Ivey Publishing

International Marketing

Baack, D.W.; Harris, E.G.; Baack, D. (United States, Sage Publications, 2013)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introduction to International Marketing

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ABERCROMBIE AND FITCH
Cameron Mahi, David Anderson, Gracie Boelsems, John Garrison

Product Number: 9B12A033
Publication Date: 11/28/2012
Revision Date: 11/6/2012
Length: 15 pages

With roots in sporting and excursion goods, Abercrombie and Fitch Co. (A&F Co.) has grown into one of the most well-known men and women’s retail clothing brands by 2012. From the beginning, A&F has "stuck to (its) knitting by not trying to be all things to all people” and adopted the philosophy of creating a unique brand experience throughout each of its subsidiary brands. The company’s CEO was faced with the decision to focus attention on expanding direct-to-consumer operations and international brick and mortar stores, while closing stores domestically. The brand saw growth in sales in recent years but, in 2011, saw a drop in shares after missing Wall Street’s projected estimates. A&F Co. was in an interesting position — the company had to decide where to focus its brand and which market segment it would cater toward.

You might also like: Abercrombie & #Fitchthehomeless, Mountain Dew: The Most Racist Soft-drink Commercial in History?, Domino’s Pizza

Teaching Note: 8B12A033 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail marketing; distribution channel; strategic management; international expansion; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GREENPEACE'S UNFRIEND COAL CAMPAIGN AND FACEBOOK
Michael Sider, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12M011
Publication Date: 2/10/2012
Revision Date: 10/28/2013
Length: 10 pages

Facebook’s director of policy communications was faced with a situation caused by a YouTube video posted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) Greenpeace. This video publicly critiqued the environmental sustainability of Facebook’s decision to build a new data centre, its main objection being that the new facility would be connected to a local utility provider that supplied electricity mainly from the burning of coal, one of the largest sources of global warming. This video was only the latest of a series of actions, commenced by Greenpeace eight months earlier, immediately following Facebook’s decision to build the new facility. Greenpeace had dubbed these actions the “Unfriend Coal Campaign,” which now had 500,000 followers and had generated numerous media stories. Greenpeace’s goal was to pressure Facebook into adopting cleaner energy policies by leveraging Facebook’s own social media against the company. As Facebook had no plans to stop building the facility, its director needed to figure out the best course of action to take in response to the mounting pressure from Greenpeace, in order to alleviate the increasingly negative attention from media and consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B12M011 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Ethical Issues; Social Media; Facilities Planning; Non-governmental Organizations; Communications; Corporate Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA
Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Country Selection and Entry Strategies

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M099
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 14 pages

This is the third case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M098 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. This case describes some of the first steps of doing business internationally in the West. Lacking international experience, the entrepreneur seeks to minimize risk by entering into a strategic alliance with renowned fashion designers. They systematically help her to introduce her brand to the international market, albeit on a limited scale. After the initial success, she begins to plan a more structured approach towards internationalization. She decides to commission a thorough study of France, Spain and Turkey, as they are historically familiar with Arabic jewellery designs. Accordingly, the case identifies specific information about the three countries so that students can compare them in order to reach the best decision about structured international expansion.


Teaching Note: 8B13M099 (23 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization;global strategy; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONERGY: DEVELOPING A SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP START-UP BRAND
Saikat Banerjee, Amit Aneja

Product Number: 9B13A045
Publication Date: 1/14/2014
Revision Date: 1/10/2014
Length: 14 pages

ONergy, a for-profit social enterprise in the renewable-energy-based products industry is poised to scale up its operations — namely, providing electricity to the underserved, bottom-of-pyramid market in India. Creating a brand in this market has proved difficult, as competition comprises many large and small players. However, given the government’s support of renewable-energy-based products, the company expects substantial and continuous growth and aims to carve out a prominent position in this up-and-coming market. ONergy views investment in brand building as a way to ensure better acceptance by consumers and it is exploring innovative branding strategies that may be adopted by start-up social enterprises to create unique brands in a strategically profitable way. The key question now facing ONergy’s founder is how to maintain brand-building momentum and take the brand to the next level.

Teaching Note: 8B13A045 (7 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Start-up branding; social enterprise; brand development; brand execution; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ORLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT: LANDING INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE BUSINESS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser, Jennifer Dugosh

Product Number: 9B13M070
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
Revision Date: 2/5/2014
Length: 12 pages

Each year, Orlando International Airport serviced more than 35 million passengers. Many were attracted to Orlando, Florida, for tourism, vacations and fun, as the area was home to some of the most popular theme parks in the United States. Others travelled to Orlando on business, as the area had attracted international companies, and domestic companies had a growing presence in other countries. The airport needed to continue to attract new airlines and to expand its services to new regions and countries. Local business people collected information on the growth of travel between Orlando and other regions, underserved markets, and time and cost savings. The challenge includes how to use the data to decide on which countries and industries to focus on to attract new business.

Teaching Note: 8B13M070 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Market selection; international marketing; operational strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Global Trade and Integration

EADS/AIRBUS: VISION 2020
Rosi Ji, Thorsten Knauer, Momo Schäfer, Friedrich Sommer, Jil Wehlmann

Product Number: 9B14M028
Publication Date: 5/6/2014
Revision Date: 5/2/2014
Length: 19 pages

EADS N.V. (EADS), Europe’s leading aerospace and defence company, is reviewing its strategic positioning. EADS had planned to merge with a British company to form the world’s largest aerospace company, but the merger failed mainly due to resistance from government shareholders. As a result, the firm cannot achieve its major strategic goals that were tied to the merger. In the highly competitive aerospace industry and despite also facing production issues and a corruption investigation, the firm’s management must revise both its short-term goals and future action plan.

Teaching Note: 8B14M028 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Aerospace; defence; portfolio decisions; product-market decisions; corruption; Europe
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ING AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL INTEGRATION (B)
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B08M027
Publication Date: 4/1/2008
Length: 3 pages

Global financial markets had changed dramatically in the decade following the ING (A) case, product # 9A99M022. This (B) case points to the nature of these changes, creating an opportunity for students to discuss them. Meanwhile, ING had also altered its global strategy, eliminating its attempts to create a global investment bank, and focusing its activities on specific financial sectors, each of which reported directly to head office. This new structure enabled ING head office to maintain closer control over its numerous local institutions. Students can analyze alternative potential strategies for ING in the context of the major financial changes. The (B) case presents summaries of: the 2007-08 global financial crisis; the attempts, like Basel II, to establish global reserve requirements; the economic prospects of the European Union and emerging markets; and ING Direct's success in e-banking.

Teaching Note: 8B08M27 (2 pages)
Issues: Financial Institutions; Globalization; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 4:
Markets and Segmentation in an International Context

ISRAELI WINES IN CHINA: REACHING FOR NEW HEIGHTS
Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B14M006
Publication Date: 5/5/2014
Revision Date: 2/23/2015
Length: 21 pages

In 2012, Golan Heights Wines wanted to take advantage of the Chinese market. In recent years, China had demonstrated incredible growth in the wine market. Consumers’ growing interest in wine products had made wineries and vineyards like Golan Heights hungry for entry. The CEO of Golan Heights Winery had gone to China with her products in 2009. She had chosen distributorships as the mode of entry because of their expertise and experience in the Chinese market, something she did not possess. Since she had entered the market, however, she had learned of the seemingly disappointing demand for Israeli wines. Sales were rather limited given the size of the market. Most Chinese consumers who sought imported wines wanted them from Europe, particularly France. Additionally, vendors and distributors did a poor job of pushing Israel products. The CEO needed to devise and execute a series of strategies to better take advantage of the impressive Chinese market, establish a brand for Golan Heights Wines and create a platform for future growth.

Teaching Note: 8B14M006 (11 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Export strategy; market entry; market selection; Israel; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SPENCER'S RETAIL LIMITED: REPOSITIONING IN A CHANGING RETAIL ENVIRONMENT
Tridib Mazumdar, Mohua Banerjee

Product Number: 9B14A001
Publication Date: 3/26/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 20 pages

To target the expanding segment of upwardly mobile and upper-income Indians, a pre-eminent organized retailer in India decided to introduce Western-style hyperstores with high-end merchandising. The initial reactions of shoppers were positive, but soon the novelty wore off and store traffic declined. To counter the negative consumer responses, the retailer undertook a year-long test of a new repositioning strategy in its signature hyperstore in a large urban centre. The key challenge was to increase the store’s traffic and profitability without jeopardizing its distinctive and high-quality upscale image. The case provides the test results, which include consumer reactions as well as impacts on store traffic and profit margins.

Teaching Note: 8B14A001 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail management; emerging market; store positioning; store profitability; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BONAZZI INDO JOINT VENTURE: CULTURE CLASH OR PURE ECONOMICS?
Naresh Warrier, Gita Bajaj

Product Number: 9B13M105
Publication Date: 12/16/2013
Revision Date: 12/11/2013
Length: 8 pages

Owing to the rapidly growing automotive market, international joint venture activity in the auto-components sector has been increasing in India, both in terms of frequency and strategic importance.

Bonazzi Indo Fasteners Limited, a joint venture between the Turin-based Bonazzi Group and the Mumbai-based Indo Group, was set up to manufacture automotive fasteners, primarily for global original equipment manufacturers. There is a confrontational relationship between the two joint venture partners, and the chief executive officer has been unable to broker peace between them.


Teaching Note: 8B13M105 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural negotiation; joint ventures; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



BESTSELLER — FACING A NEW COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE IN CHINA
Michael W. Hansen, Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen

Product Number: 9B11M054
Publication Date: 8/29/2011
Length: 20 pages

In the fall of 1996, Bestseller became one of the first international fashion companies to enter the Chinese retail market. Earlier that year, Allan Warburg and Dan Friis had made contact with the CEO of Bestseller A/S, Troels Holch Povlsen, regarding the prospect of selling Bestseller brands in China, where they felt there were many business opportunities. Holch Povlsen found himself convinced by the two entrepreneurs’ enthusiasm for the Chinese market.

They quickly proved that they had been right about China. A decade after the first store opened, Bestseller China had almost 2,000 stores, and accounted for more than one-third of the total turnover of Bestseller A/S. The secret to Bestseller China’s extraordinary success was its ability to sell price-competitive European designs with a Chinese touch, which was achieved by locating all production in China and modifying Bestseller A/S’s designs to suit the size and tastes of Chinese middle-class consumers. With a 10-year headstart over potential competitors, Bestseller China had by the end of 2007 managed to establish a strong presence in China. However, high economic growth and the growing middle class were making the Chinese market highly attractive for other companies. Although global giants, such as Zara and H&M, were devoting big chunks of their budgets to entering China and capturing market share, these aggressive new entrants were not Bestseller China’s biggest concern. In fact, the competition from local companies was seen as the real threat.


Teaching Note: 8B11M054 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Franchising; Marketing Management; Global Strategy; Fashion; Clothing; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
International Positioning

SODASTREAM TAKES ON COKE AND PEPSI
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B14M038
Publication Date: 4/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/24/2014
Length: 11 pages

SodaStream International Limited is an Israel-based company that pioneered the home carbonation market. It sells soda makers that enable the consumer to prepare at home sparkling water or a variety of flavoured carbonated beverages. After its initial public offering in 2010, its chief executive officer sought to aggressively grow the company and set a $1 billion revenue target (from 2012 revenues of $436.32 million) by principally focusing on the U.S. market, the largest in the world for non-carbonated beverages. In addition to going up against global beverage behemoths, Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo — whose advertising budgets alone are five to eight times SodaStream’s revenues — SodaStream faces new competitors in Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Primo Water Corporation, who pose a direct challenge to its ambitious goal.

Teaching Note: 8B14M038 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: business model; disruptive innovation; beverages; Israel; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



YAMATO TRANSPORT CO. LTD.: TA-Q-BIN
H. Brian Hwarng, Motoka Mouri

Product Number: 9B13D021
Publication Date: 2/28/2014
Revision Date: 2/28/2014
Length: 18 pages

Since 1976, Yamato had enjoyed steady growth in the Japanese domestic parcel delivery market. Yamato had maintained its leading position in Japan through its highly acclaimed TA-Q-BIN service. However, with changing demographics and market conditions, the business landscape had been changing. Overdependence on the domestic delivery business limited the overall growth of Yamato. Furthermore, the growth of the TA-Q-BIN business in Japan was limited by the stagnant growth of Japan’s economy. Makoto Kigawa, president and then chairman of Yamato Transport, had been relentlessly pursuing business restructuring as well as promoting productivity improvements. His goal was to increase the share of the delivery business related to overseas markets from four to twenty per cent of total revenue by the time of Yamato’s centennial celebrations in 2019. How could he successfully implement the TA-Q-BIN service system in overseas markets such as Taiwan, Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Malaysia?

Teaching Note: 8B13D021 (12 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Express delivery; door-to-door services; global operations; Japan
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LOUIS VUITTON IN JAPAN
Justin Paul, Charlotte Feroul

Product Number: 9B10M067
Publication Date: 10/19/2010
Revision Date: 2/22/2017
Length: 20 pages

This case deals with the opportunities and challenges of Louis Vuitton, the leading European luxury-sector multinational firm, in Japan, taking into account the unique features of brand management and integrating culture and consumer behaviour in Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been Louis Vuitton’s most profitable market, but the global economic crisis has presented challenges.

Facing a weak economy and a shift in consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has been adapting its unique strategy in the Japanese market. The days of relying on a logo and a high price seem to be gone, as there is more interest in craftsmanship and value for money. To promote sales, the company has had to launch less expensive collections made with cheaper materials. The brand has also been opening stores in smaller cities, where the lure of the logo still works.

Over the years, Japanese consumers have demonstrated fascination with and passion for the iconic brand. What have been the keys to Louis Vuitton’s successful business model in the Japanese market?


Teaching Note: 8B10M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Marketing; Strategic Management; Brand Management; Luxury Goods; Financial Crisis; Japan; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Market Research in the International Environment

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: EXPAND LOCALLY OR INTERNATIONALLY?
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M098
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/27/2014
Length: 7 pages

This is the second case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M099 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. In this case, the entrepreneur realizes the importance of having a clear organizational structure with different departments and a clear chain of authority. As a result, she hires her daughter as the managing director to take on the responsibility of developing a mission, vision and explicit organizational structure. This restructuring allows the company to grow further, which leads the entrepreneur to consider her opportunities in the international market.


Teaching Note: 8B13M098 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; institutionalization; alliances; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EVOE SPRING SPA: A POSITIONING DILEMMA
Ashita Aggarwal, Renuka Kamath, Sunil Rao

Product Number: 9B13A051
Publication Date: 1/13/2014
Revision Date: 2/27/2014
Length: 16 pages

The co-founders of Evoe Spring Spa need to decide on the positioning of their business in the nascent Indian spa market. Indian consumers perceive spas as an expensive indulgence for the rich, and some spa services are seen as socially and culturally unacceptable. As a result, the co-founders need to build this category by changing consumer attitudes toward spa services. To identify the target segment and the best positioning for Evoe, the co-founders study the market and their competitors and conduct qualitative consumer research. In the end, they must choose from three viable positioning concepts.

Teaching Note: 8B13A051 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Positioning; segmentation; targeting; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



L’OREAL S.A.: ROLLING OUT THE GLOBAL DIVERSITY STRATEGY
Cara C. Maurer, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10C026
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Revision Date: 11/7/2011
Length: 14 pages

L’Oreal S.A. is in the process of implementing a global diversity strategy. The firm's Europe diversity director is working with various country units to roll out the strategy. The director faces obstacles such as cultural differences between countries and, generally, low awareness of the benefits a diversity strategy can bring.

Teaching Note: 8B10C026 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Behaviour; Communications; Cosmetics; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
International Product and Brand Marketing

BURBERRY
June Cotte, Marta Jarosinski

Product Number: 9B14A014
Publication Date: 4/28/2014
Revision Date: 4/28/2014
Length: 16 pages

In 2006, Burberry appointed a new chief executive officer (CEO) with many years of experience in senior positions in the fashion and luxury industries. Though Burberry had enjoyed continued year over year growth, the sales growth was not on par with the growth seen within the personal luxury industry. Big changes within Burberry were expected to come as the new CEO took the reins in July 2006. What were the transformations and changes that Burberry would need to make in order to successfully adapt to the dynamic and innovative global business environment of the luxury industry?

Teaching Note: 8B14A014 (11 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Luxury; fashion; strategy; United Kingdom; global
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BUSINESS SYSTEMS GROUP AND THE TRIATHLON SPONSORSHIP QUESTION
Michael Goldman, Jennifer Lindsey-Renton

Product Number: 9B13A052
Publication Date: 4/28/2014
Revision Date: 4/24/2014
Length: 13 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - 2014 Emerald/AABS Case Study Competition. In December 2012, the CEO of the professional services company Business Systems Group (BSG) called his management team together to evaluate the firm’s continued sponsorship of the BSG Triathlon Series. The previous five years of the sponsorship were considered a worthwhile investment by the business, although the relationship with Triathlon South Africa (TSA) was becoming increasingly strained. The case charts the growth of BSG’s business in South Africa and the United Kingdom, as well as the evolution of the sponsorship and relationship with TSA. The decisions facing BSG were whether to renew the sponsorship and build towards the Rio Olympics in 2016, continue with the BSG Triathlon Series without TSA sanction or exit the firm’s involvement in the sport.

Teaching Note: 8B13A052 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Sport marketing; sponsorship objectives; relationship quality; renewal; exit; South Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELIE SAAB: GROWTH OF A GLOBAL LUXURY BRAND
Nadia Shuayto, Hussam Kayyal

Product Number: 9B12A023
Publication Date: 7/26/2012
Revision Date: 5/17/2013
Length: 17 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case won the MENA Business Cases, 2011 EFMD Case Writing Competition. In 1982, Saab opened his first atelier in Beirut and began designing luxurious evening gowns and wedding dresses, his talent for design fuelling his career throughout the 1980s. In the 1990s, Saab continued to expand his business by moving to a larger atelier in Beirut and organizing exclusive fashion shows in Europe. In 2000, he opened a salon and showroom in Paris to increase his cosmopolitan and international clientele; a flagship store in Paris opened in March 2007. In June 2010, Elie Saab (ES) opened its first flagship store in the Gulf region in Dubai’s prestigious Dubai Mall. This reinforced the brand’s presence in the United Arab Emirates, making its products more accessible to the region’s local and international shoppers. The store showcased day- and evening-wear dresses, shoes, bags, and accessories from the latest ready-to-wear collections. In July 2008, ES opened its first U.K. boutique at Harrods. The company planned to increase its worldwide retail presence through opening new stores in major cities around the world, including in the United States and Asia.

While the company was witnessing impressive growth, management was dealing with the challenge of selecting the right partners, identifying new markets with the greatest growth potential and, most importantly, protecting the brand from dilution. From the start, its goal was to “attract, select and maintain customers who place significance on high-end, one-of-a-kind designs made from the finest fabrics and materials.” The case covers the challenges and opportunities of the company as it expands internationally.


Teaching Note: 8B12A023 (10 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Haute Couture; Luxury Fashion Industry; Global Strategy; International Market Entry; Marketing; Management; Lebanon
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FRANZ COLLECTION, INC.: THE ROAD FROM SUBCONTRACTING TO BRAND MARKETING
Shih-Fen Chen, Lien-Ti Bei

Product Number: 9B10M030
Publication Date: 5/28/2010
Revision Date: 7/8/2014
Length: 21 pages

The case describes the three-stage transformation of a Taiwanese company - from an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of small gifts for Western European customers, to an original design manufacturer (ODM) providing design and production of home decor and gifts to customers in Europe and the United States, to an own brand manufacturing (OBM) company launching its brand of porcelain tableware targeted at the global market. The story of Franz Collection is a story of product outsourcing and international cooperation, where OEM subcontractors in Asia have tried to set up their own marketing channels and brand names to bypass their Western clients and appeal directly to consumers. This case describes the managerial dilemmas in establishing a global brand faced by manufacturers in Taiwan and the neighbouring countries.

Teaching Note: 8B10M030 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Inter-firm Cooperation; Global Branding; MNEs From Emerging Markets; Subcontract Manufacture; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



"HIPS FEEL GOOD" - DOVE'S CAMPAIGN FOR REAL BEAUTY
Thomas Gey, Nick Nugent, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A010
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 16 pages

Dove is one of Unilever's better-known personal care brands. It has significant top-of-mind awareness among women in many countries. In an attempt to increase sales volume by 80 per cent, Unilever re-launched Dove in 2004. The campaign asks the question What is real beauty? and attempts to redefine it in ways that challenge commonly portrayed stereotypes. This case examines the re-launch of Dove, Unilever's well-known international personal care brand, and the marketing issues behind its phenomenal success. It also raises questions about how to maintain the brand's momentum as the next phase unfolds. In 2007, Dove products are still well thought of by consumers and the campaign has attracted imitators, including brands outside the cosmetics and beauty care sector.

Teaching Note: 8B07A10 (17 pages)
Issues: Ethical Issues; Marketing Communication; Marketing Channels; International Marketing; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
International Product Standardization and Adaptation

BAYER IN INDIA: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPROPRIATION?
Peter M. Bican, Quynh Nhu Truong

Product Number: 9B13M134
Publication Date: 3/28/2014
Revision Date: 3/28/2014
Length: 16 pages

Bayer Group needed to reassess its strategies regarding intellectual property, as well as its emphasis on research and development. The Indian government had ruled against Bayer by granting a compulsory licence to a local generic drug manufacturer that allowed them to distribute a copy of Bayer’s blockbuster cancer drug at a fraction of the original price. This ruling demonstrated that pharmaceutical innovation could not be effectively protected by conventional intellectual property rights in emerging markets. As a result, the core of the pharmaceutical industry’s business model was called into question: If ideas and inventions could not be protected, was the there any incentive for firms to innovate? Would this victory for generic drug manufacturers trigger similar rulings elsewhere? Would the prevailing patent-centric IP strategies need to be adapted to emerging markets? Or would innovator companies finally have to withdraw from markets with weak IP protection?

Teaching Note: 8B13M134 (13 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Intellectual property; innovation; patent strategy; emerging markets; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



APPLE V. SAMSUNG: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND THE SMARTPHONE PATENT WARS
Gloria Barczak, Susan Montgomery, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B13A009
Publication Date: 4/23/2013
Revision Date: 4/30/2013
Length: 20 pages

In 2012, Apple, Inc. won the largest patent infringement case in history against Samsung Electronics for Samsung’s willful copying of Apple’s iPhone and iPad. Samsung, which recently overtook Apple as the leading smartphone maker, must now devise a strategy to address the court verdict and its potential impact on new product development.

Teaching Note: 8B13A009 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intellectual Property; Legal System; Innovation; Patents; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



7-ELEVEN IN TAIWAN: ADAPTATION OF CONVENIENCE STORES TO NEW MARKET ENVIRONMENTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Aihwa Chang

Product Number: 9B12A011
Publication Date: 3/16/2012
Revision Date: 3/16/2012
Length: 24 pages

This case shows the expansion of 7-Eleven to Taiwan and the adaptation of the store format by its local franchisee to the new market environment. The core issue in this case is the balance between standardization and localization in business-format franchising across national borders. Despite keeping the store logo and convenience concept that was well established in the United States, the local franchisee of 7-Eleven in Taiwan re-formatted almost all aspects of the store chain, including its positioning, location, layout, and product offerings. In addition, 7-Eleven in Taiwan introduced a wide variety of new services for its customers, such as e-commerce (train or movie tickets), e-payment, mobile communications, pickup/delivery, and taxi services. The local franchisee, President Chain Store Corp. (PCSC), seemed to have struck the right balance between standardization and localization that allowed it to use service differentiation to gain competitive advantages over its rivals. In about three decades, it grew from zero to nearly 5,000 stores in Taiwan with over 50 per cent of the market, while expanding its reach to China and Thailand.

Teaching Note: 8B12A011 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Service Standardization; Localization Across Borders; Service Differentiation; Service Marketing; International Franchising; Taiwan; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONLINE PIRACY: JAYWALKING OR THEFT?
Alex Beamish, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B09C018
Publication Date: 9/18/2009
Revision Date: 3/24/2010
Length: 8 pages

In September 2009, Brian Lee purchased a computer game developed by a major company and, like other customers, he was experiencing difficulty running it. The source of the problems was a highly restrictive system of digital rights management (DRM), which, while more or less universally disliked, was causing serious technical problems for a minority of users. Lee began to share his experience on the company's message board and was engaging in a debate about online piracy with a company representative. He was curious about piracy in the file-sharing age and wondered why it would be wrong to download a pirated version of the game with the DRM circumvented. The case deals with an issue which resonates with students. Although the context is simple, the problem is complex, thus giving instructors wide latitude on how to teach the case. It is suitable for modules or courses focused on ethics, service operations, intellectual property rights and information technology.

Teaching Note: 8B09C18 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Service Recovery; Intellectual Property; Internet; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
International Pricing

INDIGO BOOKS AND MUSIC INC.
Dante Pirouz, Kelly Huang (Arman)

Product Number: 9B14A008
Publication Date: 3/13/2014
Revision Date: 3/13/2014
Length: 8 pages

Since 1996, Indigo Books and Music had grown to become essentially a book retail monopoly in Canada. But the global recession had hit the company hard, and the chief executive officer (CEO) was focused on creating innovation at every level of the national operation. The hope was that Indigo would eventually be able to compete internationally with giants such as Amazon.com and Barnes & Nobles. How to stabilize the company's financials while at the same time creating and promoting creative product lines that customers would crave was the critical question that the CEO had to answer if her company was to thrive in the future.

Teaching Note: 8B14A008 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retailing; finance; books; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DIVERSEY IN INDIA: THE GROWTH CHALLENGES AND OPTIONS
Sandeep Goyal, Amit Kapoor

Product Number: 9B13M115
Publication Date: 1/10/2014
Revision Date: 1/8/2014
Length: 12 pages

Diversey, a leading global brand in the business-to-business cleaning industry, had entered the Indian market positioned as a total cleaning solution provider to institutional customers. It differentiated itself from the competition with its end-to-end solutions, superior products and service levels, research and development capabilities and value-based pricing. While it had some success in India, it felt that there was a huge untapped opportunity for growth. However, a developing country like India posed several challenges due to its social and cultural differences (e.g., local unorganized competition, customer price sensitivity, complex distribution channels, etc.) versus developed countries. The case provides an opportunity for students to apply a number of conceptual tools (i.e. Porter’s 5 forces analysis, 4C analysis, SWOT analysis, value- chain analysis and the stakeholder power/interest matrix) to analyze the current strategy and identify the best alternatives for Diversey to move forward with its growth objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B13M115 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Business models; industry transformation; cleaning industry; market building strategy; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PRICING TELECOM LICENCES IN INDIA
Srabanti Mukherjee, Debdatta Pal

Product Number: 9B12A065
Publication Date: 2/20/2013
Revision Date: 2/20/2013
Length: 15 pages

On February 2, 2012, the Supreme Court of India cancelled all 122 second-generation (2G) telecom licences issued on or after January 10, 2008 by the Department of Telecommunication (DoT). This judgment, along with the announcement of the National Telecom Policy-2012, forced the DoT to rethink the issue of pricing spectrum, which was earlier bundled with 2G licences. First, was re-auctioning required? If so, what should be the minimum reserve price? Should DoT follow a uniform pricing strategy for all the incumbents, including those whose licences were cancelled? How could it strike a balance between investor apathy and the government’s objective of increasing rural tele-density, given the possibility of a tariff hike after the refarming of spectrum?

Teaching Note: 8B12A065 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Auctions; natural resource pricing; oligopoly pricing; spectrum allocation; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 10:
International Finance and Pricing Implications

SOLARCITY CORPORATION: CHALLENGES IN THE SOLAR ENERGY VALUE CHAIN
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B14M059
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 5/5/2014
Length: 13 pages

SolarCity Corporation competed in the downstream segment of the U.S. solar energy industry. The company installed solar panels for residential and commercial customers, using a decentralized (off-the-grid) power generation and transmission model to compete with utility companies that used a centralized (grid-based) model. Solar energy was a renewable source (unlike fossil-based energy sources) and therefore scored highly on both environmental and sustainability factors. To overcome the high switching costs to customers, SolarCity marketed solar energy using a financing model in which the company owned the assets and the customer merely paid a monthly fee for the energy used. As a new player in a nascent industry, SolarCity had never been profitable. SolarCity’s co-founder and chief executive officer had to develop a plan to make the company profitable despite the fact that utility companies were fighting back politically and the government was set to reduce tax subsidies for solar assets in the near future.

Teaching Note: 8B14M059 (10 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Solar energy; business model; disruptive innovation; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VALJIBHAI STONES
Debashis Sanyal, Smita Mazumdar

Product Number: 9B14N009
Publication Date: 4/17/2014
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

Valjibhai Stones, a supplier of quality stone chips in India, has been approached by a multinational company that needs a reliable supplier of quality stone chips for the next eight years. Accepting the order would require a capacity expansion to produce high-quality aggregate solely for the multinational company and at the cost of foregoing all of its existing business. If the offer is accepted, the company would earn substantial revenue for eight years, but would then need to seek fresh business in a highly competitive market.

Teaching Note: 8B14N009 (14 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Strategic cost management; cost of capital; investment decision; return on investment; economic value added; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CAPITAL BUDGETING MANAGEMENT OF BHARTI AIRTEL - THE PROFITABILITY IMPACT
Sandeep Goel

Product Number: 9B14N006
Publication Date: 4/11/2014
Revision Date: 4/7/2014
Length: 5 pages

Sound financial management is the most important element in the viability of any business undertaking, and capital investment decisions are the foundation stone of this process. A company can pursue either an internal, organic approach to its financing options or an external, inorganic approach that uses borrowed funds to make acquisitions it hopes will increase its business. This is the route taken by Bharti Airtel Limited, India’s leading telecommunications giant. Beginning in 2010, it has borrowed heavily on the international market to invest in acquisitions of a 3G licence in India, in Zain Africa and in the broadband wireless access branch of Qualcomm Inc. However, due to many causes — including the effects of the global recession on the industry; the highly competitive Indian telecommunications market; restructuring and disorganization in the firm’s top management; and lack of innovation in offering and delivering new services in India — the company has experienced not the growth it expected from its expansion strategy, but a steady decline in profits. How can the management turn this situation around and regain the company’s position as a leader in the telecommunications market in India and globally?

Teaching Note: 8B14N006 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Capital budgeting; profitability; telecom; financial viability; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 11:
International Marketing Channel Management

TESCO'S VIRTUAL STORE: FROM SOUTH KOREA TO THE UNITED KINGDOM
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Alina Nastasoiu

Product Number: 9B14A010
Publication Date: 5/7/2014
Revision Date: 5/14/2014
Length: 12 pages

After the successful launch of their virtual grocery stores in South Korean metro stations, Tesco UK is trying to determine whether the virtual grocery store concept should be launched in their home market. In order to make this decision, Tesco needs to determine the role of the virtual store(s), the location(s) of the store(s) and the product range. At the same time, Tesco needs to compare the Korean and U.K. markets in order to determine whether the virtual store concept is viable.

Teaching Note: 8B14A010 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Online retailing; marketing strategy; Internet marketing; United Kingdom
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ADANI AGRI LOGISTICS LIMITED: BLOCKING THE GRAIN DRAIN
Mohita Gangwar Sharma, K.N. Singh, Sachinder Mohan Sharma, Puneet Mehndiratta

Product Number: 9B14D001
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 11 pages

Adani Agri Logistics Limited (AALL) was established to execute a national project for the bulk handling of food grains through a public-private partnership with the Food Corporation of India. This project involved financing, planning, designing, constructing, operating and maintaining modern infrastructure for the bulk handling, storage and transportation of grains required for the public distribution system. Although a technology-driven supply chain solution was implemented, the benefits of this innovative supply system did not come into full fruition even after four years of operation. AALL soon realized that farmers were reluctant to accept the new storage system because it was a departure from the relationship-based transactions they were used to undertaking with traditional intermediaries. In this way, the company learned that there are cultural subtleties and traditions that must be appreciated and given consideration, along with the economic justifications. How could these traditions be respected and upheld while making way for improvement and progress?

Teaching Note: 8B14D001 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Supply chain strategy; collaboration; national culture; trust; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



EIKON DEVICE INC.: CREATING AN INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY
Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B13M089
Publication Date: 2/14/2014
Revision Date: 2/13/2014
Length: 15 pages

Eikon Device Ltd, a tattoo equipment and supplies firm, has to choose between several alternatives. Their core business is the production of tattoo needles and the power supply that makes tattoo machines operate, selling primarily into the United States and Canada. With increasing international demand however, should they consider establishing a distribution facility abroad? Alternatively, since much of their success is derived from catering to the specific needs of tattoo artists, should Eikon expand its product line for the North American market? At the same time, competition from China has emerged to push Eikon out of its core markets. Eikon management has to prioritize their initiatives.

Teaching Note: 8B13M089 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Foreign competition; tattoo industry; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SCOTTS MIRACLE-GRO: THE SPREADER SOURCING DECISION
John Gray, Michael Leiblein, Shyam Karunakaran

Product Number: 9B08M078
Publication Date: 11/14/2008
Revision Date: 6/22/2009
Length: 11 pages

The Scotts Miracle-Gro company is the world's largest marketer of branded consumer lawn and garden products, with a full range of products for professional horticulture as well. Headquartered in Marysville, Ohio, the company is a market leader in a number of consumer lawn and garden and professional horticultural products. The case describes a series of decisions regarding the ownership and organization of the assets used to manufacture fertilizer spreaders. This case is intended to illustrate the application of and tradeoffs between financial, strategic and operations perspectives in a relatively straightforward manufacturing make-buy decision. The case involves a well-known, easily-described product that most students would assume is made overseas. Sufficient information is provided to roughly estimate the direct financial cost associated with internal (domestic) production, offshore (non-domestic) production and outsourced production. In addition, information is included that may be used to estimate potential transaction costs as well as costs associated with foreign exchange risk.

Teaching Note: 8B08M78 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Human Resources Management; Outsourcing; Globalization; Operations Management; Supply Chain Management; Operations Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 12:
International Distribution: Exporting and Retailing

PUNCH UP IN THE POTASH INDUSTRY (A): AGRIUM INC.
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Amit Jethani

Product Number: 9B14M031A
Publication Date: 4/15/2014
Revision Date: 4/21/2014
Length: 13 pages

Uralkali, the giant Russian potash producer, decided to stop export sales through the Belarusian Potash Company – an export cartel it had formed with Belaruskali. Uralkali planned to increase potash production and export it independently through its own trading company. This move threatened to reduce global potash prices by up to 25 per cent. Immediately, the stock prices of major potash producers around the world plummeted. This set of three cases looks at the potential competitive strategies of three key players in the industry: PotashCorp, the firm with the world's largest potash reserves; Agrium, a firm in the midst of a large potash mine expansion; and BHP Billiton, the world's largest mining company planning huge potash mine development. See B case 9B14M031B and C case 9B14M031C.

Teaching Note: 8B14M031 (14 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Competition; game theory; rivalry; cooperation; Canada; Russia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MARKS AND SPENCER ENTERS CHINA
Jane Menzies, Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh

Product Number: 9B12A036
Publication Date: 2/26/2013
Revision Date: 2/20/2013
Length: 18 pages

Marks and Spencer (M&S) had first ventured into international markets 70 years ago. By 2012, M&S had 337 stores in 41 countries. Although M&S saw itself as a U.K. retailer that exported its products, the company had been attempting to reduce its dependency on the U.K. economic cycle. Its goal was to increase international sales from £800 million to £1.0 billion by 2013/14. By 2020, M&S wanted to be an international, multi-channel retailer. When the company entered the Chinese market in 2008, it faced many difficulties. It had failed to conduct proper market research to understand the Chinese consumer, which had led to many issues. The company had neglected to address the cultural gaps between the United Kingdom and China. It had also taken an approach of standardizing its products, instead of adapting products to the new market. Students must consider the marketing mix policies of product, price, placement and promotion to recommend changes to M&S’s entry into China.

Teaching Note: 8B12A036 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China market entry; culture; emerging markets; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE ESPRESSO LANE TO GLOBAL MARKETS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B12M058
Publication Date: 5/23/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

Founded in Trieste, Italy, Illy marketed a unique blend of coffee drinks in over 140 countries and in more than 50,000 of the world’s best restaurants and coffeehouses. The company wanted to expand the reach of its own franchised coffee bar, Espressamente, through international expansion. Potential markets included Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The managing director of Espressamente knew that global expansion meant prioritizing markets, but where did the greatest potential lie? In addition to market selection, mode of entry was vital and included options such as exporting, franchising, and joint ventures. This case provides a practical example of the challenges faced in international business.

Teaching Note: 8B12M058 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: International Market Selection; Modes of Entry; Franchising; Retailing; International Business; Coffee; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Globally Integrated Marketing Communications

INTEL ASIA-PACIFIC: THE CATCH & WIN CAMPAIGN
Peter C. Bell, John Lyons, Peter Dingle, Ash Supersad

Product Number: 9B13E023
Publication Date: 8/12/2013
Revision Date: 10/28/2014
Length: 9 pages

The head of Data Marketing Analytics and Mobile for Intel Asia-Pacific was reviewing the proposed media plan for the Catch & Win 2.0 campaign. The media purchase needed to be finalized quickly in order to be included in the current quarter’s budget, but he could not help feeling that the proposed spend across the markets and advertising types could be used more effectively. He thought that the key was to use the company’s own experience and data regarding social media engagement within their markets rather than to rely on the generalized industry metrics provided by the contracted media agency, and now he must improve the proposed media plan.

Teaching Note: 8B13E023 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Media Planning; Social Media; Optimization; Budget Allocation; Asia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MOUNTAIN DEW: THE MOST RACIST SOFT-DRINK COMMERCIAL IN HISTORY?
Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B13A021
Publication Date: 7/30/2013
Revision Date: 7/29/2013
Length: 7 pages

PepsiCo faces criticism after releasing a series of online advertisements for Mountain Dew that featured an angry Mountain Dew–drinking goat, a battered white woman on crutches and the goat in a police lineup of all black men. Critics are offended by the advertisement’s portrayal of violence toward women and racial stereotypes. As the public outcry spreads, Mountain Dew’s senior brand manager needs to devise a course of action or risk damage to one of its billion-dollar brands.

You might also like: Abercrombie & #Fitchthehomeless, Abercrombie and Fitch, Domino’s Pizza

Teaching Note: 8B13A021 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Celebrity Partnerships; Racial Stereotypes; Public Perception; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEO BURNETT COMPANY LTD.: VIRTUAL TEAM MANAGEMENT
Joerg Dietz, Fernando Olivera, Elizabeth O'Neil

Product Number: 9B03M052
Publication Date: 11/28/2003
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 16 pages

Leo Burnett Company Ltd. is a global advertising agency. The company is working with one of its largest clients to launch a new line of hair care products into the Canadian and Taiwanese test markets in preparation for a global rollout. Normally, once a brand has been launched, it is customary for the global brand centre to turn over the responsibility for the brand and future campaigns to the local market offices. In this case, however, the brand launch was not successful. Team communications and the team dynamics have broken down in recent months and the relationships are strained. Further complicating matters are a number of client and agency staffing changes that could jeopardize the stability of the team and the agency/client relationship. The global account director must decide whether she should proceed with the expected decision to modify the global team structure to give one of the teams more autonomy, or whether she should maintain greater centralized control over the team. She must recommend how to move forward with the brand and determine what changes in team structure or management are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B03M52 (14 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
International Sales Promotions and Public Relations

THE PEPSI ULTIMATE TASTE CHALLENGE 2012: SOCIAL ENOUGH?
June Cotte, Jawwad Khurshid, Jill Campbell, Miguel Huller, Paul Strachan, Zoe Baldwin

Product Number: 9B12A026
Publication Date: 6/18/2012
Revision Date: 6/18/2012
Length: 6 pages

In April 2012, the director of marketing for Pepsi Beverages Canada assessed the launch plans for the year's version of what had traditionally been called the Pepsi Challenge. Now called the Pepsi Ultimate Taste Challenge, the goals of the campaign were very aggressive and, of course, a Coke versus Pepsi battle was always difficult. The novelty for summer 2012 was the emphasis on social media, and the interaction between social media and the Ultimate Taste Challenge. In addition, the marketing director was targeting the Millenials as a target market segment. These consumers were a notoriously difficult group to market to. The marketing director assessed the proposal he received and needed to make a decision as to whether to approve it, or whether changes were necessary to achieve his market share goals.

Teaching Note: 8B12A026 (5 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Marketing Communication; Marketing Management; Promotion Policy; Social Media; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TROUBLE BREWS AT STARBUCKS
Lauranne Buchanan, Carolyn J. Simmons

Product Number: 9B09A002
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 14 pages

After going public in 1992, Starbucks' strong balance sheet and double-digit growth made it a hot growth stock. The Starbucks vision was coffee culture as community, the Third Place between work and home, where friends shared the experience and exotic language of gourmet coffee. Its growth was fueled by rapid expansion in the number of stores both in the United States and in foreign markets, the addition of drive-through service, its own music label that promoted and sold CDs in stores and other add-on sales, including pastries and sandwiches. In an amazingly short time, Starbucks became a wildly successful global brand. But in 2007, Starbucks' performance slipped; the company reported its first-ever decline in customer visits to U.S. stores, which led to a 50 per cent drop in its share price. In January 2008, the board ousted CEO Jim Donald and brought back Howard Schultz - Starbucks' visionary leader and CEO from 1987 to 2000 and current chairman and chief global strategist - to re-take the helm. Starbucks' growth strategies have been widely reported and analyzed, but rarely with an eye to their impact on the brand. This case offers a compelling example of how non-brand managerial decisions - such as store locations, licensing arrangements and drive-through service - can make sense on financial criteria at one point in time, yet erode brand positioning and equity in the longer term. Examining the growth decisions made in the United States provides a rich context in which to examine both the promise and drawback of further foreign expansion.

Teaching Note: 8B09A02 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Branding; Retailing; Product Design/Development; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
International Personal Selling and Sales Management

ADVANTAGE FOOD & BEVERAGE SALES REPRESENTATIVE
Michael A. Levin, Bruce C. Bailey

Product Number: 9B13A023
Publication Date: 11/7/2013
Revision Date: 11/1/2013
Length: 5 pages

Advantage Food & Beverage (AF&B), a sales and service vending machine company, has added an Avanti kiosk division and hired a sales representative to devote all their time to selling the kiosk service to businesses within a specific geographic market. In the first year of the kiosk operation, AF&B hired and fired three sales representatives while acquiring seven Avanti customers. A management review uncovered issues with the selling process and the lack of presentations to prospective customers. AF&B’s owner pondered the relationship between the personal selling process and AF&B’s current compensation approach for sales representatives. How could AF&B’s compensation approach be changed to meet senior management’s new emphasis on presentations, and how would the various options impact AF&B’s profit and loss statement?

Teaching Note: 8B13A023 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Sales; selling process; United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



CLEARWATER SEAFOODS - B2C IN CHINA
June Cotte, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13A025
Publication Date: 8/29/2013
Revision Date: 8/29/2013
Length: 12 pages

Clearwater Seafoods, a Canadian shellfish enterprise, has four decades of experience in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. It harvests seafood, processes it and markets it in bulk to large restaurant chains worldwide. The company wants to pursue growth by marketing seafood directly to individual consumers (B2C) in China. The transition from B2B to B2C raises three fundamental questions. How can the company develop and deploy a go-to-market business model with Chinese grocery retailers? How can it balance its focus on margins with the Chinese retailers’ focus on revenues? How can Clearwater establish differentiation as a source of competitive advantage in seafood retailing in China?

Teaching Note: 8B13A025 (4 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retailing; consumer marketing; operations; strategy; go-to-market planning; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 16:
International Marketing Planning, Organization, and Control

RANDOM HOUSE: SHIFTING TO E-BOOKS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD
Sarah Bickert, Volker Diestegge, Thorsten Knauer, Katja Möslang, Andrea Schroer, Friedrich Sommer

Product Number: 9B13M083
Publication Date: 9/25/2013
Revision Date: 9/24/2013
Length: 15 pages

The publisher Random House, a fully owned subsidiary of the German family company Bertelsmann SE & Co. KgaA, faces significant changes in its markets and internal structure. While printed books have been the company’s core competence from its earliest years, with the advent of the Internet, customers, especially in the West, are beginning to prefer electronic books. Will printed books be completely replaced by digital ones, or will e-books remain a niche market? How will this development affect production, distribution and marketing? Will Random House be able to compete for authors and sales with such online e-book giants as Amazon? The imminent merger with the U.K. publishing house Penguin also provides an opportunity and incentive to expand Random House’s operations into China as part of the internationalization strategy of the parent company. A post-merger integration plan must be established since the two publishers’ regional presences and product offerings are in part complementary. How can the new Penguin Random House strengthen its position as the world’s biggest and most successful publisher?

Teaching Note: 8B13M083 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Publishing; e-books; internationalization; strategic positioning; Germany; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LAUNCH OF THE SONY PLAYSTATION 3
Gloria Barczak, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A014
Publication Date: 8/3/2007
Revision Date: 6/28/2012
Length: 18 pages

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) was the successor of the acclaimed PlayStation 2 (PS2), recognized as the world's best-selling video game console with more than 100 million units sold. The unprecedented display of enthusiasm for the PS3 suggested that Sony had another winner on its hands. The company projected sales of six million PS3 consoles worldwide between November 2006 and March 2007, a level that the PS2 took almost a year to reach. Sony's initial euphoria was short-lived. By February 2007, more than a third of PS3 consoles remained unsold, while some retailers reported a higher number of returns than sales. Consumers said they felt let down by Sony. The PS3 looked no better than Microsoft's Xbox 360, they complained, even though the Xbox 360 had already been on the market for more than a year, and sold for $200 less than the PS3. Customers also lamented the PS3's lack of interesting games, spotty support for PlayStation 2 games, and uninspiring online capabilities. Meanwhile, Nintendo's inexpensive and quirky Wii console had become all the rage, despite its underpowered processor and comparatively basic graphics. The case examines the characteristics of a successful new product launch, particularly product features, brand loyalty, content availability, third-party support, and adherence to industry standards. The case also considers how radical innovations can be used to win market share from technically superior products focused on incremental innovations. Finally, we use a 4P marketing analysis to compare video game systems offered by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo.

Teaching Note: 8B07A14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Product Design/Development; New Products; Generating Profit from New Technology; Market Strategy; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOYOTA: DRIVING THE MAINSTREAM MARKET TO PURCHASE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Jeff Saperstein, Jennifer Nelson

Product Number: 9B04A003
Publication Date: 1/16/2004
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 23 pages

Toyota is a large, international automobile manufacturer headquartered in Japan, with plans to become the largest worldwide automaker, striving for 15 per cent of global sales. Toyota is committing itself to be the leader of the hybrid-electric automotive industry, and is relying on changes in the industry and customer perceptions to bring its plan to fruition. Toyota's challenge is to develop consumer attitude and purchase intent, from an early adopter, niche market model into universal mainstream acceptance.

Teaching Note: 8B04A03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Product Design/Development; Multinational; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA