Ivey Publishing

Managing in the Global Economy

Steers, R.M., Nardon, L.,1/e (United States, M.E. Sharpe, 2006)
Prepared By Paul W. Beamish, Professor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Managing in the Global Economy: An Introduction

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN? AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B07M041
Publication Date: 4/10/2007
Length: 11 pages

This team-building and familiarization activity can be used in the initial class or session of an international management program. It assesses one's exposure to the rest of the world's peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a classes' collective exposure to the world's people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one's business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

Teaching Note: 8B07M41 (6 pages)
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization; Career Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Challenges and Prospects of Globalization

THE MYTHS OF GLOBALIZATION
Alan Rugman, Karl Moore

Product Number: 9B01TE12
Publication Date: 9/1/2001
Length: 5 pages

Much of the discussion about globalization has missed a very important point, these co-authors claim, and seeing this point and understanding it are critical if executives are to really grasp what globalization is all about. The co-authors write that far from a single, global market, most trade takes place within regional blocks or clusters. Trade activity effectively occurs in the triad of North America, the European Union and Japan, and an approach based on national or regional realities, not global ones, will make the most sense for companies. The authors have ample evidence to substantiate their argument and they suggest what executives can do to counter and manage despite the widely propagated myth of globalization.

Issues: Globalization; International Trade




HUGO CHAVEZ'S PUBLIC POLICY VISION FOR VENEZUELA: ROOTED IN THE PAST, DOOMED IN THE FUTURE?
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M059
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 12 pages

Hugo Chavez often pointed to Simon Bolivar as the model for his political philosophy, centered on Bolivar's vision of a unified and independent Latin America. In 1998, Chavez ran in the presidential election, on a platform that opposed what he termed the savage neoliberalism of the 1990s. Chavez's speeches in the presidential election campaign emphasized the importance of national sovereignty and economic justice. As president, Chavez passed a new Hydrocarbons Law to enhance the share oil revenue that would be owed to the government; he created a new government-owned bank; he introduced a radical land reform law; and he encouraged takeovers by the government and employees of privately-owned factories. Venezuela sold oil to Cuba at reduced prices in return for professionals, especially doctors who created health missions in many low-income areas. Chavez sought to foment socialist anti-American revolutions throughout Latin America. In the context of this socialist agenda, analysts expected that Venezuela's economy would experience serious challenges in the coming years. The combination of high inflation, fiscal pressure, and slow growth would be a boiling political cauldron in which violent opposition could ferment.

Teaching Note: 8B06M59 (7 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Developing Countries; Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BUSINESSES ARE HELPING TO OVERCOME GLOBAL POVERTY
Nicholas Stern

Product Number: 9B01TE14
Publication Date: 9/1/2001
Length: 3 pages

The facts today point to a decline in global poverty and to the reality that global economic development is working. These positive developments are due to policies pursued by both public organizations and the international business community. But as the Chief Economist of the World Banks says, business can do even more to help the world's poorest countries. For example, debt relief by itself is hypocritical unless markets in rich countries accept products from poorer countries. Rich countries should lift, once and for all, the trade barriers and subsidies that prevent products from developing countries from reaching their markets. Businesses headquartered in rich countries should also encourage their governments to honour the commitment to devote 0.7 per cent of their annual GNP to overseas aid. These and other suggestions are the core of this article that calls on business to step up its fight against poverty around the world.

Issues: Developing Countries; International Trade



Chapter 3:
Economic Foundations of Global Business

INDIA'S FAILURE TO ATTRACT FDI
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M082
Publication Date: 8/29/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case uses several reports to compare China and India, and it encourages students to analyse the long list of public policies that have restrained India's economic growth and FDI inflows, and that have acted as barriers to liberalization reforms. Presented are the historical realities that supported India's political philosophy of autarky and government intervention. Finally, the case leads students to consider the future prospects for India, and potential foreign investors there, through comparisons with China.

Teaching Note: 8B06M82 (6 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Developing Countries; Government Regulation; International Business; Deregulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUNGARY'S REFORM PROCESS
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M081
Publication Date: 8/22/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 17 pages

By 2006, Hungary had experienced more than 15 years of transition from central planning to free markets. The reform process had involved several distinct phases. The initial leap to the market, with its widespread privatizations, included a dramatic deregulation with a guillotine procedure. A more refined process of regulatory impact assessments (RIAs) followed this period. A newly empowered competition office sought to strengthen the extent of competition within markets dominated by a single firm or a small group of firms. The goal of EU membership was a consistent driver of the reforms as early as 1991, since the EU model was compulsory for EU members. These years had been turbulent, and the transition was not yet complete. In 2006, Hungary faced the challenge of a fiscal deficit that was 9.5 per cent of GDP, and responded by raising corporate tax rates from 16 per cent to 20 per cent as an attempt to close the fiscal gap. However, Hungary was in an intense competition with Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania to attract opportunities. Tax rates were an important element in this competition, but so were the regulatory impediments and distortions that still remained in the economy. How to create a rapidly growing economy was a question at the forefront of public policy debate. A 2006 Financial Times article discussed this dilemma.

Teaching Note: 8B06M81 (8 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Government Regulation; Globalization; International Business; Deregulation
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 4:
National Trade Policy and Competitive Advantage

BOMBARDIER VERSUS EMBRAER: CHARGES OF UNFAIR COMPETITION
David W. Conklin, Trevor Hunter

Product Number: 9A99M004
Publication Date: 7/20/1999
Revision Date: 1/15/2010
Length: 23 pages

One of Canada's high-tech success stories, Bombardier, changed the airline industry with the introduction of its short-haul turbo-prop planes and jets in the early 1990s. By the mid-1990s, a new player from Brazil, Embraer, had entered the market and was capturing a lot of business from Bombardier. Bombardier claimed that the success of Embraer was due to unfair subsidies through a government program, so Bombardier challenged the policies through the WTO. Embraer charged back that Bombardier had long received subsidies through Canadian government loans and grants. In an industry which was expected to double in the next five years, the stakes were high. This case discusses the dispute resolution process within the WTO, and the impacts that subsidies and WTO subsidy restrictions may have on industry structure.

Teaching Note: 8A99M04 (8 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Trade Agreements; Subsidies; Government and Business; Aerospace
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



KANZEN BERHAD: THE UNITED STATES AND ANTIDUMPING DUTIES
Donald J. Lecraw, Boon Lim

Product Number: 9A97G002
Publication Date: 9/10/1997
Revision Date: 10/17/2002
Length: 25 pages

The managing director of a new Malaysian producer of stainless steel tubing received a letter from the company's attorney in Washington, DC, informing him that the U.S. Specialty Tube Group had written to the U.S. President concerning stainless steel tubing imported into the U.S. from Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Malaysia at dumped prices that was causing injury to the U.S. industry. For the next year, the managing director considered how he should respond to this threat, while at the same time increasing the company's exports to the U.S. so that it could meet its sales and profits goals. One year later, he was informed that a formal antidumping action had been taken against imports of stainless steel tubing from Malaysia (and other countries). He is considering what he should do now, both to preserve the company's U.S. market and maintain alternative markets in other countries.

Teaching Note: 8A97G02 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Law; International Trade; Political Environment; Anti-Dumping Action
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EXPORTING TO GHANA
David J. Sharp, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05B006
Publication Date: 1/31/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 4 pages

A loan assessment officer at Export Development Canada is evaluating a proposed deal involving the export of refurbished machines used in the forestry industry. He must decide whether Export Development Corporation should extend loans to a foreign firm that is interested in purchasing from a Canadian supplier. Issues include international business risk and the role of an export development agency in facilitating a country's exports.

Teaching Note: 8B05B06 (4 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Uncertainty; Risk Analysis; Forestry; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Legal and Political Foundations of Global Business

KILLER COKE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST COCA-COLA
Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07C003
Publication Date: 1/31/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 23 pages

The CEO of Coca-Cola is faced with increasing criticism over the company's handling of alleged human rights abuses in Colombia. A grass roots protest movement known as The Campaign to Stop Killer Coke has built international support for a boycott of Coca-Cola products on college campuses. The campaign centers specifically on the intimidation and murder of union leaders at a specific Coca-Cola bottling plant in Colombia. Coca-Cola asserted that it was not responsible for such abuses. Rather, the violence at the Coca-Cola plant was the product of a political situation that was beyond the company's control. The company further argued that it was in compliance with local labor laws, and had been dismissed as the defendant in lawsuits filed in Colombia and U.S. courts. At the time of the case, Coca-Cola is faced with anti-Coke campaigns at more than 100 college campuses worldwide and official boycotts of its products at a number of large well-known campuses in the United States. In response, the company has undertaken an audit of its bottling plants in Colombia. It also launched a public relations campaign aimed at refuting accusations of human rights violations. The case can be used to discuss corporate ethics, extraterritoriality, marketing and public relations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C03 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Trade Unions; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Supplier Selection; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STATOIL IRAN
Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05C036
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 3 pages

Less than one year after being awarded a contract to develop one of the world's largest offshore petroleum fields, Statoil's future in Iran appeared to be in jeopardy. Statoil was at the center of a corruption investigation that had resulted in the resignations of three of the company's top executives, including its CEO. The issue was alleged bribes paid by Horton Investments, on Statoil's behest, to secure lucrative petroleum development contracts. According to the Iranian government, Statoil used Horton to channel $15 million in secret bribes to unnamed government officials. Statoil's country manager, who had considerable experience in the region and was unaware of the secret deals, is left with the difficult task of trying to salvage the operation and rebuild the social capital he had established between Statoil and its Iranian counterparts.

Teaching Note: 8B05C36 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Management Behaviour; Ethical Issues; Energy; International Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMWAY IN CHINA (A): A NEW BUSINESS MODEL
David Tan, Justin Tan

Product Number: 9B04M035
Publication Date: 9/10/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 8 pages

Amway is a large manufacturer of household products that uses the direct selling approach. The company was established in the late 1940s and over the years, still using direct selling, branched into the United Kingdom, Europe and Japan. With this global success it expanded further, into the Chinese market. However, the company must look at its strategy after the Chinese government implements regulations on the direct marketing business model. The supplement Amway in China (B): Adopting to a Changing Environment, product 9B04M036, looks at how the company responds to the changing social and political environment.

Teaching Note: 8B04M35 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Government Regulation; Corporate Culture; Legal System; Marketing Channels
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMWAY IN CHINA (B): ADAPTING TO A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
David Tan, Justin Tan

Product Number: 9B04M036
Publication Date: 9/10/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 7 pages

The Chinese government has placed a ban on direct marketing. With direct marketing being the primary marketing method the company uses, it must respond to the changing social and political environment. This is a supplement to Amway in China (A): A New Business Model, product 9B04M035.

Teaching Note: 8B04M35 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Legal System; Marketing Channels; Corporate Culture; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE ANTAMINA COPPER-ZINC PROJECT: POLITICAL RISK INSURANCE
Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B02N018
Publication Date: 2/6/2003
Revision Date: 12/5/2009
Length: 20 pages

Compania Minera Antamina S.A. is a consortium of three large multinational Canadian mining companies set up to exploit a very large copper-zinc deposit north central Peru. The project requires about US$2 billion of financing for the development and exploitation of the deposit. The finance committee needs to determine the best means to raise the necessary funds: loans guaranteed by the sponsors or project finance. The costs and benefits are different across alternatives because the project involves both business and political risks to which the exposure for all of the stakeholders is different.

Teaching Note: 8B02N18 (14 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Financing; Political Environment; Risk Analysis; International Finance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON THE CUBAN CIGAR INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish, Akash Kapoor

Product Number: 9B03M001
Publication Date: 2/27/2003
Revision Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 20 pages

The cigar industry in Cuba has a mythical aura and renown that give it unparalleled recognition worldwide. The relationship between Cuba and the United States makes the situation in this industry particularly intriguing. Cuban cigars cannot currently be sold in the United States, even though it is the largest premium cigar market in the world. This note provides an opportunity for a structured analysis using Porter's five forces model and to consider several scenarios including the possible lifting of the U.S. embargo and the relaxation of Cuba's land ownership laws.

Teaching Note: 8B03M01 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Government and Business; Internationalization; International Business; Industry Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Economic Integration and Regional Trading Blocs

CAMERON AUTO PARTS (B) - REVISED
Harold Crookell, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M016
Publication Date: 1/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

Two years after signing a license agreement in the U.K., the company now faces an opportunity to establish with another firm a joint venture in France for the European market. However, the prospect upsets the U.K. licensee who is clearly doing very well, and who even wants Cameron to consider joint venturing with him in Australia. The case ends with Cameron, run off its feet in North America, trying to decide whether to enter Europe via licensing, joint venture or direct investment. (This case is a sequel to Cameron Auto Parts (A) - Revised, case 9B06M015.)

Teaching Note: 8B06M16 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Licensing; Joint Ventures; International Business; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY LTD.
Mary M. Crossan, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B02M006
Publication Date: 4/25/2002
Revision Date: 12/1/2009
Length: 16 pages

The president and chief executive officer of a large food manufacturer is preparing his company's strategic agenda for the next five years. One of the top five food manufacturers in Canada, the company went public and restructured its management team six years ago. The efforts were successful, resulting in an increase in the company's market share. Recent food industry trends, however, added box stores and private label brands to the domestic competition. At the same time, the terms of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement are expected to abolish food-related tariffs within two years, opening up competition from across the border. While the company has experienced success in the past five years, the president and chief executive officer needs a strategic plan that will take the company to the next level.

Teaching Note: 8B02M06 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Communications; Crisis Management; Change Management; Strategy Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Cultural Foundations of Global Business

INTEL IN CHINA
Kathleen E. Slaughter, Donna Everatt, Xiaojun Qian

Product Number: 9A99C007
Publication Date: 6/23/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 8 pages

The newly appointed division head must examine organizational or communication problems within a division of a billion dollar semiconductor manufacturer. The manager made a decision, which an employee emotionally responded to, creating the potential for conflict within the department. Cross-cultural issues come into play given that the manager, although originally from China, was educated and gathered extensive experience in the West and was thus considered an expatriate by his employees. The manager must also examine the effect of organizational culture on an employee's behavior.

Teaching Note: 8A99C07 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Interpersonal Relations; Intercultural Relations; Conflict Resolution; Management Communication
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VELSICOL EESTI AS (A): A U.S.-ESTONIAN JOINT VENTURE
Iris Berdrow

Product Number: 9B00M007
Publication Date: 5/16/2001
Revision Date: 1/8/2010
Length: 8 pages

Velsicol Chemical Corporation, a global company focused on producing specialty chemicals, has formed a joint venture with the Estonian government called Velsicol Eesti AS that would produce benzoic acid. The plant that will produce this chemical was previously part of a conglomerate owned and controlled by the Russian government. When Estonia became an independent state this plant was passed on to the country which then privatized and sold a percentage of it to Velsicol. The newly appointed plant manager came from a benzoic plant outside the country and was responsible for government relations, cost management, liaison with the board of directors, performance standards and staffing. He must quickly put together a management team that would be familiar with the current operations and capable of working together to achieve the company's goals. In order to do this, he needed to better understand the employees with whom he was working. A follow-up case, Velsicol Eesti AS (B), is available, (product 9B00M008), as well as a cultural note on Estonia, (product number 9B00M014).

Teaching Note: 8B00M07 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Leadership; Joint Ventures; International Business; Organizational Behaviour
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VELSICOL EESTI AS (B): REFLECTIONS AND OUTCOMES
Iris Berdrow

Product Number: 9B00M008
Publication Date: 5/16/2001
Revision Date: 1/8/2010
Length: 13 pages

The plant manager at Velsicol Eesti AS, a joint venture chemical plant in Estonia, had faced and overcome many challenges: cultural differences, communicating in a different language, supplier relations with a hostile partner, and high staff turnover. The outcomes were very positive for both the Estonian plant and the U.S. parent company. The Velsicol Eesti AS (A) case, 9B00M007, outlines the starting point to the outcomes presented in this case. A cultural note on Estonia is also available (product number 9B00M014).

Teaching Note: 8B00M07 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Behaviour; Joint Ventures; Leadership; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Assessing Cultural Differences

EAGLE SERVICES ASIA
Edward D. Arnheiter

Product Number: 9B07D019
Publication Date: 10/10/2007
Length: 13 pages

This case chronicles the creation and transformation of a Singaporean joint venture, Eagle Services Asia (ESA). It describes some early start-up problems, including a forced shutdown by the Civilian Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). The resulting shakeup of the ESA management team provides a fresh start and an opportunity to reinvigorate the company using lean management principles. Managerial decisions play a key role in ESA's success, together with the discipline and training of the workforce. Students will gain an understanding of cultural difficulties associated with international joint ventures, and learn fundamental aspects of lean management including how to create and sustain a lean culture. The case also provides insight into the worldwide aircraft engine business, the engine overhaul process and cultural barriers that may arise when managing operations in foreign countries.

Teaching Note: 8B07D19 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Expatriate Management; Cultural Customs; Organizational Behaviour; Joint Ventures; Management of Change; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LA LIBERTE NEWSPAPER
Satyendra Singh, Martine Morin

Product Number: 9B07A007
Publication Date: 2/26/2007
Length: 6 pages

The director of La Liberte, a French not-for-profit weekly newspaper, needed to revitalize the newspaper as sales had been declining consistently for the past 15 years. The newspaper's mission was to serve the French community in Manitoba, Canada. Survival of a French newspaper was essential for the French culture in the community. To reverse the negative sales trend, the director conducted a survey. Based on the findings of the survey, the director had to balance his desire to serve the French community with the need to be financially viable.

Teaching Note: 8B07A07 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Feasibility Analysis; Break-Even Analysis; Not-For-Profit Marketing; Cross Cultural Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELIXIR TECHNOLOGY - ENTRY INTO THE MIDDLE EAST
Kenneth G. Hardy, Elizabeth O'Neil

Product Number: 9B04A012
Publication Date: 8/10/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 27 pages

Elixir Technology is a small software development company based in Singapore that develops data analysis and report generation software and provides technical training and consulting services. By May 2003, it had successfully sold this software to corporate clients in Singapore, China and Japan, following a very adaptive marketing strategy in each market. Now the managing director is contemplating entering the Middle East but must choose an entry strategy quickly to capitalize on the current window of opportunity. Available entry choices include direct entry, or several partnership options.

Teaching Note: 8B04A12 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Technology; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Cultural Customs; Market Entry; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JULIE DEMPSTER (A)
Christine Pearson, Rachel M. Knight

Product Number: 9B03C011
Publication Date: 5/1/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 5 pages

A black Canadian woman is hired as vice-president of marketing and brand positioning for an Amsterdam-based computer software company. Shortly after joining the firm she encounters a number of cross-cultural and equality issues. She must decide whether or not to renew her contract with the company. The supplement case, Julie Dempster (B), product 9B03C012 outlines her decision.

Teaching Note: 8B03C11 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Cultural Customs; Management in a Global Environment; Personal Development; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JULIE DEMPSTER (B)
Christine Pearson, Rachel M. Knight

Product Number: 9B03C012
Publication Date: 5/1/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 1 pages

This is a supplement to Julie Dempster (A), product 9B03C011. A newly hired vice-president of brand positioning must decide whether to renew her contract after experiencing cross-cultural and equality issues.

Teaching Note: 8B03C11 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Cultural Customs; Management in a Global Environment; Personal Development; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JINJIAN GARMENT FACTORY: MOTIVATING GO-SLOW WORKERS
Tieying Huang, Junping Liang, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M033
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 6 pages

Jinjian Garment Factory is a large clothing manufacturer based in Shenzhen with distribution to Hong Kong and overseas. Although Shenzhen had become one of the most advanced garment manufacturing centres in the world, managers in this industry still had few effective ways of dealing with the collective and deliberate slow pace of work by the employees, of motivating workers, and of resolving the problem between seasonal production requirements and retention of skilled workers. However, the owner and managing director of the company must determine the reasons behind the deliberately slow pace of the workers, the pros and cons of the piecework system and the methods he could adopt to motivate the workers effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B04M33 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Productivity; Employee Attitude; Piece Work; Performance Measurement; Work-Force Management; Peking University
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Organizing for Global Business

FOREFRONT MANUFACTURING: PRODUCTION PROCESSES AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN MAINLAND CHINA
Chris J. Piper, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B06D020
Publication Date: 10/12/2006
Revision Date: 9/16/2009
Length: 15 pages

ForeFront Wood Products produces high quality wooden door-sets. The company faces capacity constraints and inefficiencies resulting from its processes and culture. As a consequence, it struggles to be profitable. ForeFront's parent company, ForeFront Holdings, plans an initial public offering in 2007. It has recently hired a new operations manager with the mandate to turn the factory around. As the operations manager begins his job he tours the manufacturing facilities to gather information on production processes and factors affecting capacity, cost and conformance. The case describes the firm's manufacturing and managerial processes. Many issues are described, including high costs, low yields, unreported defects and equipment that fails to operate near its rated capacity. Organizational and change management challenges, including high employee turnover, excessive use of overtime and failure of supervisors to observe or report employee errors are also described.

Teaching Note: 8B06D20 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Production Management/Control; Organizational Behaviour; Automation; Bottlenecks; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DAIKIN INDUSTRIES
Chris J. Piper, Tetsu Imigi

Product Number: 9B04D018
Publication Date: 8/10/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 9 pages

The president of Daikin Industries Residential Air Conditioning Shiga Factory was confronted by the prospects of an unseasonably cold summer, at a time when the Shiga Factory had large quantities of its products in inventory in anticipation of strong summer sales. The president was concerned not only about pending losses in the current year, but also about the factory's long-term survival. Unprofitability was unacceptable and Daikin was caught in a stagnant market in which it was increasingly difficult to build share by product differentiation. The Shiga Factory had been forced to use large inventories to cope with uncertain demand and a long and unwieldy supply chain. The president must decide whether to reduce the number of models, build a lower-cost factory outside Japan, or exit the business. He must also determine if there are any other options.

Teaching Note: 8B04D18 (23 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Inventory; Operations Strategy; Lead Time
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SELKIRK GROUP IN ASIA (CONDENSED)
Paul W. Beamish, Lambros Karavis

Product Number: 9B02M041
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 10 pages

Selkirk Group is a family-owned brick manufacturer which has built an export business to Japan and other Asian markets from zero to 10% of its volume in seven years. The managing director of the company raises the question of whether it is time to change their regional export strategy and organizational structure in light of the Asian economic crisis and the reasons for their competitive success in both Australia and Asia.

Teaching Note: 8A99M03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Exports; Organizational Structure; International Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Developing Global Business Strategies

HONEY CARE AFRICA: A TRIPARTITE MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE BEEKEEPING
Oana Branzei, Michael Valente

Product Number: 9B07M060
Publication Date: 8/30/2007
Revision Date: 1/8/2009
Length: 19 pages

The director and co-founder of Honey Care Africa (Honey Care) looks back over the six years of operations and describes the original business model and several sequential changes based on feedback from rural communities, partner organizations, and learning by doing through field operations. Increasing international recognition highlights the potential impact of the model on inspiring sustainable grassroots ventures in the agriculture sector in Kenya. For Tanzania and other developing countries, he ponders the potential opportunities and challenges in replicating the Honey Care model elsewhere. The case also tackles alternative routes for scaling up the model in East Africa. Students are presented with several specific challenges which illustrate the growing tension between Honey Care's original commitment to the farmers and its prospects for international take-off, and are asked to propose alternative model reconfigurations to resolve this tension.

Teaching Note: 8B07M22 (15 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Social Entrepreneurship; International Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Sustainable Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PALLISER FURNITURE LTD.
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9A98M036
Publication Date: 12/11/1998
Revision Date: 2/1/2010
Length: 14 pages

Palliser is a large, successful family-owned furniture manufacturer in Manitoba, Canada, that must respond to the increasingly global nature of its business. Its current business strategy, a product of international trade liberalization, is clearly centered on exports to the U.S. However, management perceives risks and limitations to growth with their current product/market position and must decide whether and how to change. Management is faced with a foreign entry mode decision in Mexico and/or China. This case is suitable for a course on international management, international marketing, or strategic management. (A three-minute video, 7A98M036 can be purchased with this case.)

Teaching Note: 8A98M36 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Business; Market Entry; Plant Location; Investment Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC-BARCLAYS: SHOULD THEIR CARIBBEAN OPERATIONS BE MERGED?
Don Wood, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M067
Publication Date: 1/10/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

At the end of 2001, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC were in advanced negotiations regarding the potential merger of their respective retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean. Some members of each board wondered whether this was the best direction to take. Would the combined company be able to deliver superior returns? Would it be possible to integrate, within budget, companies that had competed with each other in the region for decades? Would either firm be better off divesting regional operations instead? Should the two firms just continue to go-it-alone with emphasis on continual improvement? A decision needed to be made within the coming week. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the six additional Cross-Enterprise cases that deal with the various functional issues associated with the actual merger: Accounting and Finance - CIBC-Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022, Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032, Marketing and Branding - FirstCaribbean International Bank: The Marketing and Branding Challenges of a Start-up, product 9B05A012, Human Resources - Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean International Bank, product 9B04C053, Finance - FirstCaribbean Merger: The Proposed Merger, product 9B06N004, and technical note - Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Emerging Markets; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VINCOR AND THE NEW WORLD OF WINE
Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M001
Publication Date: 1/14/2004
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 17 pages

Vincor International Inc. was Canada's largest wine company and North America's fourth largest in 2002. The company had decided to internationalize and as the first step had entered the United States through two acquisitions.The company's chief executive officer felt that to be among the top 10 wineries in the world, Vincor needed to look beyond the region. To the end, he was considering the acquisition of an Australian company, Goundrey Wines. He must analyze thestrategic rationale for the acquisition of Goundrey as well as to probe questions of strategic fit and value.

Teaching Note: 8B04M01 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization; Market Entry; Acquisitions; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUNNAN BAIYAO: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE MEETS PRODUCT/MARKET DIVERSIFICATION
Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
International Entry Strategies

CAMERON AUTO PARTS (A) - REVISED
Harold Crookell, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M015
Publication Date: 1/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is about a small American auto parts producer trying to diversify his way out of dependence on the major automakers. A promising new product is developed and the company gets a chance to license it to a Scottish manufacturer. The issue of whether to license or go it alone in international markets is central to the case. (A sequel to this case is available titled Cameron Auto Parts (B) - Revised, case 9B06M016.)

Teaching Note: 8B06M15 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Exports; Licensing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SUN LIFE FINANCIAL: ENTERING CHINA
Paul W. Beamish, Ken Mark, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B04M066
Publication Date: 12/20/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 17 pages

Sun Life Financial is a large insurance conglomerate with $14.7 billion in annual revenues. The vice-president for China must formulate an approach for his company's entrance into China. Sun Life has achieved two important milestones: the right to apply for license and the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding for Joint Venture with China Everbright, a local securities company. The financial vice-president must consider strategic options for entry and choose a city in which to focus his efforts in getting a license. In doing so, he needs to consider Sun Life's overall priorities, strategic direction and how he will sell the concept to senior management in Canada. Intended for use in an introduction to international business course, the case includes assessing internal capabilities against an environmental scan, formulating strategy and making operational decisions relating to city selection. It also introduces the idea of joint venture management and government relations.

Teaching Note: 8B04M66 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; Joint Ventures; Market Entry; Risk Analysis; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON INTERNATIONAL LICENSING
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M005
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 18 pages

Licensing is a strategy for technology transfer; and an approach to internationalization that requires less time or depth of involvement in foreign markets, compared to exports, joint ventures, and foreign direct investment. This note examines when licensing is employed, risks associated with it, intellectual property rights, costs of licensing, unattractive markets for licensing, and the major elements of the license agreement.

Issues: Technology Transfer; Licensing; Corporate Strategy; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COMPETING BY THE BOOK: DESTINATION CHINA
Cyril Bouquet, William Hawkins, John J. Wegener

Product Number: 9B05M061
Publication Date: 10/28/2005
Revision Date: 10/3/2009
Length: 8 pages

Lingo Media is a leading publisher of English language learning programs in China. But market share leadership hasn't come easily for the Canadian-based company, and doesn't equate with impressive sales or tangible profitability. Described is the company's learning journey in China and looks at the lessons learned on choosing the right alliance partner, tailoring products to unique local Chinese customers, and what unique resources are necessary to successfully do business in 21st century China.

Teaching Note: 8B05M61 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Managing a Small Firm; Strategic Alliances; Strategic Planning; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Organizing and Structuring Global Operations

ING INSURANCE ASIA/PACIFIC
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M083
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Length: 15 pages

The new chief executive officer (CEO) of ING Insurance Asia/Pacific wants to improve the regional operation of the company. ING Group was a global financial services company of Dutch origin with more than 150 years of experience. As part of ING International, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific was responsible for life insurance and asset/wealth management activities throughout the region. The company was doing well, but the new CEO believed that there were still important strategic and operational improvements possible. This case can be used to discuss the local versus regional or global management issue and will yield best results if the class has already been introduced to different strategic and organizational alternatives in the international business context.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Subsidiaries; Organization; Leadership; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JACQUES KEMP: TOWARDS PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE
Rod E. White, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M084
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 19 pages

Over the past two years, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific had successfully implemented a new organizational and operational framework called Towards Performance Excellence (TPE), which was developed with inputs from functional heads, senior management and staff at the business unit level. TPE detailed and organized everything ING Asia/Pacific needed to execute its strategy effectively. TPE divided ING's business processes into six core categories: portfolio, marketing, organizational, operational, reputation and financial. Each category included aspects of execution known as drivers, which required managers to identify specific objectives and key performance indicators (KPIs) for each driver or sub-driver. The case includes many original exhibits and is ideally taught as the follow up case of the ING Insurance Asia/Pacific, Ivey product #9B06M083 or as a standalone case, which illustrates a real example of regional versus local organizational management.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAMING THE DRAGON: CUMMINS IN CHINA (CONDENSED)
Charles Dhanaraj, Maria Morgan, Jing Li, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B05M034
Publication Date: 9/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case documents more than 15 years of U.S.-based Cummins, a global leader in diesel and allied technology, and its investment activities in China. While the macro level indicators seem to suggest the possibility to hit $1 billion in revenues in China by 2005, there were several pressing problems that put into question Cummins' ability to realize this target. Students are presented with four specific situations and must develop an appropriate action plan. They are related to the respective streamlining and consolidation of several existing joint ventures, distribution and service, and staffing. The case presents the complexity of managing country level operations and the role of executive leadership of a country manager.

Teaching Note: 8B05M34 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Strategy; International Joint Venture; Country Manager; Global Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Building and Managing Global Strategic Alliances (GSAs)

CITY WATER TANZANIA (A): WATER PARTNERSHIPS FOR DAR ES SALAAM
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

Product Number: 9B07M025
Publication Date: 6/15/2007
Length: 17 pages

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

Teaching Note: 8B07M25 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Partnership; Strategic Alliances; Management in a Global Environment; Sustainable Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CITY WATER TANZANIA (B): PRIVATIZING DAR ES SALAAM'S WATER UTILITY
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

Product Number: 9B07M026
Publication Date: 6/15/2007
Length: 6 pages

This is a supplement to City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam, product #9B07M025. It details the terms of the lease contract with an international operator, Biwater, and discusses the alternatives that were considered and discarded, the bidding process, and the roles and motivations of the parties. The key questions revolve around a) the adequacy of the decision, b) the responsibility for the next steps and c) the milestones and metrics to gauge the success of the privatization.

Teaching Note: 8B07M25 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Partnership; Strategic Alliances; Sustainable Development; Management in a Global Environment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESINA: MANAGING OPERATIONS IN CHINA
Paul W. Beamish, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06M048
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Resina is a global manufacturer of resins and surfacing solutions headquartered in Helsinki, Finland, and has three production facilities and 12 sales offices in China. The head of Asia Pacific for Resina needs to decide what should be done about Beijing and Guangdong. Should Beijing remain in operation, be shut down, or moved to another area where demand for liquid bulk resins is stronger. Similar options exist in Guangdong. In aiming towards profitable operations, he needs to consider the buoyancy of local demand, Resina's partner in Beijing, local and foreign competitors and appropriate managers in each operation.

Teaching Note: 8B06M48 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Management; Risk Analysis; Operations Management; Joint Ventures
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Managing Global Research and Development (R&D)

ORGANIZING FROM SCRATCH: THE LEARNING LAB DENMARK EXPERIENCE (A)
Claus Rerup, John Lafkas

Product Number: 9B06C006
Publication Date: 4/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/16/2009
Length: 14 pages

Learning Lab Denmark, a research and development institute, encountered many of the difficulties typically experienced by start-ups, especially obstacles that involve developing a set of routines for getting things done. In other respects LLD faced several distinct challenges that are specific to its charter. This case describes in detail the history behind the formation of Learning Lab Denmark, the goals and the organizing principles underlying LLD and its sub-components, the various personnel roles and issues, including performance problems, criticism and paradoxes that arose in the first couple of years. The supplement, Organizing from Scratch: The Learning Lab Denmark Experience (B) case, product 9B06C007, picks up the story and discusses significant organizational changes.

Teaching Note: 8B06C06 (18 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Visioning; Leadership; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Organizational Design
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HYDRO: FROM UTSIRA TO FUTURE ENERGY SOLUTIONS
Robert Klassen, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06M044
Publication Date: 3/29/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 22 pages

Managers at Norway's Hydro are wondering whether or not an economically viable business case can be made to commercialize a wind-hydrogen solution. The company has successfully installed a wind-hydrogen renewable energy system as a research and development project on the 200 person remote island of Utsira. Now, they are considering two early markets to which to sell the idea: remote island communities or grid power balancing for grid operators with high reliance on wind power. Students will be introduced to current trends in renewable energy and will look at the threats and opportunities and business drivers in launching a new project. Students will analyse the priorities of the company by looking at economic, social and environmental objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B06M44 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Innovation; Environmental Business Management; Feasibility Analysis; New Products
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FUTURE OF "BIG PHARMA"?
David W. Conklin, Murray J. Bryant, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B05M047
Publication Date: 8/12/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 17 pages

Several new developments were threatening the success of Big Pharma. The patents on well-known blockbusters were reaching expiry, and generic manufacturers were eagerly waiting to produce lower-priced copies. Throughout the world, governments were taking a more active role in determining the prices at which drugs could be sold. The expansion of government insurance programs was adding to the complexity of the marketing challenges. Another change involved a shift towards direct-to-customer advertising, including the proliferation of information on the Internet, in addition to the traditional process of sales visits to family doctors. Research funding had doubled since 1991, but the number of new drugs emerging each year had fallen by half. The research and development process was also changing dramatically. Whereas blockbuster drugs had been developed as general treatments for common conditions, it was becoming increasingly apparent that not all patients reacted in the same ways to these drugs, and some - although a very small percentage - suffered serious side effects. This reality was expected to lead to the creation of a much larger number of niche drugs, each one targeted at a narrower group of patients. Related to this development was the growth of biopharma in which new biotech companies were creating drugs that could attack specific cells. Some analysts felt that Big Pharma was in a peculiar predicament in that profits were still very large, and this served as a barrier to necessary changes in strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B05M47 (9 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Business and Society; Globalization; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AIMING TOWARD A HYDROGEN ECONOMY: ICELANDIC NEW ENERGY CO. (ISLENSK NYORKA)
Pratima Bansal, Ken Mark, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05M001
Publication Date: 12/20/2004
Revision Date: 9/30/2009
Length: 28 pages

Icelandic New Energy Company, a research and development consortium based in Reykjavik, Iceland, is considering what future direction to take. The two-person team has met their first major goal - the installation of the world's first commercial hydrogen filling station and the coordination of a public transport test project involving the operation of three hydrogen fuelled city buses. The company was founded with the overall objective of investigating the potential for eventually replacing the use of fossil fuels in Iceland with hydrogen-based fuels and creating the first hydrogen society in the world. Working towards the goal of self-sufficiency from fossil fuels, Icelandic New Energy Co was set up in 1999 by the consortium Vistorka and three major partners each contributing a part to the testing - Royal Dutch Shell (the refueling station), Norsk Hydro (the electrolysis technology to make the hydrogen) and DaimlerChrysler (fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen fuel). The shareholder agreement was established with the company's start in 1999 and is set to expire in 2005. With all of the major activities being outsourced and contracted, the team wondered how they could keep the company as a going concern and contribute to Iceland's transition to a hydrogen economy - a feat that could take more than 15 years.

Teaching Note: 8B05M01 (28 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Industry Analysis; Management in a Global Environment; Strategic Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Financial Management for Global Operations

BANK FAILURE IN JAMAICA
Jenifer Daley

Product Number: 9B07M005
Publication Date: 12/1/2006
Length: 10 pages

This case provides a springboard for a general discussion of banking problems and the issues facing decision-makers as a result. The central issues deal with identifying the causes of banking problems and the resolution of these problems in a developing country context. Students will discuss: the causes of bank failures, the use of quantitative and qualitative data in assessing bank failures, alternatives facing decision-makers, and generally, the use of past information to predict future outcomes; the effects of, and responses to, the failures that contribute to an understanding of the Jamaican banking crisis and the related issues of regulation and supervision in three main ways.

Teaching Note: 8B07M05 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Analysis; Financial Crisis; Corporate Financial Reporting; Developing Countries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PEPSICO CHANGCHUN JOINT VENTURE: CAPITAL EXPENDITURE ANALYSIS
Larry Wynant, Claude P. Lanfranconi, Peter Yuan, Geoff Crum

Product Number: 9B00N016
Publication Date: 2/2/2001
Revision Date: 1/12/2010
Length: 15 pages

PepsiCo Inc. spanned more than 190 countries and accounted for approximately one-quarter of the world's soft drinks. The vice-president of finance for PepsiCo East Asia had been collecting data on the firm's proposed equity joint venture in Changchun, People's Republic of China (PRC). While PepsiCo was already involved in seven joint ventures in the PRC, this proposal would be one of the first two green-field equity joint ventures with PepsiCo control over both the board and day-to-day management. Every investment project at PepsiCo had to go through a systematic evaluation process that involved using capital budgeting tools such as new present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). He needed to decide if the proposed Changchun joint venture would meet PepsiCo's required return on investment. He was also concerned what the local partners would think of the project. The final decision would be made after a presentation to the president of PepsiCo Asia-Pacific.

Teaching Note: 8B00N16 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Net Present Value Method; Joint Ventures; Financial Analysis; Internal Rate of Return
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VOYAGES SOLEIL: THE HEDGING DECISION
Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B05N024
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 11/4/2009
Length: 8 pages

The president of a small Canadian tour operator of packaged vacations faces foreign exchange risk resulting from a future transaction in which the firm is committing to pay in U.S. dollars where the company's revenues are in Canadian dollars. The thin profit margins require the company to consider different hedging alternatives. The case provides significant information that will allow students to discuss international parity conditions and various hedging strategies within a relatively simple context.

Teaching Note: 8B05N24 (6 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Derivatives; Strategic Planning; Hedging; Risk Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LUFTHANSA: TO HEDGE OR NOT TO HEDGE . . .
Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B00N022
Publication Date: 2/2/2001
Revision Date: 1/12/2010
Length: 3 pages

Lufthansa, the flagship German airline, was undertaking an aggressive expansion program. The chairman of the board had negotiated a deal with Boeing for the purchase of 20 new aircraft at a cost of US$500 million. The U.S. dollar was at historic highs and he had to decide how much, if any, of the US$500 million purchase price to hedge and best method to use. Since Lufthansa's revenues were mainly in deutsche marks and this amount was payable in one year, he needed to determine how to deal with the resulting foreign exchange risk by examining principle foreign exchange hedging strategies. Covenants restricting Lufthansa to take on new debt made it critical that he be sure of the financing and risk exposure before finalizing the deal.

Teaching Note: 8B00N22 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Exchange Rates; Risk Management; International Finance; Hedging
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MOBITELL (A): MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS IN RUSSIA
Murray J. Bryant, Craig Dunbar, Konstantin Markov

Product Number: 9B05B015
Publication Date: 10/13/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 15 pages

The Mobitell case series examines the choice and implementation of a currency strategy for a telecommunications company operating in Russia with substantial exposure to the euro and U.S. dollar through various debt instruments. Students have to assess the financial strategy and the appropriate financial reporting under the International Accounting Standards. Mobitell (A): Mobile Communications in Russia, product 9B05B015 provides company and currency exposure history. Supplements Mobitell (B): Hedging Alternatives, product 9B05B016 and Mobitell (C): Accounting For the SWAP Deal, product 9B05B017 follow the situation with a pending deal with AO Citibank Moscow and the finalizing of the deal.

Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Accounting Standard Setting; Hedging; Foreign Exchange; Debt Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
International Accounting for Global Operations

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Claude P. Lanfranconi, Virginia Webster

Product Number: 9A93B017
Publication Date: 10/28/1993
Revision Date: 3/1/2010
Length: 15 pages

As accounting has developed and spread throughout the world, different principles and reporting practices have evolved in different countries. Typical financial statements (income statements, balance sheets, and significant accounting policies) of six countries are presented for a comparative analysis of the differences in accounting policies and presentation format.

Issues: Accounting Standard Setting; Accounting Principles
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC-BARCLAYS: ACCOUNTING FOR THEIR MERGER
Archibald Campbell, Noel Reynolds

Product Number: 9B04B022
Publication Date: 3/7/2005
Revision Date: 10/8/2009
Length: 12 pages

The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC have signed an agreement to combine their retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean to create FirstCaribbean International Bank. In principle, it appeared that both parties were agreeing to a combination of their assets to form a new entity, in which case a new holding company could be constituted to absorb the assets being merged. Alternately, as Barclays interest in the merger was substantially greater than that of CIBC, the transaction could be construed as an outright purchase of the CIBC interests by Barclays. The problem with this second approach, however, was that Barclays Caribbean presently had no separate legal form in the region. This case illustrates the procedures for accounting for mergers and acquisition, and lends itself to discussion on a myriad of issues and concepts. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the four additional cases which deal with various functional issues regarding the actual merger/integration which occurred. The four additional cases are Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean Bank, product 9B04C053; Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032; CIBC-Barclays: Should Their Caribbean Operations be Merged?, product 9B04M067; and Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04B22 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Accounting - Tax; Accounting - Transactions; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KOMANDOR SA (A)
David J. Sharp, Karen Bong

Product Number: 9B01B013
Publication Date: 10/18/2001
Revision Date: 12/7/2009
Length: 9 pages

Komandor SA is a subsidiary of a Polish holding company that manufactures sliding doors and closet organizer systems. The company president and his Canadian counterpart must decide on a transfer pricing policy for consulting services and associated components shipped between the two countries. Polish tax regulations seem unclear and arbitrary and the tax auditor has disallowed the consulting fees. The two presidents must decide whether allocating the consulting fee to product overhead will solve the problem.

Teaching Note: 8B01B13 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Accounting; International Trade; Transfer Pricing; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



NOTE ON CORPORATE FINANCIAL REPORTING IN CHINA AND HONG KONG
Claude P. Lanfranconi, Peter Yuan

Product Number: 9B00B019
Publication Date: 10/20/2000
Revision Date: 1/7/2010
Length: 18 pages

The corporate financial reporting and accounting standards in the People's Republic of China and the newly established Hong Kong Special Administrative Region vary. Basic background information on each country's standards is provided in this note, as well as some insight into the steps being taken to improve the corporate financial reporting.

Issues: Accounting Principles; Accounting Environment; Financial Reports/Disclosure
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
Global Marketing and Supply Chain

NISSAN CANADA INC.
P. Fraser Johnson, Kyle Hunter

Product Number: 9B07D018
Publication Date: 8/30/2007
Length: 12 pages

The corporate manager of vehicle planning at Nissan Canada Inc. had been asked by the director of vehicle ordering for Nissan North America (NNA), to review the proposed vehicle ordering process as part of the new Integrated Customer Order Network (ICON). The ICON project would change Nissan's North American vehicle ordering process from a 'make-to-stock' into a 'make-to-order' environment which called for a significant process transformation for Nissan's operations in North America and Japan. The corporate manager of vehicle planning was hoping that the new process would be exactly what the dealers were seeking in an effort to closer align production with customer demand. However, he needed to evaluate the new process from the perspective of all stakeholders to ensure that Nissan's business objectives could be met.

Teaching Note: 8B07D18 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Forecasting
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AT WAL-MART
P. Fraser Johnson, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B07D001
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/30/2017
Length: 15 pages

In 2006 Wal-Mart, the second largest firm in the world by sales, was looking to improve its already efficient supply chain. The company's supply chain was closely integrated with its retail and information systems strategies and has been developed incrementally over the past 40 years. However, rivals are copying every aspect, from the way Wal-Mart cross-docks product in warehouses, to Wal-Mart's use of a sophisticated database to capture, store and disseminate store-level information to suppliers. Wal-Mart's new executive vice-president, logistics was overseeing a handful of initiatives designed to improve the firm's supply chain. However, it was not certain that these initiatives were going to have a significant impact on Wal-Mart costs, and he needed to consider what the company should do to stay ahead of the competition.

Teaching Note: 8B07D01 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Purchasing; Retailing; Supply Chain Management; Logistics
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PROGISTIX-SOLUTIONS INC. - THE CRITICAL PARTS NETWORK
P. Fraser Johnson, Alison Woodcock

Product Number: 9B05D002
Publication Date: 1/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 8 pages

The president and chief executive officer of Progistix-Solutions Inc. has asked an analyst to prepare an annual review of the Xerox Critical Parts Network for presentation to management in two weeks. The president expected the analyst to review the performance of the network and establish an improvement plan for the coming year, supported by specific goals and objectives. Although Xerox and Progistix had been satisfied with their relationship, after five years, both parties were interested in exploring ways to improve the network, particularly as competitors adopted similar approaches. In preparation for the meeting, the analyst wanted to explore opportunities in three specific areas. First, identify opportunities to improve depot operations. Second, he believed that opportunities existed to make additional improvements in the area of inventory management and he wondered how and where Progistix could work together with Xerox on such an initiative. Third, was to improve system-wide inventory turn performance by re-examining the cut-off point for filling the technicians' trunks with inventory. This case provides an opportunity for students to analyse a rapid-response supply chain and make recommendations for improvements. Class discussion can include issues related to supply chain partnerships, outsourcing, inventory management and demand forecasting. Data provided in the case allow students to develop implementation plans and set specific performance targets.

Teaching Note: 8B05D02 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Logistics; Inventory Planning/Control; Outsourcing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DABBAWALLAHS OF MUMBAI (B)
Larry Menor, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B04D013
Publication Date: 8/10/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 4 pages

The president of Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Charity Fund is faced with the decision of how to expand the Dabbawallahs of Mumbai service. The service could be expanded in terms of product offering or geographical setting. This is a supplement to Dabbawallahs of Mumbai (A), product 9B04D011, and asks students to examine the opportunities and challenges in growing the service, and decide upon the most appropriate course of action.

Teaching Note: 8B04D11 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: System Design; Service Operations; Process Design/Change; Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUXLEY MAQUILADORA
Paul W. Beamish, Jaechul Jung, Joyce Miller

Product Number: 9B02M033
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 6/28/2011
Length: 14 pages

A senior manager in a U.S. manufacturing firm must make a recommendation about whether 57 labour intensive jobs should be moved from the existing California plant to a new facility in a Mexican maquiladora. If the Mexican opportunity is pursued, decisions are also required regarding the entry mode (subcontracting, shelter operator or wholly-owned subsidiary) and location (border or interior).

Teaching Note: 8B02M33 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Plant Location; Third World; Subsidiaries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 18:
Global Human Resource Management

HARMONIZATION OF COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS FOR FIRSTCARIBBEAN INTERNATIONAL BANK
Edward Akhentoolove Corbin, Betty Jane Punnett

Product Number: 9B04C053
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 9 pages

The merger of the Caribbean holdings of Barclays Bank Plc. and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is going ahead, and the reality of integration of very diverse systems and procedures has to be faced. The case deals with understanding the current situation in terms of existing policies and designing policies that would be acceptable to employees from both banks in the organization - FirstCaribbean International Bank - which would be created by the merger. A critical aspect of the merger is the harmonization of compensation and benefits that must be resolved as a matter of priority. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis, or in combination with any of four additional cases that deal with various functional issues: 1) General Management - CIBC and Barclays: Should Their Operations be Merged, product 9B04M067. 2) Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032. 3) Accounting and Finance: CIBC Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022 4) Technical note: Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04C53 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Consolidations and Mergers; Benefits Policy; Compensation; Change Management; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LARSON IN NIGERIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, Isaiah A. Litvak, Harry Cheung

Product Number: 9B04M012
Publication Date: 2/3/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 7 pages

The vice-president of international operations must decide whether to continue to operate or abandon the company's Nigerian joint venture. Although the expatriate general manager of the Nigerian operation has delivered a very pessimistic report, Larson's own hunch was to stay in that country. Maintaining the operation was complicated by problems in staffing, complying with a promise to increase the share of local ownership, a joint venture partner with divergent views, and increasing costs of doing business in Nigeria. If Larson decides to maintain the existing operation, the issues of increasing local equity participation (i.e. coping with indigenization) and staffing problems (especially in terms of the joint venture general manager) have to be addressed.

Teaching Note: 8B04M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Subsidiaries; Third World; Government Regulation; Staffing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HONG KONG'S OCEAN PARK: TAKING ON DISNEY (REVISED)
Michael N. Young, Dong Liu, Derek Au, Karen Hung, Crystal Wong, Marty Yam, Olivia Yau

Product Number: 9B06M075
Publication Date: 8/30/2006
Revision Date: 2/5/2014
Length: 16 pages

Ocean Park was the only amusement park in Hong Kong until 2005 when Hong Kong Disney exploded onto the entertainment scene. This case outlines Ocean Park's history and its response to Disney's encroachment into its market. Ocean Park acted swiftly and decisively to capitalize on the excitement generated by Disney, thus turning what could have been a threat into an opportunity. In terms of business-level strategy, the park moved to accentuate the differences with Disney rather than compete with Disney head-on. As the CEO stated We have no intention of trying to out-Disney Disney. The park focused on its aquarium, animals and thrill-rides as opposed to the fantasy and animated characters that make up Disney's core competence. By following such a strategy, the park was able to capture a large portion of Disney visitors that came from Mainland China. The case also discusses a recent restructuring, as well as, human resources management issues and other challenges that the park faced in 2006.

Teaching Note: 8B06M75 (6 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Product Positioning; Competitive Strategy; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MARIMEKKO
Alison Konrad, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06C014
Publication Date: 1/30/2007
Revision Date: 9/16/2009
Length: 19 pages

Kirsti Paakkanen has achieved a celebrity status in Finland for her enigmatic leadership of the Finnish design company Marimekko. Purchasing the company in a state of near bankruptcy in 1991, Paakkanen took several actions to restore profitability and realize growth. As of 2006, the company has sales of $64 million (of which 80 per cent are from Finland) and net profits of $8.4 million. Over the last few years, Paakkanen and her team have focused on growing international sales. Recently, the company has opened concept shops in Japan, United Arab Emirates, Iceland, Sweden and the United States owned by foreign partners. In light of the international expansion, Paakkanen is wondering if any changes to Marimekko's personnel policies and/or organization structure are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B06C14 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Succession Planning; Women in Management; Organizational Structure; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GTI IN RUSSIA
Mikhail Grachev, Peggy C. Smith, Mariya A. Bobina

Product Number: 9B03C008
Publication Date: 2/27/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 14 pages

GTI is Global Traffic Inc., a U.S.-based sign manufacturer. The vice-president of the company is asked to recommend a human resources strategy for possible entry in the Russian market. He must develop a plan for expatriate assignment, the selection and compensation of personnel and the training needs, as well as outline the organizational culture.

Teaching Note: 8B03C08 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Expatriate Management; Compensation; Management Training; Cross Cultural Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL BANKS IN TANZANIA
Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

Product Number: 9B07C040
Publication Date: 10/30/2007
Length: 18 pages

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C40 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: International Management; Expatriate Management; Trade Unions; Management Training; Emerging Markets; Performance Evaluation; Recruiting; Subsidiaries; Career Development; Employee Selection
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAX GLOBAL LIMITED: STAFF TURNOVER IN MAINLAND CHINA
Jean-Louis Schaan, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05C035
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 13 pages

The human resources manager for logistics and supply chain management at BAX China must consider her company's high rate of staff turnover. In her monthly report to the managing director, the turnover had reached 12 per cent in the first eight months of the year. The human resources manager must evaluate the company's current methods of dealing with turnover and consider what additional action should be taken. Logistics was a complex and rapidly growing industry, particularly in mainland China. Many multinational and domestic service providers were entering the marketing and expanding their operations; however, these companies had to respond to complex operational challenges and escalating customer demands. The resulting demand for skilled workers led to high turnover rates across the industry and at all organizational levels, and created margin pressure and other management challenges. The case offers a uniquely Chinese perspective on workforce recruitment, management and retention. The industry and the broader economy were growing rapidly. Skilled workers were in short supply because logistics was a new and developing discipline in the former command economy. Also, in the human resources manager's opinion, cultural attitudes resulted in low loyalty among the workers.

Teaching Note: 8B05C35 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: China; Employee Retention; Recruiting; Compensation; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 19:
Global Internet and E-Commerce

SHOPSTER.COM
Malcolm Munro, Sid L. Huff

Product Number: 9B07E005
Publication Date: 8/21/2007
Revision Date: 9/27/2007
Length: 18 pages

Shopster.com is a Calgary-based e-business company whose business is to assist other individuals or companies in setting up their own retail transactional websites. Shopster differs significantly from ordinary website developers in that retailers are able to select from a huge inventory of saleable products, through Shopster's network of goods providers. Shopster also provides software tools, and expertise, to allow anyone wishing to create an online retail store to do so quickly and easily. Shopster's business has done well to date, but there are plenty of operational challenges ahead. As well, the principals would like to "raise the bar" substantially, to something they refer to as "Shopster 2.0", the specifics of which are still at a formative stage. The Shopster case provides an interesting example of a small but rapidly growing Canadian company with an innovative business model and big dreams for the future.

Teaching Note: 8B07E05 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Supply Chain Management; E-Business Models; E-Commerce; Virtual Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DATAUNISON: THE EBAY RESELLER STRATEGY
Rebecca A. Grant, Meghan Stothers

Product Number: 9B07E014
Publication Date: 6/15/2007
Length: 19 pages

In 2005, e-business was on the rise again, and one of the companies that was doing well was eBay, the most successful online auction website. In addition to generating revenue, transactions on eBay also produced a substantial amount of data about purchases, prices and products. The chief executive officer (CEO) of the 18-month-old company, Advanced Economic Research Systems, Inc. (AERS) analyzed this data for consumers and businesses interested in maximizing their return from eBay. Recently, AERS had earned the rights to license eBay data in North America. Now the CEO must decide how to capitalize on the data license agreement without cannibalizing his company's business of selling the results of analysis to large and small eBay sellers.

Teaching Note: 8B07E14 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Market Segmentation; E-Business; E-Commerce; Product Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE PROFESSOR PROPOSES
Gregory S. Zaric, Michael Leff

Product Number: 9B06E017
Publication Date: 6/4/2007
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 13 pages

A professor is shopping for a diamond engagement ring. He finds one with certain specifications for a certain price, and wishes to determine if the price of the diamond is fair. He collects data on the prices and characteristics (cut, colour, clarity and carats) of several hundred diamonds from three Internet wholesalers. This case can be used for linear regression analysis with categorical variables as well as other statistical techniques.

Teaching Note: 8B06E17 (18 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: E-Commerce; Commodity Pricing; Regression Analysis; Statistical Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ISTOCKPHOTO.COM: TURNING COMMUNITY INTO COMMERCE
Rebecca A. Grant, Meghan Stothers

Product Number: 9B07E013
Publication Date: 1/26/2007
Revision Date: 5/28/2007
Length: 12 pages

When the founder of iStockphoto.com started the company in 2000, his objective was to share his vast collection of stock photography with graphic designers worldwide, and, in the process, help others do the same. By 2002, the organization was a respected and successful online community, but the founder and his partners now had to consider the profitability of their company. iStock was founded on community and collaboration - not commerce. Should the model change and if so, what would it take to make a significant culture change work? The case examines the culture and business opportunities for this start-up. It demonstrates the challenges of generating profit from an online community, as well as the key factors needed to build a community that can be turned into a profitable business.

Teaching Note: 8B07E13 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Change; E-Business Models; Strategy Implementation; E-Commerce
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EAT2EAT.COM
Kenneth G. Hardy, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B06A018
Publication Date: 8/30/2006
Revision Date: 9/11/2009
Length: 13 pages

Eat2Eat.com was an Internet-based restaurant reservation service covering a dozen cities in the Asia Pacific region. It was the principal business of Singapore-based Eat2Eat Pte Ltd. It was launched in 2000 by an entrepreneur and former investment banker with US$1 million of his own capital. He quickly established the capabilities and business model, but after five years, the registered user base remained relatively small at about 12,000. He thought the next step for the company was to expand that user base and hoped that the company could change the way people made plans to eat out. Resources - specifically, time and money - were limited, so any promotional efforts would have to be innovative and efficient. The case focuses on entrepreneurial marketing with sub-themes of financing and small enterprise management. It is a story of an entrepreneur who had an idea and enough money to launch it, but then struggles to achieve adequate scale.

Teaching Note: 8B06A18 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: E-Commerce; Startups; Entrepreneurial Finance; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 20:
Ethics and Corruption in the Global Marketplace

STATOIL IRAN
Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05C036
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 3 pages

Less than one year after being awarded a contract to develop one of the world's largest offshore petroleum fields, Statoil's future in Iran appeared to be in jeopardy. Statoil was at the center of a corruption investigation that had resulted in the resignations of three of the company's top executives, including its CEO. The issue was alleged bribes paid by Horton Investments, on Statoil's behest, to secure lucrative petroleum development contracts. According to the Iranian government, Statoil used Horton to channel $15 million in secret bribes to unnamed government officials. Statoil's country manager, who had considerable experience in the region and was unaware of the secret deals, is left with the difficult task of trying to salvage the operation and rebuild the social capital he had established between Statoil and its Iranian counterparts.

Teaching Note: 8B05C36 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Management Behaviour; Ethical Issues; Energy; International Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FROM GOOD COP TO BAD COP
David Loree, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B03C048
Publication Date: 11/28/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 9 pages

A senior officer at a large police department is preparing to address a class of newly-graduated police officers. Over the past five months, the nation's media has been covering almost daily stories of alleged corruption concerning police officers in the precinct. The coverage intensified with the apparent suicide of one of the police officers, an officer previously decorated for service and bravery. In preparing his address to the graduates, the senior officer wondered what had gone so terribly wrong in the precinct and more importantly, what could have been done to prevent it.

Teaching Note: 8B03C48 (5 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Corporate Culture; Personal Values; Human Resources Management; Human Behaviour
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A FEW TIPS ABOUT CORRUPTION IN THE U.S.
Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B06M089
Publication Date: 11/6/2006
Length: 7 pages

This case presents the situation faced by three people in the United States as they exit a restaurant in California. They are discussing whether tipping is a form of private sector corruption, similar to public sector corruption that pervades many countries worldwide. Discussion ensues on what constitutes corruption, and whether private and public sector corruption are required and ethical business practices.

Teaching Note: 8B06M89 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Ethical Issues; Political Environment; International Business; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HOOPLAH MEDIA GROUP: MANAGING INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
John S. Haywood-Farmer, Jeff Greenspoon

Product Number: 9B07C030
Publication Date: 8/15/2007
Revision Date: 3/25/2008
Length: 8 pages

The majority partner in the Hooplah Media Group (Hooplah) of Toronto, Ontario, was trying to decide what to do about one of Hooplah's website design contractors (contractor). The contractor had taken on a project directly with a key contact at JewelWorks Inc., one of Hooplah's largest clients, without going through Hooplah. As an independent contractor, he offered to design a website for JewelWorks Inc. for a lower price than Hooplah's rate. Apparently, the project was not going smoothly, and there was significant tension between the contractor and the contact at JewelWorks Inc. The majority partner at Hooplah was unsure how he should react to the contractors' involvement with JewelWorks Inc. and whether he should assist in the completion of the website.

Teaching Note: 8B07C30 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Accountability; Ethical Issues; Customer Relations; Contracting; Outsourcing; Organizational Behaviour; Management of Professionals
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BC METAL (A)
James A. Erskine, Aaron Anticic

Product Number: 9B07C020
Publication Date: 6/4/2007
Revision Date: 10/19/2007
Length: 5 pages

The president of a metal products manufacturer and distributor is informed that the company controller is having an affair with another employee who is married to the general manager of production. The president is in the process of selling the company and wonders what affect the affair, if true, will have. Three short supplementary cases are also available: 9B07C021, 9B07C022 and 9B07C023.

Teaching Note: 8B07C20 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Ethical Issues; Office Extramarital Affairs; Sexual Harassment; Employee Relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA