a new social media marketing division, Online Advertisers Social. Online Advertisers was a creativity-driven company. Data and analytic capabilities were generally not the reason why clients worked with Online Advertisers. Online Advertisers attracted clients by being young, in touch with trends, energetic, and creative. However, clients (especially larger clients) wanted analytics — metrics that could be used to objectively quantify returns on social media investment. The digital strategist saw an opportunity to position Online Advertisers Social as a social media company that offered smaller businesses insights into their target markets that they would not otherwise have access to due to budget constraints.

The digital strategist needed to create a value proposition that balanced an analytics focus with Online Advertisers’ creative marketing and design. The company was too small to offer a large-scale competitive analytical package, and had relied too heavily on intuition in the past to create a competitive data-based social media package. The digital strategist went through the nuances of social media management, including campaign management and community management, and the issue of offering services related to the measurement of social media ROI in a rapidly growing and maturing industry.


Teaching Note: 8B12A015 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Web Development; Social Media; Metrics; Analytics; Value Proposition Development; Business to Business; Consumer Insights; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARDSWAP: CONVERTING UNWANTED GIFT CARDS INTO CASH
Neil Bendle, Michael Taylor

Product Number: 9B11A034
Publication Date: 9/22/2011
Length: 12 pages

CardSwap was an online service that provided consumers with the opportunity to convert unwanted gift cards into hard cash. The co-founder felt convinced that his small Canadian company created great value for its customers. After all, there were around a billion dollars of unwanted gift cards entering circulation every year. People who owned these unwanted gift cards would surely want to use the CardSwap service. CardSwap could offer a strong value proposition to consumers while ensuring a healthy return through commissions on every transaction. Problems remained, however, as CardSwap was a relatively small company and had no access to the multi-million-dollar advertising budgets that might be needed to get a message out to consumers through an extensive multi-media strategy. How much should the company be willing to spend to acquire a customer? How best could this new company use its limited resources to communicate to customers the benefits of CardSwap?

Teaching Note: 8B11A034 (12 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Customer Value; Creating Value; Gift Cards; Marketing Communications
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate


Chapter 11:
Pricing and Credit Strategies

MICHAEL SHAPS WINERY: EVALUATING THE "CUSTOM CRUSH" OPPORTUNITY
Randle Raggio, Ben Eubanks

Product Number: 9B13A027
Publication Date: 11/18/2013
Revision Date: 2/21/2014
Length: 13 pages

By 2010, Virginia had become the fifth-largest wine-producing state in the United States and Michael Shaps had developed a reputation as one of Virginia’s premier winemakers. He had recently doubled his annual production capacity and was considering whether to increase production of his own “Michael Shaps”-label wines (MS), or accept offers to produce private-label wines (PL) for customers — a service he dubbed “custom crush.” He could increase his profits by selling PL wines at higher margins. However, it would take time to grow this new business, and any capacity reserved for a “custom crush” operation would reduce the number of cases of his own MS wines that he could produce. The financials of custom crush looked very promising, because in addition to higher margins, revenue from PL would be guaranteed by contracts prior to harvest — a situation of unusual security in the volatile wine business. Although his MS wines were of high quality and regionally popular, producing his own labeled wines was more of a speculative business, subject to myriad factors. Beyond the short-term financial impact, he also had to consider how a PL business would affect his own MS brand. Finally, Shaps had the opportunity to package wine in a box at significant savings over bottles and had to decide whether or how to introduce MS or PL wine in a box.

Teaching Note: 8B13A027 (10 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Expansion strategy; private label production; capacity utilization; distribution strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A COUPLE OF SQUARES: E-COMMERCE OPPORTUNITIES FOR GROWTH (B)
Dante Pirouz, Raymond Pirouz, Dina Ribbink, Emily Chen-Bendle

Product Number: 9B13A005
Publication Date: 3/14/2013
Revision Date: 3/13/2013
Length: 4 pages

A small upscale bakery produces artisan-quality, hand-decorated cookies, generating $1 million in annual revenue. In the (A) case 9B13A004, the two co-owners investigate the role of pricing in driving growth for their business and allowing them to achieve several fundamental financial goals. In the (B) case, the partners explore the possibility of a website to drive direct-to-consumer sales on an e-commerce platform.

The multimedia elements of the case 7B13A004 will add to the richness of the conversation.


Teaching Note: 8B13A005 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Pricing; Operations; Small Business; Social Media; B2C; B2B; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NUWAY SOFTWARE
Derrick Neufeld, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B09E005
Publication Date: 5/14/2009
Length: 15 pages

The founder and president of Nuway Software (Nuway) must determine the pricing strategy for their new internally-developed mobile software product, Nulogic. Nuway develops custom mobile software applications that provide great competitive advantage to each of their customers; no two software modules it develops are similar. Nuway is now ready to market Nulogic as a stand-alone product and has identified three unique customer segments: Corporate in-house developers, competitors and independent software developers. The company has historically followed a cost-plus pricing model and has maintained positive profit margins. The software industry as a whole is moving towards value-based pricing, where cost is based on perceived value to the customer. The president does not favour value-based pricing and views it as price-gouging; however, he is aware that cost-plus pricing has limitations with regards to cost accuracy. By considering the entire software industry, Nuway's capabilities and his own preferences, the president must determine how to price the new software.

Teaching Note: 8B09E05 (12 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Generating Profit from New Technology; Management of Technology; Pricing Strategy; Cost Accounting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Global Marketing Strategies

ISRAELI WINES IN CHINA: REACHING FOR NEW HEIGHTS
Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B14M006
Publication Date: 5/5/2014
Revision Date: 2/23/2015
Length: 21 pages

In 2012, Golan Heights Wines wanted to take advantage of the Chinese market. In recent years, China had demonstrated incredible growth in the wine market. Consumers’ growing interest in wine products had made wineries and vineyards like Golan Heights hungry for entry. The CEO of Golan Heights Winery had gone to China with her products in 2009. She had chosen distributorships as the mode of entry because of their expertise and experience in the Chinese market, something she did not possess. Since she had entered the market, however, she had learned of the seemingly disappointing demand for Israeli wines. Sales were rather limited given the size of the market. Most Chinese consumers who sought imported wines wanted them from Europe, particularly France. Additionally, vendors and distributors did a poor job of pushing Israel products. The CEO needed to devise and execute a series of strategies to better take advantage of the impressive Chinese market, establish a brand for Golan Heights Wines and create a platform for future growth.

Teaching Note: 8B14M006 (11 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Export strategy; market entry; market selection; Israel; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BESTSELLER — FACING A NEW COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE IN CHINA
Michael W. Hansen, Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen

Product Number: 9B11M054
Publication Date: 8/29/2011
Length: 20 pages

In the fall of 1996, Bestseller became one of the first international fashion companies to enter the Chinese retail market. Earlier that year, Allan Warburg and Dan Friis had made contact with the CEO of Bestseller A/S, Troels Holch Povlsen, regarding the prospect of selling Bestseller brands in China, where they felt there were many business opportunities. Holch Povlsen found himself convinced by the two entrepreneurs’ enthusiasm for the Chinese market.

They quickly proved that they had been right about China. A decade after the first store opened, Bestseller China had almost 2,000 stores, and accounted for more than one-third of the total turnover of Bestseller A/S. The secret to Bestseller China’s extraordinary success was its ability to sell price-competitive European designs with a Chinese touch, which was achieved by locating all production in China and modifying Bestseller A/S’s designs to suit the size and tastes of Chinese middle-class consumers. With a 10-year headstart over potential competitors, Bestseller China had by the end of 2007 managed to establish a strong presence in China. However, high economic growth and the growing middle class were making the Chinese market highly attractive for other companies. Although global giants, such as Zara and H&M, were devoting big chunks of their budgets to entering China and capturing market share, these aggressive new entrants were not Bestseller China’s biggest concern. In fact, the competition from local companies was seen as the real threat.


Teaching Note: 8B11M054 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Franchising; Marketing Management; Global Strategy; Fashion; Clothing; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
E-Commerce and Entrepreneurship

INFIBEAM INTERNET RETAILING
Piyush Kumar Sinha, Barbara L. Marcolin, Varsha Verma, Nupur Gupta

Product Number: 9B12M094
Publication Date: 3/14/2013
Revision Date: 2/25/2013
Length: 19 pages

This case focuses on Infibeam, a small, new e-commerce company in India, as an illustration of innovative B2B contractual agreements that enabled it to acquire a significant customer base at a very low cost. However, it must now develop innovative strategies for marketing communication, customer value proposition and a new IT e-commerce rural platform in order to achieve its required growth estimates and raise capital for a new project in cooperation with a state government. Internet retailing is rapidly growing in India, but it does contain challenges: the cost of acquiring customers is high; per person spending amount is smaller; and customers are spread all over the country, often 2,000 kilometres away from supply centres.

Teaching Note: 8B12M094 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: India Internet Retailing; e-commerce; Customer Acquisition; Lifetime Value; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PETS.COM INC.: THE RISE AND DECLINE OF A PET SUPPLY RETAILER
Omar Merlo

Product Number: 9B09A021
Publication Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 16 pages

The case follows the rise and decline of Pets.com from its inception in 1994 until 2000. It starts with a look at the birth of Pets.com, followed by a discussion of the market, consumer behaviour and key competitors. It then focuses on Pets.com's business strategy and marketing mix. The case study provides the basis for class discussion of a number of key issues, including but not limited to a) the decision whether to enter a strategic partnership, b) the pursuit of an aggressive growth strategy, c) the design and management of the marketing mix, d) the use of aggressive communication and pricing strategies, and e) brand-building decisions. Pets.com is often cited alongside the Edsel, New Coke, Betamax and others as one of the biggest marketing blunders of all times. As such, students find it a fascinating story. The case study also asks students to reflect on some common challenges faced by organizations, such as entry and survival in a highly competitive market, how to deal with a dominant player, venture capital and entrepreneurial issues, business model design, brand management, marketing mix decisions, and the benefits and perils of a growth strategy. The case has been used successfully in the following courses: a) an MBA elective course dealing with popular marketing mistakes and failures, b) a postgraduate strategic marketing course dealing with growth strategies, c) a marketing management course at the undergraduate level focused on the design and management of the marketing mix, and d) a services marketing module at the undergraduate level on the topic of online marketing.

Teaching Note: 8B09A21 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Marketing Mix; Business Growth; Online Retail; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SHOPSTER.COM
Malcolm Munro, Sid L. Huff

Product Number: 9B07E005
Publication Date: 8/21/2007
Revision Date: 9/27/2007
Length: 18 pages

Shopster.com is a Calgary-based e-business company whose business is to assist other individuals or companies in setting up their own retail transactional websites. Shopster differs significantly from ordinary website developers in that retailers are able to select from a huge inventory of saleable products, through Shopster's network of goods providers. Shopster also provides software tools, and expertise, to allow anyone wishing to create an online retail store to do so quickly and easily. Shopster's business has done well to date, but there are plenty of operational challenges ahead. As well, the principals would like to "raise the bar" substantially, to something they refer to as "Shopster 2.0", the specifics of which are still at a formative stage. The Shopster case provides an interesting example of a small but rapidly growing Canadian company with an innovative business model and big dreams for the future.

Teaching Note: 8B07E05 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Supply Chain Management; E-Business Models; E-Commerce; Virtual Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE: E-COMMERCE
Scott L. Schneberger, Murray McCaig

Product Number: 9A99E011
Publication Date: 3/24/1999
Revision Date: 1/15/2010
Length: 17 pages

In 1998, Metropolitan Life's first vice president of Interactive Commerce faced a plethora of opportunities, challenges, and decisions in charting MetLife's strategy for e-commerce. He wanted to move quickly into transacting Web-based commerce, but he had to consider executive support, infrastructure requirements, possibly disenfranchising the sales force, fast-moving competitors, and the frenzied rate of technology change. The case covers almost all e-commerce start-up issues, but from the perspective of a large, established bricks and mortar business. (A 19-minute video is available for purchase with this case.)

Teaching Note: 8A99E11 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Market Strategy; Information Systems; Insurance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Creating a Solid Financial Plan

VALJIBHAI STONES
Debashis Sanyal, Smita Mazumdar

Product Number: 9B14N009
Publication Date: 4/17/2014
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

Valjibhai Stones, a supplier of quality stone chips in India, has been approached by a multinational company that needs a reliable supplier of quality stone chips for the next eight years. Accepting the order would require a capacity expansion to produce high-quality aggregate solely for the multinational company and at the cost of foregoing all of its existing business. If the offer is accepted, the company would earn substantial revenue for eight years, but would then need to seek fresh business in a highly competitive market.

Teaching Note: 8B14N009 (14 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Strategic cost management; cost of capital; investment decision; return on investment; economic value added; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GLOBAL REMEDIATION: FUNDING FUTURE GROWTH
Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B13N007
Publication Date: 4/30/2013
Revision Date: 3/19/2015
Length: 9 pages

A small startup firm in the environmental services industry has spent the majority of its time developing its technology and overcoming the significant regulatory hurdles involved in bringing its technology to market. Having achieved success with the technology, the company must now decide which path to take to grow. The owners can try to raise the money themselves through a bank loan and do the expansion on their own terms. On the other hand, they can forge a financial partnership with a venture capital firm or a strategic partnership with another firm, or they can issue preferred shares to a local investment fund or corporate bonds to a local insurance company. These alternatives will share the risks and expense of expansion, but the company may lose some autonomy in its decision making in future.

Teaching Note: 8B13N007 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Capital Raising; Debt; Equity; Venture Capital; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HEALTH NUT
Colleen Sharen, Vanessa M. Strike

Product Number: 9B08M053
Publication Date: 8/25/2008
Revision Date: 8/11/2009
Length: 13 pages

Late in the afternoon on January 20, 2006, one of the owners of The Health Nut hung up the phone. Her account manager had just called to tell her that the bank was not going to extend any further credit to her small retail natural health products (NHP) store located in Grand Bend, Ontario. She and her life and business partner had owned The Health Nut since May 2003. While they had successfully grown sales, the business was not generating enough cash to sustain itself and provide the partners with adequate compensation. As a result, the business relied heavily on borrowing from the bank. Now that the bank was no longer a source of financing, the owners had a major problem on their hands. What should they do now? Something was going to have to change. They had about four weeks left before the business ran out of cash. The students will learn: 1. The role of emotion in decision making. 2. The nature and importance of due diligence. 3. When to let go of the business. 4. The importance of having enough working capital. 5. The dangers of over reliance on debt. 6. The challenges of cash flow management.

Teaching Note: 8B08M53 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Decision Theory; Bankruptcy; Cash Flow; Organizational Behaviour; Human Resources Management; Opportunity Recognition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Managing Cash Flow

GREEN-TECH: BIO-FUELS HIGH GROWTH STRATEGY
Federico M. Berruti, Heng-Yih (Gordon) Liu

Product Number: 9B11M123
Publication Date: 1/20/2012
Length: 12 pages

Green-Tech Inc., a Canadian company founded in 2006, was dedicated to developing, manufacturing, and marketing portable and stationary systems for the production of bio-oils and bio-char from biomass residues and wastes. Green-Tech was a recent spinoff from a large university research centre with a very good reputation for providing bio-energy solutions. Although focused and well positioned, Green-Tech had to manage relationships with large companies such as Shell that controlled vast and complete supply chains of oil-related businesses, as well as small firms and clients that were unable to manage their waste effectively. Large firms could provide plenty of business opportunities for Green-Tech, but could also jeopardize the company’s autonomy. Small customers on their own might not bring in enough cash flow, but could give Green-Tech sufficient freedom to pursue its own strategic goals. Both relationships seemed to lead to a promising future for this entrepreneurial start-up company, but also created serious risks. At the time of the case in 2011, Fernando Bruteque, vice president and one of the principal engineers of Green-Tech, was seeking the appropriate growth approach for Green-Tech. Being in charge of business operations, Bruteque also had to maintain a balance between research and development (R&D), investor and client concerns, and business opportunities. What would be the appropriate growth strategies and business operation strategies for a resource-constrained firm such as Green-Tech? How should it proceed?

Teaching Note: 8B11M123 (10 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Bio-fuels; Renewable Energy; Research and Development; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



C. R. PLASTICS
David Wood, Mary Gillett

Product Number: 9B11D016
Publication Date: 1/3/2012
Revision Date: 10/13/2015
Length: 10 pages

Jamie Bailey, owner and president of C. R. Plastics, had successfully grown his business every year since 1994 when he began producing recycled plastic outdoor furniture. This rapid growth had provided its own challenges in terms of constrained financing and by summer 2010, Bailey was desperate for a new source of cash. He subsequently auditioned to be on Dragon’s Den, a television show where entrepreneurs could pitch their business to a group of venture capitalists, who could then choose to invest their own cash in exchange for a share of the business. With a week remaining before he had to present his final pitch, Bailey had to make a difficult prediction: How much money would he need to meet the growing demand into 2011? Complicating his analysis were competing proposals to fundamentally change how production was managed. In addition to reconfiguring labour allocation, one method required significant investment in equipment, while the other increased inventory during the off-season. Which alternative would allow the company to retain a greater share of the equity when Bailey pitched his business to the Dragon’s Den panel?

Teaching Note: 8B11D016 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cash Flow Projections; Financing; Valuation; Seasonal Working Capital Management; Furniture; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SACD
Simon Parker

Product Number: 9B11M027
Publication Date: 4/8/2011
Length: 6 pages

Giel Bessels is one of the three founders of a Dutch classical music record label called PentaTone Music BV, which releases all of its recordings on a high-resolution audio format called Super Audio Compact Disc (SACD). Now a decade old, PentaTone has survived the commercial failure of SACD’s launch in 1999 and the adverse market characterized by a continually shrinking demand for classical music recordings. However, the founders wish to build their company further and know that they must stimulate demand for their products so that they can finance further recordings. Bessels and his team recognize the unique difficulties of educating consumers about the superior quality of high-resolution, surround-sound classical music on SACD, which needs to be heard to be fully appreciated. The case invites students to think creatively about alternative ways of growing and protecting PentaTone’s business, including novel uses of social media and possible expansion into China. The case also illustrates a relatively unusual motive for new venture creation — here, the business is seen as an asset to be built up to provide a future capital gain through a trade sale rather than as a vehicle to generate a stream of current and ongoing dividends (incomes).

Teaching Note: 8B11M027 (5 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Asset Generation versus Income Flow; Social Media; Classical Music Industry; the Netherlands; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GANONG BROS. LIMITED
Eric Morse, Vanessa M. Strike

Product Number: 9B05M011
Publication Date: 3/7/2005
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 14 pages

Ganong Bros. Limited is a fifth generation family chocolate company in New Brunswick that is facing financial difficulties. The firm has been spreading its resources too thinly and needs to develop a plan to not only return to profitability but also to grow the business while upholding its responsibility to the local community. This case helps students to develop an understanding of cutting costs in a turnaround situation and seeking out alternative lines of business for strategic growth.

Teaching Note: 8B05M11 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Change; Strategic Planning; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
Sources of Equity Financing

CROWDFUNDING AT THE BROOKLYN WAREHOUSE
Nicola Young, Karen Lightstone

Product Number: 9B13B020
Publication Date: 10/4/2013
Revision Date: 10/3/2013
Length: 8 pages

The Brooklyn Warehouse, a popular restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, is cramped for space because of its popularity within its neighbourhood and as a tourist destination in the city. The restaurant is a private company with two shareholders, one of whom is not involved in operations. Because of the economic downturn, the risky nature of the business and the fact that it has been open only four years, the owners are having trouble securing financing for their expansion plans from their bank and other conventional lenders. However, while negotiating a renewal of their lease in late 2011, their landlord offered to pay for half the cost of building a patio to increase the size of the restaurant. To raise the other half, the owners turn to crowdfunding as a method of raising capital through social media by tapping into their community of friends, family and loyal customers. In return for their donation, which may vary from $100 to $2,500, sponsors are offered various packages, including free meals, a company T-shirt and their name listed on a wall of honour. However, little is known about the appropriate accounting or tax treatment for money raised in this manner. The owners had heard horror stories about businesses that used innovative ideas to raise funds only to have fines and penalties levied by government agencies for income tax and sales tax or even by the Securities Commission for improper accounting. The owners turn to their accountant for advice.

Teaching Note: 8B13B020 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Crowdfunding; innovative financing; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



DEVIUM'S DASH: CROWDFUNDING A VENTURE ON KICKSTARTER
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B12M097
Publication Date: 10/29/2012
Revision Date: 11/27/2012
Length: 11 pages

A hybrid entrepreneur working at a full-time job has come up with the idea for his first product, a smartphone car stereo. He has invested $10,000 of his own money plus $3,000 from an early investor to develop his prototype. He needs to put together a viable commercialization plan and is considering crowdfunding as a viable funding source. He also needs to decide whether to distribute his product through direct sales or a traditional retail model.

Teaching Note: 8B12M097 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Crowdfunding; Finance; Innovation; Virtual Product Development; Supply Chain, United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
Sources of Debt Financing

EA FINANCIAL SERVICES
Francis Ayensu, Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Logan Burnett, Stephanie Lachance-Coward, Taylor Klimosko

Product Number: 9B14M042
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/2/2014
Length: 9 pages

EA Financial Services is a microfinance institution in Koforidua, Ghana. In its seven months of operation, it has done well to establish a client base, but it now lacks sufficient capital to meet the growing demand for new loans. Although having a growing client base is a positive sign, the lack of capital is a significant burden — the company has had to begin turning down loan requests. The owner knows that potential clients will likely deal with one of his many competitors if he cannot provide financial services for them. He wonders if he should first explore obtaining additional operational capital or concentrate on improving current operations. Several alternatives to addressing these issues have presented themselves. What is his best course of action?

Teaching Note: 8B14M042 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Microloans; human resource management; emerging markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RING-A-WING (A)
David Simpson, Colin McDougall

Product Number: 9B11N001
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Length: 5 pages

Late in August 2004, Chris Higgins was forced into the unenviable position of determining the future of Ring-A-Wing, a London, Ontario-based fast food producer of premium chicken wings for home delivery. After making a personal loan to a friend wishing to invest in the business, the situation devolved in less than nine months from Higgins being a passive lender to being a significant investor to sitting in a bankruptcy meeting trying to determine the future of the business. The issue in the (A) case is whether the Higgins group should reopen Ring-A-Wing.

Teaching Note: 8B11N001 (4 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Personal Loan; Reopen; Bankruptcy; Food Delivery; Small Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 18:
Location, Layout, and Physical Facilities

TERRA BITE LOUNGE: PAY WHAT YOU WANT CAFÉ
June Cotte, Remi Trudel

Product Number: 9B09A013
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Length: 4 pages

In April 2009, the founder and owner of Terra Bite Lounge was considering opening another location. The Terra Bite Lounge was a Kirkland, Washington café with no prices and voluntary payment. The owner believed that Terra Bite was a demonstration of a high level of honesty and trust, between himself and the customer. There were several considerations to evaluate in deciding to open a new location. Where should the new location be? The current location was in an affluent suburb but the owner believed that several types of neighbourhoods would be receptive. What types of consumer characteristics would best be suited towards this model of trusting that payment would be made? Is there anything that could be added to the current model to make Terra Bite more successful? He was careful to consider those changes or additions that were consistent with the current social trust component of the original Terra Bite model.

Teaching Note: 8B09A13 (4 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Marketing Management; Consumer Behaviour; Pricing; Market Segmentation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 19:
Supply Chain Management

SHER-WOOD HOCKEY STICKS: GLOBAL SOURCING
Paul W. Beamish, Megan (Min) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12M003
Publication Date: 2/13/2012
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

In early 2011, the senior executives of the venerable Canadian hockey stick manufacturer Sher-Wood Hockey were considering whether to move the remainder of the company’s high-end composite hockey and goalie stick production to its suppliers in China. Sher-Wood had been losing market share as retail prices continued to fall. Would outsourcing the production of the iconic, Canadian-made hockey sticks to China help Sher-Wood to boost demand significantly? Was there any other choice?

Teaching Note: 8B12M003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Insourcing; Nearshoring; R&D Interface; Labour Costs; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FERRO INDUSTRIES — EXPORTING CHALLENGE IN A SMALL FIRM
Justin Paul, Parul Gupta, Shruti Gupta

Product Number: 9B11M115
Publication Date: 1/25/2012
Revision Date: 6/12/2013
Length: 18 pages

This case deals with an exporting challenge faced by Ferro Industries, a small enterprise within the steel industry in India. The company’s manufacturing facility was located in the National Capital Region of Delhi. Ferro’s main products were roll-forming machines, cut-to-length lines, and slitting lines; the company was one of only three firms in the Indian sub-continent catering to the market for such products. This case raises two basic questions in relation to Ferro’s role as an exporter. Firstly, at what stage should an importer have to pay an exporter? Secondly, should the exporter release consignment to the importer before receiving payment? The case illustrates the challenges of exporting and international entrepreneurship for a small firm, taking into account payment risk, product pricing, deal-making strategies, promotional strategy, and client-management strategies. It also addresses the complexities involved in the decision-making process while exporting, as well as outlining various conflict-resolution techniques for closing a deal effectively while considering the appropriateness of taking risks.

Teaching Note: 8B11M115 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Exports; Trade Finance; International Trade Logistics; Global Supply Chain Management; Saudi Arabia; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 20:
Managing Inventory

MISTURA BEAUTY SOLUTIONS
Ron Mulholland, Anthony Davis, Amanda Goupil, Christine Harvey, Kyle Marcus

Product Number: 9B12A034
Publication Date: 12/7/2012
Revision Date: 11/26/2012
Length: 11 pages

A four-year-old cosmetics company is experiencing the typical difficulties of a company evolving from a mom-and-pop operation to a scalable, systems-driven organization. The CEO and founder recognized a problem and opportunity with foundation makeup. She developed a self-adjusting, hard-powder makeup for use on any skin tone. Following an appearance on a reality TV show for entrepreneurs and numerous other promotional measures, the company’s sale grew to nearly $800,000. The recent acquisition of chain store clients requires the company to raise capital to finance the required inventory. Additionally, the company has consolidated its operations into a 4,000 square foot facility to improve logistics, quality control and management efficiency. Ambitious sales projections include a doubling of sales for the next two years. To support this projected growth, the CEO must ensure the appropriate systems are in place. She also needs to finance a marketing program to drive growth.

Teaching Note: 8B12A034 (6 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Business growth; product development; segmentation; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ATHLETIC KNIT
David Wood, Dina Ribbink

Product Number: 9B12D020
Publication Date: 8/31/2012
Revision Date: 7/17/2017
Length: 7 pages

This case investigates issues of obsolescence and inventory control in a local sportswear company that is competing on the global stage with both multinational corporations and foreign, low-cost distributors. Athletic Knit, a family-owned company in Toronto, faces the need to balance peak-season demand during the third quarter of the year with the available knitting production capacity. Inventory, if it serves a purpose, can be an asset to a company, but too much inventory can be a liability. Trade-offs between capacity, inventory, and flexibility to meet custom orders must be met to support corporate strategy. Given the competitive nature of the industry, tighter inventory controls are essential, but the company must weigh endangering its reputation for fast responses to custom orders with managing inventory to prevent stock-outs and/or overruns of stock that cannot be sold.

Teaching Note: 8B12D020 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Inventory Analysis; Economic Order Quantity; Aggregate Planning; Cost; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CRP PRODUCTS
David Wood, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B11D015
Publication Date: 11/10/2011
Revision Date: 6/29/2012
Length: 7 pages

Bruce Ballantyne had recently joined C.R.P. Products (CRP), a furniture manufacturer in Stratford, Ontario, to help review the company’s operations and assess what changes were necessary to keep up with demand. Although it was early 2011 and the peak season was still four months away, Ballantyne knew that he would have to determine what equipment was needed over the next three weeks to ensure it was delivered and installed before the peak season. Jamie Bailey, the owner of CRP, had also concluded that CRP did not have the financing available for both the new equipment needed to make its unique design of outdoor furniture and the seasonal working capital required to support inventory and accounts receivable. He had turned to Ballantyne to develop a solution that would keep up with demand, keep inventory low, and work within the available financing.

Teaching Note: 8B11D015 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Capacity Management; Inventory, Batch Size and Free Capacity; Economic Order Quantity; Process Design; Plant Layout; Furniture; Ontario, Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 21:
Staffing and Leading a Growing Company

HUO'S GROUP: A PROFESSIONAL MANAGER IN A FAMILY FIRM IN CHINA
Ting Wang, Paul W. Beamish, Zhou Liman, Luo Jingjing

Product Number: 9B14C009
Publication Date: 2/14/2014
Revision Date: 2/14/2014
Length: 10 pages

In February 2012, a human resources appointment attracted wide attention from China's domestic lubricating oil industry. The iconic general manager of Shell Tongyi (Beijing) Petroleum Chemical Co., Ltd. officially took the position as the chief executive officer (CEO) of Huo's Group, thus returning to work for his former boss, the founder of the former Tongyi Lubricating Oil. Before the merger between Tongyi and Shell in 2006, the private entrepreneur and the professional manager had jointly created the well-known Tongyi Lubricating Oil and were renowned as "perfect partners" by many in the business media. In 2012, their hope was to achieve glory again on this wider business platform - Huo's Group. Was this likely?

Teaching Note: 8B14C009 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Leadership; personnel; professional manager; family business; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CYBERPRENEUR'S WAKE-UP CALL: CYBER SECURITY AND MILLENNIAL TALENT CRISES
Nakul Gupta, Arjun Bhatnagar, Jyotsna Bhatnagar

Product Number: 9B13E029
Publication Date: 10/17/2013
Revision Date: 5/2/2014
Length: 7 pages

It was summer of 2013, and the news of cyber-attacks and information security breaches was on the rise in India, as it was worldwide. Incidents such as the Axis bank’s cyber-crime incident and the news of the American National Security Agency’s global e-surveillance were creating consternation and dilemmas in the minds of information security consultants. One such consultant owned and operated an information security company, Percept Softech, a Lakshyaa Technology Lab’s Jaipur franchise. The consultant was bogged down by a number of problems and dilemmas. The first was his marketing and business growth strategy, which was not helping him in promotion of his business. Information security solutions, spying, vulnerability checks, key logging and allied propositions were difficult to promote. Managing young millennial talent was another major problem for him. Apart from the woes of business growth, inefficiency in promotion and talent issues, the consultant was now facing another dilemma. Should he start a new business away from the umbrella of the Lakshyaa Technology Lab? Should he partner with a detective agency? Or should he relocate from Jaipur to a more central location (such as New Delhi) where perhaps people would be more aware of the importance of cyber security and students would be more interested in pursuing cyber security training?

Teaching Note: 8B13E029 (15 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHINA HUIYUAN JUICE GROUP
Hang Zhu, Wei Fang, Aili Yang

Product Number: 9B12M092
Publication Date: 1/25/2013
Revision Date: 3/24/2014
Length: 13 pages

A $2.4 billion bid made by a competing company presented the founder and chairman of China Huiyuan Juice Group Limited with a dilemma. He had successfully transformed his company from a small-scale canned-fruit manufacturer into the largest juice producer in China. Despite the strong need for external funds to achieve further growth, the company’s founder had always been prudent in introducing outside investments into the firm, carefully maintaining his control of the business. To him, Huiyuan Juice was almost like a child that he had nurtured, rather than a product to be sold. However, the company’s rapid expansion had placed its founder under increased pressure and he now had to decide whether or not he should sell.

Teaching Note: 8B12M092 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Corporate governance; family business; growth constraint; China; Ivey/CMCC
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JINJIAN GARMENT FACTORY: MOTIVATING GO-SLOW WORKERS
Tieying Huang, Junping Liang, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M033
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 6 pages

Jinjian Garment Factory is a large clothing manufacturer based in Shenzhen with distribution to Hong Kong and overseas. Although Shenzhen had become one of the most advanced garment manufacturing centres in the world, managers in this industry still had few effective ways of dealing with the collective and deliberate slow pace of work by the employees, of motivating workers, and of resolving the problem between seasonal production requirements and retention of skilled workers. However, the owner and managing director of the company must determine the reasons behind the deliberately slow pace of the workers, the pros and cons of the piecework system and the methods he could adopt to motivate the workers effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B04M33 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Productivity; Employee Attitude; Piece Work; Performance Measurement; Work-Force Management; Peking University
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 22:
Management Succession and Risk Management Strategies in the Family Business

ENSURING FAMILY AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY AT INDIA’S GMR GROUP
Kavil Ramachandran, John Ward, Sachin Waikar, Rachna Jha

Product Number: 9B11M075
Publication Date: 11/18/2011
Revision Date: 6/21/2012
Length: 16 pages

Most family businesses do not survive beyond two or three generations. One of the main reasons for this short lifespan is the lack of governance mechanisms in family businesses. With better family governance, business development becomes a richer experience and continuity is ensured across generations. This case is about an Indian family business, GMR Group, which was established a quarter-century ago, and by 2010 had become one of the major diversified infrastructure organizations in the country, with large-scale interests in infrastructure (energy, roads, and airports) and manufacturing (agri-business, mainly sugar). Since its founding, the Group had come a long way, from an independent proprietary enterprise to a family-owned holding corporation with several companies under its control, along with external stakeholders. The growth of the group had been led by the entrepreneurial zeal and organizational capabilities of its founder, G.M. Rao. Having seen many family businesses breaking up for lack of adequate governance mechanisms, Rao led the way for the writing of his family business's constitution with the help of several experts in 2007. The writing process of the constitution and the policies and processes developed were optimal for maximizing GMR's performance and the family's prosperity in current and future generations. This case captures the essential processes and outcomes of writing a family business constitution.

Teaching Note: 8B11M075 (5 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Family Governance; Family Business; Family Constitution; Entrepreneurship; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CONFLICT OVER LEADERSHIP AND SUCCESSION IN A SUCCESSFUL FAMILY BUSINESS: THE LAKKARD LEATHER COMPANY
Simon Parker, Matthias A. Tietz

Product Number: 9B11M043
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Revision Date: 11/1/2011
Length: 6 pages

The founder of the Lakkard Leather Company was proud of his business, and attributed much of its success to his own leadership style, which did not allow for anyone else’s participation in important decisions. When he was badly injured in a car accident, his son stepped in and kept the business going. Without any intention to take over, the son altered the leadership and operations of the company in the space of a few months, so that by the time the founder returned, the company had changed and his role was significantly reduced. The son, in the meantime, grew to like his interim position and believed he did a better job than his father. Both men became locked in a power struggle; yet the company faced several key decisions that had to be taken in terms of expansion, product offering, and sale opportunities.

Teaching Note: 8B11M043 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Family Succession; Leadership Conflict; Leather; Family Business; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SUCCESSION PLANNING: SURVIVING THE NEXT GENERATION
Ilan Alon, Kimberley Howard

Product Number: 9B09C015
Publication Date: 7/16/2009
Length: 9 pages

In late May 2009, Albert Bohemier, CEO of Survival Systems Limited (SSL), located in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, paced the deck of the training pool at Survival Training Simulation Theatre wondering how best to transition the company to new leadership. During the past five years, attempts at succession planning had been unsuccessful. As the leader of the company for over 25 years, Bohemier was ready to retire, but there were many aspects of succession planning to consider. Bohemier's personal criteria for incoming leadership were threefold: it had to be good for SSL's existing clients, a positive move for the company as a whole and good for the current team.

Teaching Note: 8B09C15 (6 pages)
Industry: Educational Services, Manufacturing
Issues: Succession Planning; Organizational Change; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IREKA CONSTRUCTION BERHAD: A CHINESE FAMILY BUSINESS GOES PUBLIC
Anne Marie Francesco

Product Number: 9B05M005
Publication Date: 1/31/2005
Revision Date: 9/30/2009
Length: 7 pages

Ireka Construction Berhad is a small Chinese family business in Malaysia founded in 1967. The company's primary business was earthmoving for the mining industry, factory sites and housing lots, and has expanded its business into civil and structural engineering projects, building and construction, and hotel and property development. In 1992 it became a public company. This case illustrates the process of going from a private to a public company and discusses change management processes.

Teaching Note: 8B05M05 (5 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Strategic Change; Change Management; Environmental Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 23:
The Legal Environment: Business Law and Government Regulation

NEW YORK BAKERY (A)
David Loree, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10C023A
Publication Date: 8/19/2010
Revision Date: 9/15/2010
Length: 5 pages

A technical consultant is travelling to New York Bakery, an eastern U.S. confectionery company that is under bankruptcy protection. The consultant's task is to assess New York Bakery's readiness for the installation of a new payroll system, which will help it move through the bankruptcy process. By his first week on the job, the consultant realizes that his task is greater than he imagined. In trying to help the organization prepare for the changeover, he faces a series of tough decisions that require his immediate attention. The objective of this case series is to expose students to leadership dilemmas that have to be decided upon in real-time. Collectively, the series of choices the consultant has to make will determine whether or not the project stays on track or is derailed. The series consists of cases A to J, product numbers 9B10C023A to 9B10C023J.

Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Crisis Management; Bankruptcy; Operations Management; Leadership
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FARMING PHARMACEUTICALS: VENTRIA BIOSCIENCE AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER PLANT-MADE MEDICINES
Anne T. Lawrence

Product Number: 9B09M011
Publication Date: 2/19/2009
Length: 11 pages

How can a biotechnology start-up navigate a complex regulatory and stakeholder terrain to bring to market an innovative product with potentially significant public health benefits? This case focuses on the challenges facing Ventria Bioscience, a small biotechnology firm based in California. The company had developed an innovative technology for "growing" medical proteins useful in the treatment of childhood diarrhea in genetically modified rice. The company's efforts to obtain regulatory approval in California to commercialize its invention met with a firestorm of opposition from a wide range of stakeholders, including environmentalists, food safety activists, consumer advocates and rice farmers. The case presents the hurdles faced by Ventria as it has attempted to commercialize its invention in the context of the broader debate over the ethics of plant-based medicines. This case is suitable for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate course in entrepreneurship, small business, the management of technology or biotechnology. In such a course, it is best positioned in a discussion of the regulatory environment and stakeholder relations. Alternatively, the case may be used in a segment on technology or stakeholder relationships in a course in business and society.

Teaching Note: 8B09M11 (10 pages)
Issues: Genetically Modified Crops; Stakeholders; Biotechnology; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TIME WARNER INC. AND THE ORC PATENTS
Paul W. Beamish, John Adamson

Product Number: 9B01M059
Publication Date: 1/29/2002
Revision Date: 8/28/2009
Length: 16 pages

Optical Recording Corporation (ORC) secured the rights to a technology known as digital optical audio recording. During the time it took to negotiate the final transfer of the technology ownership, it was rumored that some major electronics manufacturers were developing compact disc (CD) players that recorded digital optical audio signals. A patent lawyer advised ORC that the compact disc players and compact discs recently released by these companies might be infringing the claims of ORC's newly acquired patents. Based on this information, the company proceeded to successfully negotiate licensing agreements with the two largest CD manufacturers, Sony of Japan, and Philips of the Netherlands The third largest manufacturer, WEA Manufacturing, a subsidiary of Time Warner Inc., maintained a position of non-infringement and invalid patents. With the U.S. patent expiry date looming, ORC decided to sue Time Warner for patent infringement. When the defense counsel presented testimony that questioned the integrity of the licensing agreement, ORC's president realized that the entire licensing program was in jeopardy and must decide whether he should accept a settlement or proceed with the lawsuit.

Teaching Note: 8B01M59 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Business Law; Intellectual Capital; Licensing; Patents
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA