Ivey Publishing

International Marketing

Cateora, P.R., Papadopoulos, N., Gilly, M., Graham, J.L., ,3/e (Canada, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2011)
Prepared By Michael J.D. Roberts, Ph.D. Candidate
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
The Scope and Challenge of International Marketing

INTERNATIONALIZATION OF KOYO JEANS FROM HONG KONG
Kevin Au, Bernard Suen, Na Shen, Justine Tang

Product Number: 9B11M053
Publication Date: 9/26/2011
Length: 11 pages

William Cheung owned an apparel wholesaler and a boutique shop that sold his clothing designs in Hong Kong. After attending a fashion exhibition in France, he realized his products were lacking compared to European brands. This experience motivated him to improve his jeans designs, and he soon registered “Koyo” as an independent company. He went on to become the first Hong Kong designer embraced by the French department store Galeries Lafayette. While Cheung had had commendable success, including many franchises in mainland China, he faced challenges related to expansion and funding as Koyo Jeans strove for international success.

Teaching Note: 8B11M053 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Expansion; Brand Management; Franchising; Retail Marketing; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Hong Kong; Ivey/CUHK
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEST BUY INC. - DUAL BRANDING IN CHINA
Niraj Dawar, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B09A016
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Revision Date: 5/11/2010
Length: 17 pages

A month after Best Buy Inc. (Best Buy), the largest retailer of consumer electronics in the United States, acquired Five Star, the third largest retailer of appliances and consumer electronics in China in May 2006, the management of Best Buy is weighing in on a branding option. Should Five Star lose its identity and be marketed as Best Buy? Or should Best Buy retain the Five Star brand and let the two brands compete with each other in the Chinese market? The option has a sense of déjà vu because, when it first stepped out of its home turf in January of 2002 by acquiring Future Shop, the largest consumer electronics retailer in Canada, Best Buy was facing a similar dilemma. The company had decided, at the time, in favour of dual brand strategy. It had worked. There was no evidence of cannibalization, the single largest risk in dual branding. Best Buy and Future Shop had both grown together as independent brands in Canada. But, does dual brand strategy work in the vastly different retail environment of China?

Teaching Note: 8B09A16 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Brand Management; Retailing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOYOTA: DRIVING THE MAINSTREAM MARKET TO PURCHASE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Jeff Saperstein, Jennifer Nelson

Product Number: 9B04A003
Publication Date: 1/16/2004
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 23 pages

Toyota is a large, international automobile manufacturer headquartered in Japan, with plans to become the largest worldwide automaker, striving for 15 per cent of global sales. Toyota is committing itself to be the leader of the hybrid-electric automotive industry, and is relying on changes in the industry and customer perceptions to bring its plan to fruition. Toyota's challenge is to develop consumer attitude and purchase intent, from an early adopter, niche market model into universal mainstream acceptance.

Teaching Note: 8B04A03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Product Design/Development; Multinational; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
The Dynamic Environment of International Trade

ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BARRICK GOLD CORPORATION - TANZANIA
Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B10M020
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 15 pages

This case examines the giant Canadian mining corporation, Barrick Gold Corporation (Barrick), (called Africa Barrick Gold plc since 2009), and the way it engages in sustainable community developments that surround its mining activities in Tanzania. Following recent organized tensions and heightened criticism from local communities, media, international social lobbyists and local not-for-profit organizations (NFOs), Barrick has attempted to deal with the local communities in a responsible manner. At issue for senior management was whether there was much more that it could reasonably do to resolve the tensions.

The case considers: how MNEs seek social license and local legitimacy; the relevance of hybrid institutional infrastructures; the evolving global roles for MNEs and their subsidiaries. The case is appropriate for use in courses in international management, global corporations and society, and international development and sustainable value creation.


Teaching Note: 8B10M20 (17 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Subsidiaries; Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Cross Sector Social Partnership; Government Relations
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



JUST US! COFFEE ROASTERS
Julia Sagebien, Scott Skinner, Monica Weshler

Product Number: 9B06A027
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Length: 22 pages

The founders of Just Us! Coffee Cooperative (Just Us!) are involved in a strategic planning process. The growing demand and acceptance of fair trade products is good news for the industry and opens many opportunities for Just Us!, but there are also risks. Just Us! will likely face increased market competition from major U.S. retail coffee brands and Canadian supermarket brands, pressure on margins as more brands crowd the shelves, and more competition for access to top quality sources of supply. Just Us! will have to make strategic choices and will have to develop a clear and focused marketing plan.

Teaching Note: 8B06A27 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Social Venturing; Fair Trade; Corporate Social Responsibility; Brand Management; Social Entrepreneurship; Co-operatives; International Trade; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Canada in the World: An International Marketing Perspective

SHUTOUT SOLUTIONS
Edward Gamble, Peter W. Moroz, Stewart Thornhill

Product Number: 9B11M079
Publication Date: 10/5/2011
Revision Date: 10/25/2011
Length: 14 pages

After working together on a university business plan, two entrepreneurs worked for three years to develop their venture: Shutout Solutions Inc. Their start-up venture was established in response to an issue familiar to most hockey players: notoriously smelly equipment. While their familiarity with hockey equipment helped them identify a specific problem, subsequent research revealed a much broader issue: the need to clean products made of micro-fibre. Utilizing a technology that addressed the micro-fibre odour issue, they believed they had a five-year opportunity window to develop and profit from the business before it was imitated or superseded. As they considered their options, they realized that they might have to choose to focus their resources on a single product line rather than continue to develop their current portfolio of a detergent, body wash, and spray. They also questioned whether they were using the right channel - gyms and sporting goods stores - to reach customers. The opportunity to pursue bulk institutional sales was also intriguing, though it would require a different sales, pricing, and distribution strategy. Also, they considered how they might respond to an offer to sell the company in its current form.

Teaching Note: 8B11M079 (4 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Entrepreneurial Opportunity; Feasibility Analysis; Growth Strategy; Intellectual Property; Hockey; Hill
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESEARCH IN MOTION: MANAGING EXPLOSIVE GROWTH
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Daina Mazutis

Product Number: 9B08M046
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 19 pages

Research in Motion (RIM) is a high technology firm that is experiencing explosive sales growth. David Yach, chief technology officer for software at RIM, has received notice of an impending meeting with the co-chief executive officer regarding his research and development (R&D) expenditures. Although RIM, makers of the very popular BlackBerry, spent almost $360 million in R&D in 2007, this number was low compared to its largest competitors, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of sales (e.g. Nokia spent $8.2 billion on R&D). This is problematic as it foreshadows the question of whether or not RIM is well positioned to continue to meet expectations, deliver award-winning products and services and maintain its lead in the smartphone market. Furthermore, in the very dynamic mobile telecommunications industry, investment analysts often look to a firm's commitment to R&D as a signal that product sales growth will be sustainable. Just to maintain the status quo, Yach will have to hire 1,400 software engineers in 2008 and is considering a number of alternative paths to managing the expansion. The options include: (1) doing what they are doing now, only more of it, (2) building on their existing and satellite R&D locations, (3) growing through acquisition or (4) going global.

Teaching Note: 8B08M46 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Telecommunication Technology; Change Management; Globalization; Staffing; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CANADIAN AUTO TARIFF DEBATE
James H. Tiessen

Product Number: 9B01M034
Publication Date: 8/9/2001
Revision Date: 12/21/2009
Length: 13 pages

In 1998 it appeared that Japanese auto companies could be forced to pay duty on their non-NAFTA imports into Canada. The U.S. Big Three auto makers (GM, Ford and Chrysler), in contrast did not have to pay such a tariff on their offshore imports such as those made by Ford-owned Jaguar (United Kingdom) and GM's Saab (Sweden). The Japanese and U.S. firms were treated differently because of the 1966 Auto Pact that made all Big Three imports duty-free. However, in the early 1980's, in order to encourage auto investment, the Canadian government granted virtual Auto-Pact status to Japanese firms (Toyota and Honda) that located in Ontario. This eliminated tariffs on the Japan-made models they sold in Canada. Public debate arose during the Free Trade Agreement (1989) and North American Free Trade Agreement (1994) trade negotiations. The U.S., under the Big Three influence, pushed Canada to withdraw the Pact-like benefits it used to attract the Japanese factories. Canada eventually complied with the U.S. demands, while leaving the Pact in place for U.S. automakers. This led the Japanese government to challenge the fairness of the proposed tariff at the World Trade Organization (WTO). While waiting for the WTO process to unfold, the Japanese and U.S. automakers were considering how to respond to the forthcoming judgement.

Teaching Note: 8B01M34 (9 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Negotiation; Tariffs; International Trade; Government and Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Cultural Dynamics of International Markets

ELLEN MOORE (A): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA
Henry W. Lane, Chantell Nicholls, Gail Ellement

Product Number: 9A97G029
Publication Date: 6/3/1998
Revision Date: 2/23/2017
Length: 16 pages

Ellen Moore, a systems consultant, was sent to Korea to manage a project involving a team of North American and Korean consultants representing a joint venture between a major Korean conglomerate and a significant North American information technology company. The Americans were to be involved for the first seven months in order to transfer expertise and knowledge to the South Koreans, who had little experience in this area. Ellen's superior had played an integral part in securing the contract in Korea due to his depth of knowledge on the subject. He chose Ellen to be the key North American project manager because she had significant project management skills and impressive international experience. Upon Ellen's arrival, she discovered that the Korean consultants were far less skilled than she had expected. In addition, Ellen had understood that she and the Korean manager were to be co-managers, but immediately tensions arose regarding who was giving direction to the team, and the scope of the project. Tensions escalated until it was clear that the project was behind schedule and the Koreans were not taking direction from Ellen. The Koreans insisted that Ellen was the problem. Ellen’s superior disagreed; he and Ellen needed to decide how to proceed. The challenge was to balance strategic goals with individual action.

Teaching Note: 8A97G29 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Group Behaviour; Cross-cultural Relations; Women in Management; Team Building; United States; Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A SPEED RACE: BENELLI AND QJ COMPETE IN THE INTERNATIONAL MOTORBIKE ARENA
Francesca Spigarelli, Ilan Alon, William Wei

Product Number: 9B09M097
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Revision Date: 9/30/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the Qianjiang Group (QJ), a large-scale Chinese state-owned group, acquired the Italian company Benelli to expand its business in Western markets beyond Italy. Benelli's brand advantage was intended to provide the core competency for QJ to compete in the global motorbike markets; in addition, Benelli's capabilities and know-how in motorbike and scooter engineering also helped QJ complete its product portfolio. After a successful start, the many cultural differences related to an Italian business model and a Chinese company became problematic. Problems arose in integrating Chinese and Italian cultures and in coping with a completely different way of doing business, and the company was facing stiff competition from Japanese competitors. Despite excellent press and large industrial investments aimed at gaining efficiency and reducing prices, penetration of Western markets was difficult.

Teaching Note: 8B09M97 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Competitiveness; Mergers & Acquisitions; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CORRUPTION: THE INTERNATIONAL EVOLUTION OF NEW MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B09M065
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Many countries have become increasingly concerned with the subject of corruption, and managers today must deal with changes in ethical norms and laws. New laws and international agreements seek to create a worldwide shift towards the reduction of corruption, and so management responsibilities are continually evolving. Both Transparency International and the World Bank provide estimates of the relative pervasiveness of corruption in different countries. Yet this subject is ambiguous and complex, creating significant challenges for managers. Both Volkswagen and Siemens have recently experienced public criticism and legal prosecution over corruption issues, some relating to internal and inter-corporate relations. Some cultures appear to accept corrupt practices as part of normal business-government relations. In China, guanxi is widely seen as a requirement for business success with the establishment of personal relationships that include an ongoing exchange of gifts and personal favours. Some managers may argue that the giving of gifts is acceptable, that bribes to expedite decisions may be necessary, and that only certain types of bribes should be seen as inappropriate corruption. However, this perspective involves the difficulty of drawing a line to guide decisions of corporate employees, and for many managers it is now necessary to implement clear corporate guidelines in regard to what they consider to be corruption. In this context, some managers may decide to avoid investing in certain countries until the culture of corruption has changed.

Teaching Note: 8B09M65 (3 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Business and Society
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
n/a
Chapter 6:
The Political and Environments

GOOGLE IN CHINA (B)
Deborah Compeau, Yulin Fang, Majela Yin

Product Number: 9B10E011
Publication Date: 6/18/2010
Length: 11 pages

This case, a supplement to Google in China (A), details the search engine’s cyber attack from within China, as well as Google’s response.

Teaching Note: 8B10E11 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Management in a Global Environment; Information Systems; Government and Business; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (B)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M011
Publication Date: 2/25/2008
Revision Date: 9/15/2014
Length: 9 pages

This case, which outlines the product recall, is a supplement to Mattel and the Toy Recalls (A).

Teaching Note: 8B08M11 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MALAWI BUSINESS ACTION AGAINST CORRUPTION
Oonagh Fitzgerald, James Ng'ombe

Product Number: 9B07M037
Publication Date: 10/4/2007
Length: 18 pages

The founding executive director of the African Institute for Corporate Citizenship (AICC), felt very tense as he typed the last revisions to the speech he would be giving to a Llongwe merchants' association later in the week. He really enjoyed proudly describing his initiative, "Business Action Against Corruption", and the Business Code of Conduct for Combating Corruption in Malawi, to potential new partners. However, the founding executive director was beginning to feel concerned about its slow pace of adoption. He was particularly worried about how to manage the delicate relationship with the government.

Teaching Note: 8B07M37 (6 pages)
Issues: Negotiation; Ethical Issues; Corporate Responsibility; Globalization; Political Environment; Procurement
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA
Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Developing a Global Vision through Marketing Research

A CRACK IN THE MUG: CAN STARBUCKS MEND IT?
Michael Herriman, Motohiro Wanikawa, Ryoko Ichinose, Shobhana Darak, Yumana Chaivan

Product Number: 9B08A016
Publication Date: 11/28/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 15 pages

After 20 years of rapid expansion, the last six months of 2007 saw Starbucks jolted by a decline in share price of 50 per cent and a decrease in customer visits. Its share price was hovering around $19 to $20. By mid-2008, it had declined to $18. Its fiscal first-quarter profit in 2007 rose by less than two per cent, and in January 2008, it announced the closing of 100 U.S. stores. In July, the number was increased to 600. The case was written to encourage classroom discussion and research into the company policy and marketing practices in order to discover the means for a possible turnaround of the company.

Teaching Note: 8B08A16 (22 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Operations Management; Expansion; Management Decisions; Licensing; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KIDS MARKET CONSULTING
Paul W. Beamish, Stephanie Taylor, Oleksiy Vynogradov

Product Number: 9B04M065
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 8 pages

The founder of Kids Market Consulting, a market research firm dedicated to the kids, tweens and teens segment, was faced with increasing competition and slowing revenue, and was exploring a variety of possibilities for the future strategic direction of the business. In particular, she had to formulate the best plan for protecting the niche market and decide how aggressively to pursue expansion. In addition, there was the existing relationship with her business partner, and Kids Market Consulting was part of his group of marketing firms. Any changes the founder chose had to respect this relationship and she was therefore restricted to a limited number of options. The over-arching corporate objective for the company was to defend the market from larger businesses who were trying to increase their share of the market research industry.

Teaching Note: 8B04M65 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategic Change; Strategy Development; Strategic Planning; Market Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



3M CHILE - HEALTH CARE PRODUCTS (A)
Terry H. Deutscher, Daniel D. Campbell

Product Number: 9A99A004
Publication Date: 5/5/1999
Revision Date: 11/7/2002
Length: 17 pages

Looking for a creative option to promote 3M products to medical professionals, a 3M Chile sales manager developed the idea of a first-aid kit or botiquin that could be used as a promotional gift. Managers at the company's world headquarters had not previously focused on branded first-aid kits. It was the same all over the world, a plain white box with the red cross in front. You just can't brand a first-aid kit! they replied. At the same time, the Chilean managers lacked the resources necessary for adequate market research. Should they go ahead with the botiquin concept anyway? If they did, questions such as channels, packaging, promotion, and pricing, would still have to be addressed. (A sequel to this case is available, titled 3M Chile - Health Care Products (B), case 9A99A005.)

Teaching Note: 8A99A04 (11 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: International Marketing; Management in a Global Environment; Marketing Channels; Marketing Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Groups and Regions

SHER-WOOD HOCKEY STICKS: GLOBAL SOURCING
Paul W. Beamish, Megan (Min) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12M003
Publication Date: 2/13/2012
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

In early 2011, the senior executives of the venerable Canadian hockey stick manufacturer Sher-Wood Hockey were considering whether to move the remainder of the company’s high-end composite hockey and goalie stick production to its suppliers in China. Sher-Wood had been losing market share as retail prices continued to fall. Would outsourcing the production of the iconic, Canadian-made hockey sticks to China help Sher-Wood to boost demand significantly? Was there any other choice?

Teaching Note: 8B12M003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Insourcing; Nearshoring; R&D Interface; Labour Costs; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GROWING THE MAMAS & PAPAS BRAND
Michael Goldman, Jennifer Lindsey-Renton

Product Number: 9B11A044
Publication Date: 2/2/2012
Revision Date: 10/16/2012
Length: 17 pages

Nawaal Motlekar is the managing director of Kwenta Media and founding editor of Mamas & Papas, a recently launched parenting magazine in South Africa. From her early entrepreneurial experiences, Motlekar developed a personal and professional interest in parenting magazines. As a Black South African woman married to an Indian man in an increasingly multi-racial and multi-cultural society, Motlekar recognized a gap for a parenting magazine that would appeal to a wider and more racially and culturally inclusive target market. After extensive research and development, she launched the Mamas & Papas magazine in early 2009. The case charts Motlekar’s journey as an entrepreneur, as well as her efforts between 2006 and 2009 to bring the magazine to life. The case explores the quantitative and qualitative research approaches employed by Motlekar, as well as her marketing and branding initiatives towards building a Mamas & Papas brand beyond just the physical magazine. With the magazine having been on shelves for 12 months, Motlekar and her board faced a number of decisions. These included options to increase advertising revenues and circulation, as well as choosing how to extend the Mamas & Papas brand into related categories.

Teaching Note: 8B11A044 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Brand Extension; Brand Management; Brand Positioning; Consumer Research; Marketing Research; Magazines; South Africa; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TROUBLE BREWS AT STARBUCKS
Lauranne Buchanan, Carolyn J. Simmons

Product Number: 9B09A002
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 14 pages

After going public in 1992, Starbucks' strong balance sheet and double-digit growth made it a hot growth stock. The Starbucks vision was coffee culture as community, the Third Place between work and home, where friends shared the experience and exotic language of gourmet coffee. Its growth was fueled by rapid expansion in the number of stores both in the United States and in foreign markets, the addition of drive-through service, its own music label that promoted and sold CDs in stores and other add-on sales, including pastries and sandwiches. In an amazingly short time, Starbucks became a wildly successful global brand. But in 2007, Starbucks' performance slipped; the company reported its first-ever decline in customer visits to U.S. stores, which led to a 50 per cent drop in its share price. In January 2008, the board ousted CEO Jim Donald and brought back Howard Schultz - Starbucks' visionary leader and CEO from 1987 to 2000 and current chairman and chief global strategist - to re-take the helm. Starbucks' growth strategies have been widely reported and analyzed, but rarely with an eye to their impact on the brand. This case offers a compelling example of how non-brand managerial decisions - such as store locations, licensing arrangements and drive-through service - can make sense on financial criteria at one point in time, yet erode brand positioning and equity in the longer term. Examining the growth decisions made in the United States provides a rich context in which to examine both the promise and drawback of further foreign expansion.

Teaching Note: 8B09A02 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Branding; Retailing; Product Design/Development; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Emerging Markets

HIMALAYA HERBAL TOOTHPASTE: CATEGORY AND BRAND INVOLVEMENT IN AN EMERGING MARKET
S. Ramesh Kumar, Nitya Guruvayurappan

Product Number: 9B11A032
Publication Date: 10/25/2011
Revision Date: 1/30/2012
Length: 16 pages

Ramesh Kumar was curious to determine whether consumers were loyal to toothpaste brands. Himalaya Herbal Toothpaste had herbal offerings in the retail and prescription segments, affording him the opportunity to conduct research. Were consumers loyal to a particular brand of toothpaste? Did they remember the functional brand benefits? Were consumers buying brands due to the social benefits reflected in ads? Did consumers continue to buy particular brands without switching? Were consumers interested in herbal toothpastes? How should Himalaya be perceived by consumers? This series of issues presented an opportunity to conceptualize consumer behaviour in the Indian context.

The concept of product involvement differentiates consumer segments based on the degrees of personal interest expressed by consumers with regard to products and services. High-involvement categories require consumers to be involved in extensive buying behaviour that leads to one or more of the following: risk reduction, enhancement of self-image, and gratification in having achieved an optimal choice after examining the alternatives. Low-involvement categories are those that are bought in a routine manner by consumers, with a lower degree of personal interest. Marketers always face competitive challenges in enhancing the degree of involvement even in low-involvement categories through appropriate branding initiatives, including in the toothpaste category.


Teaching Note: 8B11A032 (11 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services, Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Emerging Markets; Consumer Analysis; Consumer Research; Dental; India; IIM-Bangalore/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EL MAWARDY JEWELRY: EXPANSION DURING A RECESSION
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Sherif Ashraf Salem, Ali Tawfik, Jylan Sekaly, Lila Mehrez

Product Number: 9B11M051
Publication Date: 7/7/2011
Length: 11 pages

El Mawardy Jewelry was an Egyptian jewelry company located in Cairo, Egypt. The company was able to attract many customers due to its variety of designs, high-quality products, and competitive prices. The friendly atmosphere and customized services provided by the salespeople helped the company gain a competitive advantage. The Mawardy family was able to build on its success and open different stores across Egypt. In 2009, the financial crisis hit Egypt and many businesses were negatively affected. Faced with this challenge and a goal to go international, the Mawardy family considered different possibilities. The company had many options, but decided to focus on Qatar and the United Kingdom. It needed to decide whether it was better to expand now or later. It also needed to consider where to expand first — Qatar or the United Kingdom.

Teaching Note: 8B11M051 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Expansion; Growth Opportunities; Gold; Jewelry; United Kingdom; Egypt; Qatar; Middle East
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHINESE FIREWORKS INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CANADA GOOSE: THE SOUTH KOREA OPPORTUNITY
June Cotte, Jesse Silvertown

Product Number: 9B11A036
Publication Date: 1/30/2012
Revision Date: 12/5/2012
Length: 17 pages

Canada Goose was a Canadian maker of high-end winter outdoor clothing that was available in 40 countries. The company’s CEO was considering entering the South Korean market, which would entail resolving several problems. There were distributor complications, and it was unclear which style of jacket to sell to the new customer groups. Finally, deciding how to position Canada Goose in order to reach the two target groups for Canada Goose in South Korea was something that had bothered the CEO ever since he had first received the market research. Those issues aside, the firm also had to consider how the current state of the company, both in North America and Western Europe, would impact the success of a full-scale entry into South Korea. The CEO was excited for the opportunity for Canada Goose in South Korea, yet he was unsure how to maximize growth while positioning the brand as strongly as possible.

Teaching Note: 8B11A036 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: New Market Entry; Winter Outdoor Clothing; Canada; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Strategies for International Expansion

TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUNNAN BAIYAO: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE MEETS PRODUCT/MARKET DIVERSIFICATION
Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KTM - READY TO RACE
Charlene Zietsma, Rob Wong

Product Number: 9B05M036
Publication Date: 5/30/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 26 pages

KTM is a successful European off-road motorcycle manufacturer with sales in 72 countries. KTM has been experiencing impressive growth in both its top and bottom lines over the past several years, but it is facing significant growth pressure from its venture capitalist investor. The chief financial officer must determine how the company could achieve its growth objectives. Options include geographic expansion (increase U.S. emphasis, or expansion to new European Union countries) or product expansion. Implementation options include a merger, acquisition or internal growth. Several opportunities for geographic expansion and product diversification exist, and implementation options include make, buy or ally decisions.

Teaching Note: 8B05M36 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; New Products; International Business; Diversification
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SANTA FE RELOCATION SERVICES: REGIONAL BRAND MANAGEMENT
Niraj Dawar, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05A029
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 15 pages

Sante Fe Relocation Services was a premium provider of relocation services based in Hong Kong. Founded in 1980, the company had built a reputation as a reliable, high-quality packer and mover of household goods. By 2000, the company also offered a full range of relocation support services including visa and immigration applications, home searching and cultural and language training. Santa Fe relocated expatriates and their families between Asian countries and between Asia and other regions. The company had its own staff and assets in Asia and managed its international operations through a network of partners. In 2005, the chief operating officer faced three key challenges: differentiating and positioning the brand in a crowded and often price-driven market; incorporating an expanded service line under the original brand and gaining market recognition for those additional services; and managing the brand across the Asian region with an effective balance of standardization versus local adaptation.

Teaching Note: 8B05A29 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: International Marketing; Competitor Analysis; Brand Positioning; Brand Extension; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
The International Marketing Mix: Products and Services

CAMBRIDGE LABORATORIES: PROTEOMICS
Henry W. Lane, Dennis Shaughnessy, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B04M013
Publication Date: 4/5/2004
Revision Date: 9/22/2006
Length: 24 pages

Cambridge Laboratories is essentially a fee-for-service provider of laboratory tests. It spends less than 0.5 per cent of revenues on research and development and holds relatively few patents for a biotech company. It now has an opportunity to invest $5 million to establish a joint venture with an Australian proteomics company that operates on a drug discovery (royalty) model. The founder of this company believed that his technology could eventually result in the discovery of new drugs that would generate significant royalties. While the proteomics firm has superb technology, some of the intellectual leaders in the field on its staff, and partnerships with some impressive companies, its technology is yet unproven. Cambridge Labs is also concerned that its existing relationships with big pharmaceutical companies could be jeopardized if it begins to take an intellectual property position in proteomics. In addition, the Australian company consists primarily of PhDs in molecular biology, while Cambridge Labs is dominated by business executives whose primary focus is generating strong financial returns for shareholders. The cultural differences between an Australian science-oriented laboratory and a publicly traded American outsourcing company become apparent during the negotiation phase of the joint venture proposal. Students are asked to evaluate the joint venture and consider whether the cultural and strategic differences can be reconciled.

Teaching Note: 8B04M13 (12 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Joint Ventures; Biotechnology Management; Cross Cultural Management; Patents; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S - JAPAN
James M. Hagen

Product Number: 9A99A037
Publication Date: 4/13/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 17 pages

The CEO of Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. needed to give sales and profits a serious boost; despite the company's excellent brand equity, it was losing market share and struggling to make a profit. The company's product was on store shelves in all U.S. states, but efforts to enter foreign markets had only been haphazard with non-U.S. sales accounting for just three per cent of total sales. The CEO needed to focus serious attention on entering the world's second largest ice cream market, Japan. An objective of Ben & Jerry's was to use the excess manufacturing capacity it had in the U.S., and it found that exporting ice cream from Vermont to Japan was feasible from a logistics and cost perspective. The company identified two leading partnering options. One was to give a Japanese convenience store chain exclusive rights to the product for a limited time. The other was to give long-term rights for all sales of the product in Japan to a Japanese-American who would build the brand. For the company to enter Japan in time for the upcoming summer season, it would have to be through one of these two partnering arrangements.

Teaching Note: 8A99A37 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Alliances; Market Entry; International Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIRST ENERGY
Niraj Dawar, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B12A001
Publication Date: 2/17/2012
Revision Date: 2/17/2012
Length: 13 pages

In September 2011, the CEO of First Energy Private Ltd, a start-up enterprise in the alternative energy industry in India, is at a critical juncture. The company has commercialized the technology of biomass cook stoves and has been providing, since 2007, clean and affordable cooking solutions to customers in rural India. A marginal rise in the price of biomass fuel in early 2011 has, however, led to a steep fall in demand, making the continuance in the rural household market unsustainable. The company is at a disadvantage in the household segment because the competing product, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), enjoys a price subsidy provided by the federal government. First Energy has been quick to target a niche in the urban commercial market consisting of restaurants, eateries, and hostels. While the margins are high in this segment, the volumes are low. The company must therefore build scale to be able to service the investments in plant capacity, which is under-utilized. The case enables students to come up with strategies for the CEO for market expansion. They will also decide whether to exit from or hold on to the household segment, where the margins are low but the volumes, considering the imminent de-subsidization of LPG, will be high.

Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability; Alternative Energy; Business to Business Marketing; Customer Segmentation; Household Appliances; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEGO GROUP: BUILDING STRATEGY
Darren Meister, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B11M086
Publication Date: 9/13/2011
Revision Date: 2/1/2013
Length: 12 pages

The world famous toymaker, The LEGO Group, assembled an internal management team to create a strategic report on LEGO’s different product lines and business operations. In recent years, numerous threats to LEGO had emerged in the toy industry. The acquisition of Marvel Entertainment by The Walt Disney Company created major implications for valuable toy license agreements. LEGO had also recently lost a long legal battle with major competitor MEGA Brands, makers of MEGA Bloks, with a European Union court decision that removed the LEGO brick trademark. Furthermore, the second-largest toymaker in the world, Hasbro, was preparing to launch a new rival product line called Kre-O. It was critical for the management team to identify where to expand LEGO’s product lines and business operations, in order to develop a competitive strategy to continue the organization’s recent years of financial success and dominance in the building toy market.

Teaching Note: 8B11M086 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Opportunity Recognition; Licensing; Competitive Strategy; Business Growth; Toy Industry; Denmark
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
The International Marketing Mix: Distribution

GROUPON
Sayan Chatterjee, Alison Streiff, Sarah O'Keeffe

Product Number: 9B12M004
Publication Date: 2/14/2012
Revision Date: 2/13/2012
Length: 15 pages

The collective buying industry has grown by leaps and bounds over the past several years, and Groupon stands out as a major player that has revolutionized this market. The case describes the beginnings of Groupon, as well as the firm’s rise to power, the rise of its numerous competitors, its decisions and expansion strategies, and the collective buying industry as a whole. Key demographic data about Groupon’s customers (consumers and small businesses) are also described, along with recent developments at Groupon and within the industry. While Groupon has undoubtedly discovered a unique model that takes advantage of a “white space” in sales and marketing to local businesses, it is unclear what the future holds for the company. Will it be able to sustain its incredible growth rate, or is its business going to peak quickly and then fade?

Teaching Note: 8B12M004 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Business Model; Expansion; Retention of Customers; Loyal Customers; Collective Buying
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COMPFED: THE DAIRY COOPERATIVE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Subhash Jha, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B11A047
Publication Date: 3/16/2012
Length: 19 pages

Bihar State Milk Cooperative Federation (COMPFED) had been marketing its milk and milk-related products under the Sudha brand name in the Bihar and Jharkhand regions of India for three decades. It operated through six unions and two dairies to process the milk collected from nearly 4,000 village-level cooperatives. COMPFED appeared to have a competitive advantage for its supply of milk, since it maintained the largest network for milk procurement, which spanned a large area and was unmatched by its competitors. However, due to various environmental forces, the ability to procure an adequate supply had declined in the last two years, which negatively affected the profitability of the organization.

The marketing manager of COMPFED had been facing difficulty in serving the growing demand and maintaining profitability. Since he operated in an industry with high fixed costs, the declining supply of milk procurement meant lower sales. As a result, there was no opportunity to significantly lower operating costs to match the limited supply.

The marketing manager thought of two reasons in the external environment that contributed to this situation. First, a series of floods had caused damage to grazing land and livestock operations. Additionally, private players were disrupting the supply chain by offering short-term higher payments to some suppliers/farmers. These players did not face the same regulatory and hygiene guidelines that COMPFED did. The marketing manager’s options included two very different alternatives: trying to work with these agents or securing a process to minimize or eradicate their activities.


Teaching Note: 8B11A047 (8 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Agribusiness; Distribution System; Cooperatives; Distribution Channel; Dairy Farming; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SYNNEX INTERNATIONAL: TRANSFORMING DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Lien-Ti Bei

Product Number: 9B08A019
Publication Date: 12/1/2008
Revision Date: 7/8/2014
Length: 22 pages

The case describes how Synnex Technology International Corporation (Synnex) in Taiwan transformed itself from a local distributor of electronic components into a global logistic conglomerate of communication and information products between 1985 and 2007. The case analyzes the channel structure of electronic product distribution and explains how Synnex introduced innovative practices to transform its operation. The case is designed for MBA students to grasp some fundamental issues related to distribution channel design and supply chain management in a marketing or logistic management course.

Teaching Note: 8B08A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Logistics; Distribution Channels; Supply Chain Management; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
The International Marketing Mix: Pricing

PARLE-G
Miranda R. Goode, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B10A022
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2009, Parle Products Pvt. Limited (Parle), a leading Indian biscuit manufacturer, had the distinction of producing the largest selling glucose biscuit brand by volume in the world, the Parle-G. Parle-G biscuits sold for approximately US$1 per kilogram and as very few processed and ready-to-eat foods were available at this price point, Parle-G was strongly associated with offering value for money (VFM). A looming problem in this brand category for Parle was that the input prices of two major raw materials for the Parle-G biscuits (which together accounted for 55 per cent of their input costs) had risen enough in the past 18 months to decrease margins from 15 per cent to less than 10 per cent. Pressure to restore margins led Parle to consider a price increase yet a previous attempt had caused dramatic reduction in sales. Parle subsequently addressed rising input costs by reducing the weight of the package, franchising production, reducing supply chain costs and reducing packaging costs. Parle could not ignore the deeply entrenched perception of VFM when devising both short- and long-term marketing plans to retain Parle-G's success in the marketplace. These plans needed to address segmentation, positioning and changing Indian demographics when considering a potential price increase for Parle-G biscuits.

Teaching Note: 8B10A22 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Planning; International Business; Positioning; Market Strategy; Pricing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAVESA'S NELLY BRAND: PRICING TO GAIN MARKET CONTROL
Niraj Dawar, Natasha Ebanks

Product Number: 9B00A008
Publication Date: 6/19/2000
Revision Date: 1/6/2010
Length: 23 pages

The economy segment in the market for mayonnaise in Venezuela has become extremely competitive. Mavesa, Venezuela's largest and most professional consumer goods firm, finds its pioneer Nelly brand under assault from large players such as Kraft, and small nimble regional players such as Albeca. In this competitive scenario, Nelly's managers decide to cut price on the brand. The managers must analyze the implications of cutting price, including both the profitability impact of a pricing decision, as well as strategic competitive considerations.

Teaching Note: 8B00A08 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Emerging Markets; Brand Management; Pricing; Competitiveness
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CARVEL ICE CREAM - DEVELOPING THE BEIJING MARKET
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A017
Publication Date: 8/5/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 12 pages

The manager of business development for Carvel Asia Limited is trying to determine how best to increase ice cream cake sales in Beijing. In doing so, he needs to develop a complete marketing program which includes decisions about product offerings, pricing, placement (distribution) and promotion - the 4 Ps. Carvel Asia was a 50-50 joint venture between Carvel (USA) and China's Ministry of Agriculture.

Teaching Note: 8A99A17 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Pricing Strategy; Product Concept; Marketing Communication; Distribution
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 14:
The International Marketing Mix: Integrated Communication

EXPERIENCE CHINA: A NATIONAL IMAGE CAMPAIGN IN THE UNITED STATES
William Wei, Yuanfang Lin, Mei Qin Kok

Product Number: 9B11A033
Publication Date: 10/6/2011
Revision Date: 7/26/2017
Length: 8 pages

The China national image film “People Chapter” — officially a sub-series of the “Experience China” campaign — was launched by the Chinese government to coincide with President Hu Jintao’s visit to the United States in mid-January 2011. The one-minute promotional video was played on six giant electronic screens about 300 times per day, and had appeared approximately 8,400 times when the broadcast ended on February 14, 2011. The video showed a series of Chinese people, ranging from ordinary citizens to celebrities. It was a publicity effort aimed at promoting a truer image of China abroad, and signalling that China was opening to embrace the world. However, reactions from both Chinese and overseas audiences had been fairly mixed since the initial release of the promotional film. Experts from China and abroad were skeptical of the effectiveness of the campaign in promoting the national image of modern China to the world. This case presents the opportunity to examine the basic elements in the marketing communication process, analyze how decisions in marketing design affect outcomes, and understand the differences between nation and product promotion.

Teaching Note: 8B11A033 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Advertising Strategy; Advertising Media; Cultural Sensitivity; Public Relations; Target Market; China and United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE 2006 WORLD CUP: MOBILE MARKETING AT ADIDAS (A)
Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A016
Publication Date: 10/4/2007
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 14 pages

The manager of Mobile Media for adidas International is debating what to do, given the sparse amount of traffic to date at the adidas FIFA World Cup mobile portal. By February, there had been only 3,000 visits to the mobile site, compared to the one million visits predicted earlier based on the previous success of a Lucas Films Star Wars mobile campaign. Given that the World Cup is a global event viewed by millions of people in person and more than one billion TV viewers worldwide, it represents a global stage for adidas to promote its brand and communicate its continued involvement and leadership in the sport of football. The manager of Mobile Media is worried that the brand's mobile efforts for this major event could fail miserably.

Teaching Note: 8B07A16 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Marketing Communication; Marketing Channels; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE 2006 WORLD CUP: MOBILE MARKETING AT ADIDAS (B)
Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A017
Publication Date: 10/4/2007
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 3 pages

The manager of Mobile Media for adidas International is debating what to do, given the sparse amount of traffic to date at the adidas FIFA World Cup mobile portal. The (B) case describes the results of a new effort to use a popular portal to advertise the adidas World Cup mobile site. The case can be used to discuss the impact of using different media channels to deliver marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B07A16 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



"HIPS FEEL GOOD" - DOVE'S CAMPAIGN FOR REAL BEAUTY
Thomas Gey, Nick Nugent, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A010
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 16 pages

Dove is one of Unilever's better-known personal care brands. It has significant top-of-mind awareness among women in many countries. In an attempt to increase sales volume by 80 per cent, Unilever re-launched Dove in 2004. The campaign asks the question What is real beauty? and attempts to redefine it in ways that challenge commonly portrayed stereotypes. This case examines the re-launch of Dove, Unilever's well-known international personal care brand, and the marketing issues behind its phenomenal success. It also raises questions about how to maintain the brand's momentum as the next phase unfolds. In 2007, Dove products are still well thought of by consumers and the campaign has attracted imitators, including brands outside the cosmetics and beauty care sector.

Teaching Note: 8B07A10 (17 pages)
Issues: Ethical Issues; Marketing Communication; Marketing Channels; International Marketing; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BRAND IN THE HAND: MOBILE MARKETING AT ADIDAS
Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05A024
Publication Date: 9/26/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The Global Media manager for adidas International is responsible for developing and championing a new marketing strategy at adidas called brand in the hand that is based on the convergence of cell phones and wireless Internet. The case presents company background information, data on the penetration of mobile devices such as cell phones, the growth of global mobile marketing practices, and several mobile marketing communications campaigns that adidas launched in 2004, such as a mobile newsticker for the 2004 European soccer championship. The case then introduces a specific campaign - Respect M.E. - featuring Missy Elliott, a popular female hip-hop artist, and discusses the company's mobile marketing strategy to support MissyElliott's new line of sportswear. This case can be used to highlight the role of new technology in overall marketing strategy and integrated marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B05A24 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Marketing Communication; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
International Markets

WAL-MART PUERTO RICO: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Myrna Comas, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B10M024
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 14 pages

Sowing the Development of the Country (SDC) was a public-private partnership between Wal-Mart Puerto Rico (Wal-Mart PR), the island's Department of Agriculture as well as its Economic Development Bank (EDB), two NGOs Caborroje's Pro Salud y Ambiente (Caborroje's Pro Health and Environment) and ConectaRSE (a corporate social responsibility (CSR) promotion non-governmental organization(NGO)), and a group of local farmers. The objective of the project was to promote sustainable development on the island by encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurs by developing small agro-businesses. Wal-Mart acted as the primary buyer. The project faced many challenges, such as farmers' difficulties in meeting quality standards and delivery schedules, the lack of an existing vehicle through which to access funding from the EDB, and, most importantly, changes in the political party in power. Project partners had to develop a position from which to negotiate a new alliance with the incoming government administration. Since Wal-Mart was determined to guarantee the continuity and expansion of the SDC project, Wal-Mart had to step into the project champion role.

Teaching Note: 8B10M24 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade
Issues: Government and Business; Corporate Social Responsibility; Developing Countries; Partnership; Public Administration
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAJESTICA HOTEL IN SHANGHAI?
Paul W. Beamish, Jane W. Lu

Product Number: 9B05M035
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M35 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Market Entry; Negotiation; Control Systems; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
Managing International Marketing

THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT EXPATICA.COM
Christopher Williams, Judith vanHerwaarden

Product Number: 9B11M085
Publication Date: 9/23/2011
Revision Date: 5/25/2017
Length: 11 pages

In April 2011, the management team at Expatica Communications B.V. was reviewing the progress of the company and the opportunities for future growth. The management team had to take stock: the external environment was rapidly changing, and threats from competitors were on the rise. Expatica had been founded 11 years earlier to provide English-language information and news to the expatriate community in Europe, delivering its services primarily over the Internet. One of the central issues Expatica faced was how to make its core business model effective across multiple markets. Recent launches of the online platform in new countries were not as successful as hoped and the performance of traditional “bricks and mortar” offerings was also mixed. The company had made tremendous progress over the years but needed to re-evaluate its position and decide which new opportunities for growth, if any, should be pursued.

Teaching Note: 8B11M085 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Company Expansion; Product Development; E-Business; Expatriate Community; the Netherlands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PHIL CHAN (B)
Paul W. Beamish, Jean-Louis Schaan

Product Number: 9B08M039
Publication Date: 4/18/2008
Length: 4 pages

En route to Nigeria the decision maker learns that he is walking into a scam and must decide whether to show up for the scheduled meetings or to return home immediately. The case illustrates ways of being drawn into unethical situations, and the severe implications for both the individual and organization if they do participate. This (B) case can be distributed part way through the class (with undergraduates) or at the same time as the (A) case(9B08M038) with more experienced students.

Teaching Note: 8B08M38 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Job Assignments; Personal Values; Ethical Issues; Crisis Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
The Future of International Marketing, and ‘The Canadian Way’

JUST US! COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM
Ian McKillop, Julia Sagebien, Alba Brugueras

Product Number: 9B10M108
Publication Date: 3/3/2011
Length: 10 pages

The development coordinator for Just Us! Development Education Society (JUDES) was reviewing the preliminary agenda for the JUDES Annual General Meeting (AGM). The meeting would take place some time between May 1 and May 14, 2010, during Canada’s National Fair Trade Weeks. The coordinator was preparing her to-do list for the event. Just Us!, a Nova Scotia-based cooperative that offered fair trade products, had a very loyal regional following, and the coordinator wanted to communicate how the premium paid for fair trade products actually helped producer communities. She was planning several events for the AGM, most importantly presentations and discussions of the Community-based Tourism (CBT) trip that JUDES personnel had taken to Oaxaca, Mexico, in 2009, and planned to take again in 2010. For the AGM presentation, she wanted to organize the trip guidelines and the budget information into a triple bottom line format.

Teaching Note: 8B10M108 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services, Retail Trade, Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Fair Trade; Cultural Preservation; Tourism; Triple Bottom-line Reporting; Cultural Sensitivity; Canada; Mexico
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE HOME DEPOT CANADA: ECOOPTIONS
Kyle Murray, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B06A032
Publication Date: 11/23/2006
Length: 11 pages

In December 2005, The Home Depot Canada (THDC) rolls out its EcoOptions product line. The market for environment-friendly products has been changing in terms of vendor interest, consumer demand and competitive dynamics. THDC has been pushing that change with EcoOptions, which started off as a pilot project in March 2004. The project was driven by a larger vision of making EcoOptions the leading environmental brand in the global home-improvement market. Translated into measurable goals, it meant that 10 per cent of THDC's assortment of about 50,000 SKUs would be designated as EcoOptions by 2010. This case introduces many of the critical issues in strategic merchandising and assortment decisions, with a focus on the management of a major shift in the retailer's product assortment.

Teaching Note: 8B06A32 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Pricing Strategy; Retailing; Retail Marketing; Assortment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLA WARS IN CHINA: THE FUTURE IS HERE
Niraj Dawar, Nancy Dai

Product Number: 9B03A006
Publication Date: 8/6/2003
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 18 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case won the Emerging Chinese Global Competitors, 2003 EFMD Case Writing Competition. The Wahaha Hangzhou Group Co. Ltd. is one of China's largest soft-drink producers. One of the company's products, Future Cola, was launched a few years ago to compete with Coca Cola and PepsiCo and has made significant progress in the soft-drink markets that were developed by these cola giants. The issue now is to maintain the momentum of growth in the face of major competition from the giant multinationals, and to achieve its goal of dominant market share.

Teaching Note: 8B03A06 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Market Strategy; Competition; Brand Management; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate