Ivey Publishing

Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills

Peter, J.P., Donnelly, J.H.,9/e (United States, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2009)
Prepared By Fabrizio DiMuro, Ph.D. Candidate (Marketing)
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Strategic Planning and the Marketing Management Process

A CRACK IN THE MUG: CAN STARBUCKS MEND IT?
Michael Herriman, Motohiro Wanikawa, Ryoko Ichinose, Shobhana Darak, Yumana Chaivan

Product Number: 9B08A016
Publication Date: 11/28/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 15 pages

After 20 years of rapid expansion, the last six months of 2007 saw Starbucks jolted by a decline in share price of 50 per cent and a decrease in customer visits. Its share price was hovering around $19 to $20. By mid-2008, it had declined to $18. Its fiscal first-quarter profit in 2007 rose by less than two per cent, and in January 2008, it announced the closing of 100 U.S. stores. In July, the number was increased to 600. The case was written to encourage classroom discussion and research into the company policy and marketing practices in order to discover the means for a possible turnaround of the company.

Teaching Note: 8B08A16 (22 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Operations Management; Expansion; Management Decisions; Licensing; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KIDS MARKET CONSULTING
Paul W. Beamish, Stephanie Taylor, Oleksiy Vynogradov

Product Number: 9B04M065
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 8 pages

The founder of Kids Market Consulting, a market research firm dedicated to the kids, tweens and teens segment, was faced with increasing competition and slowing revenue, and was exploring a variety of possibilities for the future strategic direction of the business. In particular, she had to formulate the best plan for protecting the niche market and decide how aggressively to pursue expansion. In addition, there was the existing relationship with her business partner, and Kids Market Consulting was part of his group of marketing firms. Any changes the founder chose had to respect this relationship and she was therefore restricted to a limited number of options. The over-arching corporate objective for the company was to defend the market from larger businesses who were trying to increase their share of the market research industry.

Teaching Note: 8B04M65 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategic Change; Strategy Development; Strategic Planning; Market Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARVEL ICE CREAM - DEVELOPING THE BEIJING MARKET
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A017
Publication Date: 8/5/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 12 pages

The manager of business development for Carvel Asia Limited is trying to determine how best to increase ice cream cake sales in Beijing. In doing so, he needs to develop a complete marketing program which includes decisions about product offerings, pricing, placement (distribution) and promotion - the 4 Ps. Carvel Asia was a 50-50 joint venture between Carvel (USA) and China's Ministry of Agriculture.

Teaching Note: 8A99A17 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Pricing Strategy; Product Concept; Marketing Communication; Distribution
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 2:
Marketing Research: Process and Systems for Decision-Making

VINCOR: PROJECT TWIST
Niraj Dawar, Kelly Kretz, Eric Singer

Product Number: 9B08A002
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 12/2/2015
Length: 22 pages

The alcohol cooler (refreshment) market in Canada was already crowded, but the marketing manager at Vincor believed there was still room for a new entrant, provided it was sufficiently differentiated. The case provides market research information on which the decision-maker relies to develop a product positioning. Trade-offs need to be made between various positioning options and costs. The case deals with marketing issues from the perspective of the brand manager launching a new product.

Teaching Note: 8B08A02 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Positioning and Differentiation; New Product Development; Brand Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONTARIO MACHINERY RING (A) - PROBLEM DEFINITION
Thomas Funk

Product Number: 9B04A021
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 9 pages

The Ontario Machinery Ring is a cooperative set up to perform a matchmaking service for farmers who want to have custom work done and farmers who want to do custom work. This concept is widespread in Europe but has not been tried in North America. The general manager of the organization has set up a prototype operation and is looking at expansion opportunities. Expansion will take more funds than are available and the general manager has sought financial assistance from the provincial Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Before committing funds to this project, the ministry requires marketing research to measure demand for the machinery ring concept. Supplemental cases, Ontario Machinery Ring (B) and (C), product 9B04A022 and 9B04A023 look at questionnaire development and data analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B04A21 (7 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Marketing Planning; Data Analysis; Sales Forecasting; Marketing Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONTARIO MACHINERY RING (B) - RESEARCH DESIGN
Thomas Funk

Product Number: 9B04A022
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 3 pages

The general manager of Ontario Machinery Ring - a cooperative developed to match farmers with someone to do custom work - must develop a marketing research proposal and design a questionnaire to determine the demand of machinery ring concept. This is a supplement to Ontario Machinery Ring (A) - Problem Definition, product 9B04A021.

Teaching Note: 8B04A21 (7 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Marketing Research; Data Analysis; Sales Forecasting; Marketing Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONTARIO MACHINERY RING (C) - DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Thomas Funk

Product Number: 9B04A023
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 15 pages

The general manager of Ontario Machinery Ring is looking at expansion opportunities but limited funding requires him to obtain financial assistance from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The ministry requires an assessment of the demand for this marketing concept before they will provide any funding. He had developed a questionnaire and now must analyze the data that has been collected to prepare the marketing research proposal. This is a supplement to Ontario Machinery Ring (A) - Problem Definition, product 9B04A021. Data file is available, product 7B04A023.

Teaching Note: 8B04A21 (7 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Marketing Planning; Marketing Research; Data Analysis; Sales Forecasting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Consumer Behavior

HSBC CREDIT CARD REWARDS PROGRAM
Robert J. Fisher

Product Number: 9B08A017
Publication Date: 9/18/2008
Length: 22 pages

Around 1994, competition in the credit card market was based on price (i.e., interest rates and annual fees). After Chase and American Express launched bonus point programs in 1993, HSBC was forced to follow in 1994. The original program was targeted at high-income consumers as with luxury brand redemption items. Competition reacted and consumers quickly learned to expect a points program as a standard feature. Again, HSBC differentiated their credit card products by adding a wider range of redemption items, and lowering redemptions levels. Problems emerged in 1997-1998 as the program became a source of complaints because of operational difficulties in fulfillment and a lack of competitive advantage in the marketplace. In 1999, HBSC's credit card was rated poorly, largely because of the problems with the bonus point system. Research was used to understand consumers and revitalize the program. Significant changes were made in the features, improved operations and an improved selection of redemption items. By 2002, the program was rated as one of the best in the industry. The challenge is, Where does HSBC go from here?

Teaching Note: 8B08A17 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Promotion Policy; Marketing Management; Market Analysis; Consumer Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DEXIT - A MARKETING OPPORTUNITY
Robin Ritchie, Sohail Lalani

Product Number: 9B05A002
Publication Date: 2/21/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 15 pages

Dexit is a new electronic payment system that offers a convenient alternative to cash for small-value retail transactions. The chief executive officer is faced with some critical target market and marketing mix decisions as she prepares for launch. The situation is complicated by the fact that action is needed on two fronts: Dexit must not only recruit end-consumers to use the service, it also has to convince merchants to install the payment terminals. Since paying with cash is free, the company will need to persuade both groups that the added convenience of Dexit justifies a transaction fee. Although the concept appears to have good potential, the recent test market failures of two similar offerings suggest that success is far from guaranteed. The case reinforces the importance of solid consumer analysis when selecting a target market, demonstrates the concept of value to the customer, and provides a basis for discussing push versus pull marketing strategies.

Teaching Note: 8B05A02 (16 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Target Marketing; New Products; Marketing Management; Consumer Behaviour
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOYOTA: DRIVING THE MAINSTREAM MARKET TO PURCHASE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Jeff Saperstein, Jennifer Nelson

Product Number: 9B04A003
Publication Date: 1/16/2004
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 23 pages

Toyota is a large, international automobile manufacturer headquartered in Japan, with plans to become the largest worldwide automaker, striving for 15 per cent of global sales. Toyota is committing itself to be the leader of the hybrid-electric automotive industry, and is relying on changes in the industry and customer perceptions to bring its plan to fruition. Toyota's challenge is to develop consumer attitude and purchase intent, from an early adopter, niche market model into universal mainstream acceptance.

Teaching Note: 8B04A03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Product Design/Development; Multinational; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PACIFIC WESTERN BREWING COMPANY - GOING ORGANIC
John R. Kennedy, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A006
Publication Date: 3/31/1999
Length: 20 pages

The president of Canadian-based Pacific Western Brewing Co. Ltd. is preparing a Japan market entry strategy for the company's newly developed organic beer. Although she has considerable experience in Japan, several factors are at play which make this product entry particularly challenging. First, the product is unlike any other in the market. Second, Japanese consumer behaviour is undergoing a revolution. Third, the company's last product launch in Japan failed. Therefore, there is a higher than normal level of risk associated with the product launch.

Teaching Note: 8A99A06 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Pricing; Distribution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Business, Government, and Institutional Buying

GLOBAL HEALTHCARE EXCHANGE CANADA: TRADE EXCHANGE ADOPTION
Terry H. Deutscher, Dana Gruber

Product Number: 9B02A023
Publication Date: 12/9/2002
Revision Date: 10/28/2009
Length: 14 pages

Global Healthcare Exchange Canada is a business-to-business exchange that connects hospitals and their major suppliers through an electronic procurement process. Founded as a subsidiary of its global parent, the exchange has become the leading health-care exchange in the country, but it is still far short of break-even. It must develop a compelling value proposition if it is going to drive adoption among hospitals and suppliers to the target levels. To do so, it must overcome considerable inertia among hospitals that are often very reluctant to change from frequently inefficient purchasing processes. Although there are major benefits to be realized from automating supply chain operations in the industry, the adoption decision process among hospitals is highly complex, but very idiosyncratic. In confronting these challenges, the exchange must also re-examine its own business model, in particular its pricing strategy for both suppliers and hospitals.

Teaching Note: 8B02A23 (15 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: E-Business; Market Strategy; Purchasing; Marketing Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BRITISH COLUMBIA BOX LIMITED (REVISED)
Kenneth G. Hardy, J. Brock Smith

Product Number: 9A99A021
Publication Date: 10/8/1999
Revision Date: 1/12/2010
Length: 10 pages

The Vancouver plant manager of British Columbia Box Limited was about to make a half-million dollar decision. The plant required a new $500,000 machine, and the manager must decide which manufacturer will get the order. The case illustrates many concepts in industrial buying.

Teaching Note: 8A99A21 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Capital Investment; Sales Strategy; Industrial Marketing; Consumer Behaviour
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Market Segmentation

VARTANA: THE CREATION OF A BANK FOR CANADA'S CIVIL SOCIETY SECTOR
Kenneth G. Hardy, Ryan Little

Product Number: 9B06A012
Publication Date: 3/17/2006
Revision Date: 9/10/2009
Length: 8 pages

A social entrepreneur undertakes to launch a bank with charitable status itself that could provide financial services to up to 161,000 charities. He has quietly arranged support from major for-profit banks and government officials. The day before his press conference to tell all stakeholders about this new bank, he is still struggling with the key words to describe the bank so that it conveys it purposes, but offends as few stakeholders as possible. Students must evaluate his proposed three key words and propose other descriptors.

Teaching Note: 8B06A12 (5 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Public Relations; Market Segmentation; Social Entrepreneurship; Marketing Communication
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SHANGHAI COS SOFTWARE LTD.
Kenneth G. Hardy, Bin Zhang, Patrick Zhu

Product Number: 9B03A031
Publication Date: 11/5/2003
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 19 pages

Shanghai COS Software Ltd. designs and develops smart card operating systems. The company's marketing manager must decide the best basis for segmenting the burgeoning market for smart cards for wireless devices in China. She has excellent data on this duopoly market, the segments and their buying criteria. In fact, she already has received significant orders for low-end cards from each of the two large customers. However, she and the senior management team must decide on a market positioning for this young high-tech start up. She must select one of the two major customers whose size, structure and procedures are quite different. She must also decide whether the company should market low margin/high volume or high margin/low volume products. Both products seem to have a very short life expectancy in the face of rapidly changing customer expectations. The investors in the company want it to achieve profitability fairly quickly and still adopt sustainable positioning in the marketplace.

Teaching Note: 8B03A31 (12 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: China; Market Segmentation; Segmentation; Positioning; Product Life Cycle
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LIQUOR CONTROL BOARD OF ONTARIO (A): MARKET SEGMENTATION
Michael R. Pearce, Brad Hause

Product Number: 9B00A020
Publication Date: 8/28/2002
Revision Date: 1/7/2009
Length: 29 pages

The project manager for the Liquor Control Board of Ontario faces store network decisions in southeast Toronto. The Liquor Control Board of Ontario has developed a new five-year strategy in which all of their stores will be revamped into one of the four new formats, which has led to a review of every one of their nearly 600 retail locations. With a store within five minutes of 86% of the population of Ontario, the project manager's task is not about expanding coverage but rather improving the performance of the retail network. The (A) case focuses on what to do about a particular store in the area. The Liquor Control Board of Ontario (B): Market Segmentation, product 9B00A021 is a short follow-up about further decisions on store layout and merchandising. (A higher price applies to this case due to color exhibits.)

Teaching Note: 8B00A20 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer Analysis; Retailing; Market Segmentation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LIQUOR CONTROL BOARD OF ONTARIO (B): MARKET SEGMENTATION
Michael R. Pearce, Brad Hause

Product Number: 9B00A021
Publication Date: 8/28/2002
Revision Date: 1/7/2010
Length: 3 pages

This supplement to Liquor Control Board of Ontario (A): Market Segmentation, product 9B00A020 looks at the decisions the project manager must make on store layout and merchandising.

Teaching Note: 8B00A20 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer Analysis; Retailing; Market Segmentation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Product and Brand Strategy

TROUBLE BREWS AT STARBUCKS
Lauranne Buchanan, Carolyn J. Simmons

Product Number: 9B09A002
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 14 pages

After going public in 1992, Starbucks' strong balance sheet and double-digit growth made it a hot growth stock. The Starbucks vision was coffee culture as community, the Third Place between work and home, where friends shared the experience and exotic language of gourmet coffee. Its growth was fueled by rapid expansion in the number of stores both in the United States and in foreign markets, the addition of drive-through service, its own music label that promoted and sold CDs in stores and other add-on sales, including pastries and sandwiches. In an amazingly short time, Starbucks became a wildly successful global brand. But in 2007, Starbucks' performance slipped; the company reported its first-ever decline in customer visits to U.S. stores, which led to a 50 per cent drop in its share price. In January 2008, the board ousted CEO Jim Donald and brought back Howard Schultz - Starbucks' visionary leader and CEO from 1987 to 2000 and current chairman and chief global strategist - to re-take the helm. Starbucks' growth strategies have been widely reported and analyzed, but rarely with an eye to their impact on the brand. This case offers a compelling example of how non-brand managerial decisions - such as store locations, licensing arrangements and drive-through service - can make sense on financial criteria at one point in time, yet erode brand positioning and equity in the longer term. Examining the growth decisions made in the United States provides a rich context in which to examine both the promise and drawback of further foreign expansion.

Teaching Note: 8B09A02 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Branding; Retailing; Product Design/Development; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AIR MILES CANADA: REBRANDING THE AIR MILES REWARDS PROGRAM
Niraj Dawar, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07A009
Publication Date: 11/21/2007
Revision Date: 4/3/2008
Length: 11 pages

Air Miles, the largest third party loyalty program in Canada, has more than nine million subscribers. Competition in the loyalty card market is heating up with the entry of Aeroplan and myriad proprietary loyalty programs launched by retailers and other brands, and Air Miles seeks to tighten its relationship with customers. Paradoxically, for a data-driven company focused on influencing consumers individually, Air Miles opts to develop and launch a mass advertising campaign to reconnect with consumers, and just as importantly, to re-energize internally.

Teaching Note: 8B07A09 (4 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Advertising; Customer Loyalty; Brand Repositioning; Data-driven Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUNNAN BAIYAO: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE MEETS PRODUCT/MARKET DIVERSIFICATION
Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRODUCT PORTFOLIO PLANNING AT ESTONIA'S SAKU BREWERY
Michael R. Pearce, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05A028
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 2/18/2010
Length: 21 pages

The chief executive officer and the marketing director of Saku Olletehase AS of Estonia must decide on the company's product portfolio plan. Saku enjoyed market leadership in Estonia with its brand Saku Originaal; however, the strength in market share has weakened in recent years due to increasing competition and greater marketing acumen from other domestic producers. While domestic beer sales have fallen, the company has experienced increases in other product lines such as alcoholic long drinks, cider and non-alcoholic beverages, which compliment its existing agreement to sell Pepsi and 7Up. For the last three years, the company has had the exclusive right to resell three well-known international beer brands (Guinness, Kilkenny and Carlsberg) in Estonia. With so many options and finite marketing resources, the company needs to decide where to focus its effort.

Teaching Note: 8B05A28 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Marketing; Global Product; Portfolio Management; Marketing Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FORD WINDSTAR
Robert J. Fisher, David J. Sharp, Satish Jha

Product Number: 9B03A005
Publication Date: 5/1/2003
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 22 pages

Ford of Canada is a division of the Ford Motor Company - one of the Big Three automobile manufacturers in North America. The brand manager of the Windstar was concerned that its only brand in the minivan category would not meet its annual sales target. Since the Windstar's launch in the early 1990s, it had become one of the largest selling auto brands in Canada and was synonymous with safety and family travel. During the past few years, the popularity of purchasing a Windstar had declined with the minivan market becoming very competitive, the recession, quality problems and several product recalls. The brand manager must create a promotional strategy that will maintain Windstar sales and profitability and attempt to maintain the brand image. (Also available is the video, Ford Windstar product # 7B03A005.)

Teaching Note: 8B03A05 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Product Management; Product Strategy; Costs; Advertising
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
New Product Planning and Development

THE WII: NINTENDO'S VIDEO GAME REVOLUTION
Gloria Barczak, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B08A004
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 26 pages

In 2007, Nintendo's inexpensive and quirky Wii video game console had become all the rage. Despite its underpowered processor and comparatively basic graphics, it outsold both the Sony PlayStation 3 and the Microsoft Xbox 360. Nintendo's handheld system, known as the DS, also outsold Sony's more advanced PlayStation Portable. Nintendo's products were so successful, retail stores in North America and Japan quickly sold out whenever new shipments arrived, and many consumers were forced to pay premium prices on the grey market. The case examines the characteristics of a successful new product launch, particularly product features, brand loyalty, content availability, third-party support, and adherence to industry standards. The case also considers how radical innovations can be used to win market share from technically superior products focused on incremental innovations. Finally, a 4P marketing analysis is used to compare video game systems offered by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo. The case may be used with The Launch of the Sony PlayStation 3 (Ivey Case 9B07A014) and A Note on Video and Computer Games (Ivey Case 9B07A013).

Teaching Note: 8B08A04 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Strategy; New Products; Generating Profit from New Technology; Product Design/Development; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LAUNCH OF THE SONY PLAYSTATION 3
Gloria Barczak, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A014
Publication Date: 8/3/2007
Revision Date: 6/28/2012
Length: 18 pages

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) was the successor of the acclaimed PlayStation 2 (PS2), recognized as the world's best-selling video game console with more than 100 million units sold. The unprecedented display of enthusiasm for the PS3 suggested that Sony had another winner on its hands. The company projected sales of six million PS3 consoles worldwide between November 2006 and March 2007, a level that the PS2 took almost a year to reach. Sony's initial euphoria was short-lived. By February 2007, more than a third of PS3 consoles remained unsold, while some retailers reported a higher number of returns than sales. Consumers said they felt let down by Sony. The PS3 looked no better than Microsoft's Xbox 360, they complained, even though the Xbox 360 had already been on the market for more than a year, and sold for $200 less than the PS3. Customers also lamented the PS3's lack of interesting games, spotty support for PlayStation 2 games, and uninspiring online capabilities. Meanwhile, Nintendo's inexpensive and quirky Wii console had become all the rage, despite its underpowered processor and comparatively basic graphics. The case examines the characteristics of a successful new product launch, particularly product features, brand loyalty, content availability, third-party support, and adherence to industry standards. The case also considers how radical innovations can be used to win market share from technically superior products focused on incremental innovations. Finally, we use a 4P marketing analysis to compare video game systems offered by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo.

Teaching Note: 8B07A14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Product Design/Development; New Products; Generating Profit from New Technology; Market Strategy; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOGITECH: LAUNCHING A DIGITAL PEN
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B03A002
Publication Date: 5/28/2003
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 10 pages

Logitech is an international company that designs and manufactures computer peripheral products. The retail pointing devices unit director is thinking about the development of the next generation of his device, the Logitech io Digital Pen. The digital pen is about to be launched in less than two months, and he is still unsure which features were valuable to potential users, who these potential users were and for which applications the digital pen could be used.

Teaching Note: 8B03A02 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Consumer Analysis; New Products
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NINTENDO - THE LAUNCH OF GAME BOY COLOR
Robert J. Fisher, Adrian B. Ryans

Product Number: 9B01A013
Publication Date: 10/18/2001
Revision Date: 12/4/2009
Length: 14 pages

Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a worldwide leader in the retail video game industry. In 1998 the color version of Nintendo Game Boy would be launched simultaneously in North America and Europe and would be one of Nintendo's most important launches. The president of Nintendo, Canada must develop a marketing plan that would generate the most profit.

Teaching Note: 8B01A13 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: New Products; Marketing Management; Market Strategy; Marketing Mix
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LAUNCH OF MBANX
Donald W. Barclay

Product Number: 9A98A025
Publication Date: 9/23/1998
Revision Date: 1/22/2010
Length: 19 pages

From a strategic perspective, the Bank of Montreal, a major Canadian bank, has committed to entering the 'virtual banking' marketplace in Canada. There is also the potential to launch later in the USA and Mexico. They plan to do this in a preemptive fashion to gain first mover advantage. This means no extensive pilots and a short time to launch. The decision makers are charged with developing a complete launch strategy. They have two years of tentative ideas to work with, but a number of major decisions on product line, pricing, communications, salesforce, etc. are still to be made. The purpose of the case is to introduce students to the entire scope of marketing decisions to be made in such a situation, including fundamental decisions around targeting and positioning. It also drives students to make decisions in the face of incomplete information and short time horizons. To date, the case has been successfully used to set the stage for marketing management courses, and to kick off marketing management modules in executive development programs. (A nine-minute video can be purchased with this case, video 7A98A025.)

Teaching Note: 8A98A25 (11 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Consumer Marketing; Market Entry; Market Strategy; New Products
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 8:
IMC: Advertising, Sales Promotions, Public Relations and Direct Marketing

THE POWER OF PERSUASION: AN EXERCISE IN CREATING PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING
Michael Parent, Leyland Pitt, Stacey Morrison

Product Number: 9B09A001
Publication Date: 1/14/2009
Length: 1 pages

Do subliminal cues have an effect on behaviour? This question is at the heart of many debates in advertising. In this exercise, students can determine, through their own experience, the impact of subconscious cues on their decisions. In this simulation, the instructor places a number of specific cues throughout the building. Students, in turn, are tasked with creating an advertising poster for a chain of children's play centres. Inevitably, their posters incorporate some, and sometimes all, of the cues. The exercise can lead to a deep and constructive discussion on the effect of subconscious cues on consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B09A01 (9 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Advertising Effectiveness; Marketing Communication; Consumer Behaviour; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MOLSON CANADA: SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING
Deborah Compeau, Israr Qureshi

Product Number: 9B08A014
Publication Date: 10/23/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

This case describes Molson’s experiment with social media for creating brand awareness. In November 2007, Molson, part of the Molson Coors Brewing Company, ended a social media promotion after facing criticism that it promoted binge drinking. Molson was faced with the difficulty of how quickly the contents of social media could spread to various audiences. The case encourages readers to ponder whether Molson’s action was the only option available and to consider what its next steps might be.

Teaching Note: 8B08A14 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Privacy Issues; Internet Culture; Management Information Systems; Social Media; Facebook; Breweries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LONDON JETS
Michael R. Pearce, Joel Bycraft, Chad Hensler

Product Number: 9B02A022
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 10/28/2009
Length: 11 pages

The marketing manager for a hockey team has been told by senior management that revenues for the next season must increase or the franchise will be sold. The previous year's high-budget advertising campaign did not bring in the single-ticket sales results he expected. A database of past ticket holders is available and the question arises how to use this database. Using pivot tables, and recency, frequency and monetary value analyses, he must determine how to increase the return on the marketing investment. An Excel spreadsheet, product 7B02A022, is also available.

Teaching Note: 8B02A22 (26 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Database Marketing; Sports Marketing; Analysis; Direct Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON DATABASE MARKETING
Michael R. Pearce, Francis Yuen

Product Number: 9B02A030
Publication Date: 4/2/2003
Revision Date: 10/29/2009
Length: 20 pages

Data-driven marketing is not an entirely new concept or practice. With advances in information technology, many aspects of marketing operations have become informationalized. This note provides technical information about database marketing. The intent is to familiarize readers with database technologies, including data mining from a marketing perspective, databases, data warehouses, and decision support systems.

Issues: Data Mining; Database Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MOLSON CANADIAN - THE RANT
Robert J. Fisher, Scott Walker

Product Number: 9B01A025
Publication Date: 3/28/2002
Revision Date: 12/7/2009
Length: 17 pages

Molson Canada produced Molson Canadian, Canada's best selling beer. Canadian's previous advertising campaign The Rant had been incredibly popular making it one of the most successful ads for Molson in a long time, and winning numerous international and domestic advertising awards. The marketing team for Molson Canadian had to find the theme for the next advertising campaign, and must decide whether to move towards more traditional beer advertising or maintain the non-traditional them of The Rant. (A 9-minute VHS video is available, product 7B01A025 containing Molson's and Labatt's advertisements.)

Teaching Note: 8B01A25 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Advertising Strategy; Advertising Effectiveness; Marketing Planning; Advertising Media
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Personal Selling, Relationship Building and Sales Management

PERSONAL SHOPPERS AT SEARS: THE ELF INITIATIVE
Kyle Murray, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07A019
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Length: 14 pages

The senior vice-president of Corporate Store Sales, Sears Canada, was reviewing a new retailing initiative scheduled to launch within a month in all full-line Sears department stores across Canada. For the holiday season, Sears would offer the services of an elf, the equivalent of a personal shopper, to its customers. Although personal shoppers were common in upscale department stores, especially in the United States, this concept had not been tried in Sears stores. Taylor wondered how customers would respond to this novel concept in Canadian retailing.

Teaching Note: 8B07A19 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Competitive Advantage; Customer Satisfaction; Customer Loyalty; Customer Service
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CANDYM ENTERPRISES: FALLING SALES IN TERRITORY #61
June Cotte, Megan McCrae

Product Number: 9B04A014
Publication Date: 9/20/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 9 pages

Candym Enterprises is a wholesaler specializing in producing, importing and exporting giftware, and selling these items through independent sales representatives. The president and founder has discovered that performance in one territory is falling. A major trade-show is approaching, and changes need to be made in the territory quickly. The president feels he has several options, including replacing an independent sales rep with a company sales rep, which would be a new strategy for the company. Learning objectives include understanding the pros and cons of salary-based relationship building, the importance of excellent customer relationship management, and recognizing that using distributors/independent sales reps has some risk.

Teaching Note: 8B04A14 (5 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Sales Organization; Sales Strategy; Compensation; Sales Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WORLDWIDE EQUIPMENT (CHINA) LTD.: A SALES PERFORMANCE DILEMMA
June Cotte, Alan (Wenchu) Yang

Product Number: 9B02A028
Publication Date: 1/9/2003
Revision Date: 2/25/2003
Length: 15 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case was one of the winning cases in the 2002 Regional Asia-Pacific Case Writing Competition. Worldwide Equipment Ltd. is one of the world's largest manufacturers of heating, ventilating and air conditioning equipment. The Beijing regional sales manager has just heard that the sales performance of his office ranked the lowest among the sales offices in China. The sales Beijing force will not receive their year-end bonus unless the situation can be turned around quickly. He must determine whether the sales management process or a recent new hire on the sales force, whose hiring was strongly suggested by the manager's boss, are to blame for the poor sales performance and how to keep the situation from recurring.

Teaching Note: 8B02A28 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Organizational Behaviour; Sales Management; Sales Organization; Performance Evaluation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
Michael R. Pearce, Yvette Mahieu

Product Number: 9B02A001
Publication Date: 2/12/2002
Revision Date: 10/28/2009
Length: 23 pages

The concept of customer relationship management (CRM) and why it is important is examined in this note. It also examines the implementation process: corporate culture and strategy, software providers, technology and ways to measure the success of a CRM program. Many traditional bricks-and-mortar businesses are creating electronic commerce operations, therefore traditional CRM has expanded to include doing business on the Internet and this note looks at electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) as well. Also included are some examples of companies that have successfully implemented a CRM program, a list of CRM software vendors and examples of CRM software solutions.

Issues: Corporate Strategy; Relationship Management; Information Technology; Internet Software; Customer Relationship Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Distribution Strategy

LOUIS VUITTON IN INDIA
Shih-Fen Chen, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B08A020
Publication Date: 12/23/2008
Length: 16 pages

The case portrays a subtle situation in international marketing -- the marketing of a high-end brand into a low-income nation, or the expansion of Louis Vuitton into India. This luxury good marketer faced practical problems in India, such as the challenge of identifying potential customers, the lack of media to build its brand, and the absence of high streets to open stores. In Europe and the U.S., luxury goods are often sold through company-owned stores that cluster in a particular area of the city (i.e., luxury retail cluster). After opening a store each in New Delhi and Mumbai inside two luxury hotels, Louis Vuitton teamed up with other western brands to develop a shopping mall. The case is designed to explore the possibility of using a luxury mall as a replacement of luxury retail clusters.

Teaching Note: 8B08A20 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Marketing; Store Formats; Retail Marketing; Marketing Channels
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SYNNEX INTERNATIONAL: TRANSFORMING DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Lien-Ti Bei

Product Number: 9B08A019
Publication Date: 12/1/2008
Revision Date: 7/8/2014
Length: 22 pages

The case describes how Synnex Technology International Corporation (Synnex) in Taiwan transformed itself from a local distributor of electronic components into a global logistic conglomerate of communication and information products between 1985 and 2007. The case analyzes the channel structure of electronic product distribution and explains how Synnex introduced innovative practices to transform its operation. The case is designed for MBA students to grasp some fundamental issues related to distribution channel design and supply chain management in a marketing or logistic management course.

Teaching Note: 8B08A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Logistics; Distribution Channels; Supply Chain Management; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GINO SA: DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL MANAGEMENT
Terry H. Deutscher, Alan (Wenchu) Yang

Product Number: 9B02A013
Publication Date: 4/25/2002
Revision Date: 10/28/2009
Length: 15 pages

Gino SA was a major European-based manufacturer of burner units that are sold in China through exclusive contracts with three distributors. As a result, the three Chinese distributors have significant bargaining power with Gino. A leading boiler manufacturer, who is currently purchasing through a distributor, has approached Gino to receive OEM treatment (a further discount by purchasing the burners direct from the manufacturer, in return for a commitment to purchase a percentage of their burners from Gino). In deciding whether or not to pursue the company's first direct OEM relationship, the marketing manager must consider the impact of his decision on the distributors, the competition and the company's corporate management.

Teaching Note: 8B02A13 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Distribution; Emerging Markets; Marketing Channels; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ROUGEMONT FRUIT NECTAR: DISTRIBUTING IN CHINA
Paul W. Beamish, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A016
Publication Date: 7/20/1999
Revision Date: 1/12/2010
Length: 14 pages

Gervais Lavoie, managing director of the Canadian-Chinese joint venture, Beijing Oasis High Nutrition Food Co., needs to decide what means of distribution is most appropriate for the company's newly-developed fruit nectars. The decision is complicated by the fact that different means of distribution have different implications for the ultimate pricing and promotion of the products.

Teaching Note: 8A99A16 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Distribution; Pricing; Promotion Policy; Market Segmentation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Pricing Strategy

HAYWARD & GUZMAN: DISPOSABLE CONTACT LENSES
Niraj Dawar, Eric Dolansky

Product Number: 9B03A020
Publication Date: 6/26/2003
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 4 pages

Hayward & Guzman researches and develops contact lens products and has recently developed a new disposable contact lens. Two segments with different price sensitivity have been identified. In order to reach these segments, the products will need to be packaged and sold differently. A marketing representative for Hayward & Guzman must develop a marketing mix for the two segments and determine pricing for each product.

Teaching Note: 8B03A20 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Segmentation; Ethical Issues; Pricing; Marketing Mix
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



INTELLIBYTE INC.'S EUROLOADER SOFTWARE
Niraj Dawar, Cameron Bramwell

Product Number: 9B00A023
Publication Date: 9/26/2000
Revision Date: 1/7/2010
Length: 10 pages

As cable operators across Europe go digital, they will require a means of remotely upgrading the applications software on subscribers' digital set-top boxes, using some kind of loader software to do so. Intellibyte Inc., a small Canadian software firm, has developed the only remote loader software that currently meets the specifications of the European Cable Communications Association. However, it must sell the software to manufacturers of set-top boxes before cable operators can use it. The competition is no more than two years behind. The president must decide among several pricing and positioning alternatives for intellectual property products in a complex industry.

Teaching Note: 8B00A23 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: New Products; Intellectual Properties; Market Strategy; Pricing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAVESA'S NELLY BRAND: PRICING TO GAIN MARKET CONTROL
Niraj Dawar, Natasha Ebanks

Product Number: 9B00A008
Publication Date: 6/19/2000
Revision Date: 1/6/2010
Length: 23 pages

The economy segment in the market for mayonnaise in Venezuela has become extremely competitive. Mavesa, Venezuela's largest and most professional consumer goods firm, finds its pioneer Nelly brand under assault from large players such as Kraft, and small nimble regional players such as Albeca. In this competitive scenario, Nelly's managers decide to cut price on the brand. The managers must analyze the implications of cutting price, including both the profitability impact of a pricing decision, as well as strategic competitive considerations.

Teaching Note: 8B00A08 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Emerging Markets; Brand Management; Pricing; Competitiveness
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 12:
The Marketing of Services

MMI PRODUCT PLACEMENT, INC.
Robin Ritchie, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07A006
Publication Date: 4/2/2007
Length: 9 pages

The president of a national placement agency is preparing to make a final pitch to sign Greyhound Canada as a client. Greyhound wants to reposition its brand as a mainstream travel option, particularly for suburban commuters, and needs cost-effective ways to get its message to consumers. The company views product placement as a viable tool for building brand awareness, but worries about losing control over its brand image. Even more serious are concerns about the absence of reliable metrics to assess the overall effectiveness of product placement. The case covers fundamentals of product placement, particularly with respect to strengths and weaknesses, and provides an excellent basis for discussing its value as part of an overall marketing communications strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B07A06 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Brand Positioning; Marketing Communication; Advertising
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRAEDA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INC.
Kenneth G. Hardy

Product Number: 9B06A003
Publication Date: 1/13/2006
Revision Date: 5/1/2014
Length: 8 pages

A venture fund has approached an entrepreneur to sell one of its poorly performing holdings, or if there is no reasonable sale opportunity, turn the company around. He finds no acceptable offers for the company. He searches to find more information on how buyers purchase and use the product, which is a software system for police and courts to lay charges and manage them across the court process. The case illustrates the leverage available from understanding customer budgeting and buying processes, and fitting the service to meet the mind of the customer.

Teaching Note: 8B06A03 (6 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Marketing Planning; Consumer Behaviour; Market Strategy; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ALARMFORCE: THE LAUNCH OF ALARMFOG
June Cotte, David Singer

Product Number: 9B03A010
Publication Date: 8/6/2003
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 9 pages

AlarmForce Industries Inc. is a developer and sales provider of home security systems with offices throughout Canada. Since the company's inception, it had become one of the leaders in the Canadian home security market and had established a reputation for being a technological innovator in the industry. The president and chief executive officer of the company must decide whether or not to launch their new product, AlarmFog, which the president believed represented the future of the home security market. The case focuses on past strategic decisions made by the company in differentiating itself in a mature market. The potential folly of making tactical product launch decisions without a solid analysis of underlying strategic issues can be discussed.

Teaching Note: 8B03A10 (6 pages)8B03A10B (16 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Marketing Management; New Products; Market Analysis; Market Segmentation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TELUS MOBILITY - WHAT TO DO WITH MIKE
Donald W. Barclay, Jack Wong

Product Number: 9B02A010
Publication Date: 7/23/2002
Revision Date: 10/28/2009
Length: 20 pages

TELUS Corporation is a leading telecommunications company. The vice-president of sales and marketing has reviewed the company's existing strategy for Mike (an enhanced specialized mobile radio system based on integrated digital enhanced network). As a unique digital wireless network, Mike offered users the traditional features of personal communication services, plus the added functionality of a digital two-way radio. However, technological advantages do not always translate into market advantages. In light of the dynamic changes in the wireless industry (such as the emergence of new technologies), the vice-president is faced with the challenge of defining a market strategy to grow TELUS's Mike business.

Teaching Note: 8B02A10 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: High Technology Products; Telecommunication Technology; Market Strategy; Marketing Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Global Marketing

RUTH'S CHRIS: THE HIGH STAKES OF INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Ilan Alon, Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B06A034
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 8 pages

In 2006, Ruth's Chris Steak House was fresh off of a sizzling initial public offering and was now interested in growing their business internationally. With restaurants in just four countries outside the United States, a model to identify and rank new international markets was needed. This case provides a practical example for students to take quantitative and non-quantitative variables to create a short list of potential new markets.

Teaching Note: 8B06A34 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Strategy; International Business; International Strategy; Market Entry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STELLA ARTOIS IN THE U.K.
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B01A017
Publication Date: 12/6/2001
Revision Date: 12/4/2009
Length: 15 pages

Stella Artois, Interbrew company's flagship brand of beer, has experienced phenomenal success on the international market. The United Kingdom market has played a critical role in that success, and Interbrew needs to assess the reasons for this. Interbrew's managing director and its chief marketing officer are meeting to have a discussion about how to proceed in developing the Stella Artois brand. First, they need to understand what part of the company's success was due to expert marketing practices and what part might possibly be due to being in the right place at the right time. As well, they want to assess what possible steps might be taken to spread these practices across the corporation for use in the company's global marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B01A17 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Brand Management; European Market; Product Strategy; Consumer Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S - JAPAN
James M. Hagen

Product Number: 9A99A037
Publication Date: 4/13/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 17 pages

The CEO of Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. needed to give sales and profits a serious boost; despite the company's excellent brand equity, it was losing market share and struggling to make a profit. The company's product was on store shelves in all U.S. states, but efforts to enter foreign markets had only been haphazard with non-U.S. sales accounting for just three per cent of total sales. The CEO needed to focus serious attention on entering the world's second largest ice cream market, Japan. An objective of Ben & Jerry's was to use the excess manufacturing capacity it had in the U.S., and it found that exporting ice cream from Vermont to Japan was feasible from a logistics and cost perspective. The company identified two leading partnering options. One was to give a Japanese convenience store chain exclusive rights to the product for a limited time. The other was to give long-term rights for all sales of the product in Japan to a Japanese-American who would build the brand. For the company to enter Japan in time for the upcoming summer season, it would have to be through one of these two partnering arrangements.

Teaching Note: 8A99A37 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Alliances; Market Entry; International Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA