Ivey Publishing

Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategy, Communication, Governance

Rasche, A., Morsing, M., Moon, J.,1/e (United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2017)
Prepared By Andreas Rasche, Mette Morsing, Jeremy Moon, Louise Thomsen, Kate Whitfield,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
The Changing Role of Business in Global Society: CSR and Beyond

NOVO NORDISK: MANAGING SUSTAINABILITY AT HOME AND ABROAD
Jette Steen Knudsen, Dana Brown

Product Number: 9B12M081
Publication Date: 9/7/2012
Revision Date: 2/14/2013
Length: 17 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case study deals with the opportunities and challenges faced by Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk with regard to its sustainability approach in China as of 2012. Novo Nordisk is well known for striving to integrate its business activities in a financially, environmentally, and socially responsible way, and many Novo Nordisk employees proudly refer to Novo Nordisk as a “triple bottom line (TBL) company.” Novo Nordisk has been active in China for more than 50 years; however, since the Chinese economy has expanded tremendously, this increase in wealth and a more sedentary Western lifestyle have led to growing problems with obesity. As a result, China’s insulin market is booming.

Novo Nordisk therefore faces new challenges concerning how best to organize its TBL program in a way that ensures a comprehensive approach throughout the organization, yet allows Novo Nordisk China to adopt initiatives that fit the Chinese business context. Furthermore, with ever-increasing competition for access to China’s lucrative insulin market, Novo Nordisk’s competitors are also engaging in sustainability, which means that Novo Nordisk must keep innovating to stand out, and must use sustainability as a source of competitive advantage.


Teaching Note: 8B12M081 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Non-market Strategy; China; Europe
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WALKING THE WALK: PUTTING SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY INTO ACTION AT THE WHITE DOG CAFE
Diane M. Phillips, Jason Keith Phillips

Product Number: 9B07M049
Publication Date: 10/24/2007
Revision Date: 9/8/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is designed to examine the issue of corporate social responsibility in a small firm. The key issue is how a small organization can maintain its strong social responsibility philosophy when (a) the organization is growing, (b) the environment in which the organization exists is extremely competitive, and (c) the entrepreneurial visionary who started the firm is getting ready to step down. The case describes the dilemma the owner of White Dog Cafe has regarding the transition of current management to the new management team and the development of the White Dog Cafe's social responsibility philosophy, the challenges that other socially responsible organizations have had as they have grown, and the strategies that the company has used to successfully keep its philosophies and goals at the forefront of its business operations.

Teaching Note: 8B07M49 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Corporate Culture; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Social Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Historical Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility

THE ECONOMICS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY


Product Number: UVAGEM0143
Publication Date: 8/10/2016
Length: 7 pages

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the voluntary decision of companies to address social and environmental concerns by contributing to a public good, reducing external costs, and increasing fairness or distributional equity. CSR is looked at from an economic point of view, focusing on environmental and natural resource issues with a particular emphasis on water. The term CSR is first clarified and contextualized before being situated in the economics literature. This note studies CSR from an economic angle, and looks at how it is in line with economic incentives. It focuses on: (1) the extent to which there is a need for CSR in terms of the characteristics of the economic environment that make CSR policies effective; and (2) how CSR policies interact with firms’ operations and profit maximization. This technical note supports cases in the Darden course elective, “The Global Economics of Water".

Issues: corporate social responsibility, externalities, welfare economics




MSPL LIMITED: CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN MINING
Amit Gupta, Amita Joseph

Product Number: 9B12C023
Publication Date: 5/22/2012
Revision Date: 5/15/2012
Length: 19 pages

MSPL Limited was an iron ore mining and processing company in India. Owned by the Baldota Group, it also had interests in shipping, pelleting, and wind energy. In January 2012, MSPL’s businesses and operations were headed by Narendrakumar A. Baldota and his two sons. MSPL’s main source of revenue, the Vyasankere Iron Ore Mine (VIOM), was one of the largest iron ore mines in the private sector in India. MSPL had been progressive and proactive in its approach to sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Many of its initiatives predated government legislation related to environmental, employee, and community issues. MSPL’s policies towards environmental issues and local communities had been driven by the beliefs and vision of its founder and chairman, Baldota’s father. Baldota expanded MSPL’s initiatives related to the environment, employees, and communities. The case deals with the choices and decisions that Baldota had made regarding the numerous CSR and sustainability initiatives undertaken by the organization. Were there other initiatives that MSPL should have undertaken? Was it even necessary for the company to carry out CSR activities in the local communities?

Teaching Note: 8B12C023 (16 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Stakeholders; Mining; Natural Resources; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S AND UNILEVER: THE BOHEMIAN AND THE BEHEMOTH


Product Number: UVABP0471
Publication Date: 1/30/2004
Length: 11 pages

Ben & Jerry/Unilever raises the issues of (1) how to bring a nonbusiness culture (B&J) into a corporate culture (Unilever) while preserving the value acquired; (2) how to manage a recently acquired subsidiary whose parent company is an ocean away; (3) how, as a corporate-appointed general manager, the French general manger can gain the trust of the acquired firm; and (4) how (or even whether) to preserve the Social Responsibility (SR) aspects of the target. An additional focus might be how (or whether) to export a socially-responsible firm's values to overseas locations. The case can be positioned near the end of a PMI course, where the students can apply PMI skills in a unique ethical and cultural situation. Alternatively, it can be used in an Ethics course to highlight the challenges of maintaining an SR mission when a public global corporation acquires a local (Vermont) SR organization.

Teaching Note: UVABP0471T (9 pages)



Chapter 3:
Strategic CSR: Ambitions and Critiques

SUDARSHAN CHEMICALS INDIA: CROWD-SOURCING FOR CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY
Tulsi Jayakumar, Nilotpal Ray, Divya Mulanjur, Debopam Basu, Gayatri Patkar

Product Number: 9B14M065
Publication Date: 6/6/2014
Revision Date: 6/2/2014
Length: 16 pages

Sudarshan Chemicals Industries is a top player in the Indian chemicals industry. This case traces the remodelling of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative, both along scientific lines and aligned to its core business strategy. Faced with an informal and unstructured CSR initiative, the company uses an innovative method of problem-solving – crowd-sourcing ideas from a top business school in India. A team of students assesses the situation completely in order to make recommendations to the company’s top managers. The case details a process of scientific value-creation in CSR that can be adopted by companies as they make the transition from local to global.

Teaching Note: 8B14M065 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate social responsibility; corporate sustainability; philanthropy; chemicals industry; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



NEW BALANCE: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B10M011
Publication Date: 1/28/2010
Length: 21 pages

This case focuses on New Balance, a privately held company and the fourth largest athletic footwear manufacturer in the world. Founded over 100 years ago, New Balance has a strong social responsibility culture and mission established by its owners. Its commitment to employees, for example, was expressed through maintaining domestic manufacturing in the United States (the only large footwear manufacturer to do so presently) and avoiding layoffs in the deep recession of 2007-2009. In the late 1990s, the company established the Responsible Leadership Steering Committee to address human rights issues in overseas factories. Throughout the years, private ownership had allowed New Balance to take risks and make choices that publicly held companies might not have been able to do; at the same time, private ownership also meant lower pressures to disclose social and environmental performance. The owners were also very humble and hesitant to talk aloud about social responsibility. As a global player, the present challenge for the company has become to move corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the next level from doing what's right to fully integrating CSR into the business strategy. The overall goal of the case is to use the provided information from a comprehensive company assessment to identify a few key areas where New Balance can focus on and demonstrate industry leadership while also supporting the bottom line. A set of key questions is included at the end of the paper to guide student's discussion around critical issues for building an integrated CSR strategy for New Balance, considering its culture, structure and present level of corporate citizenship management.

Teaching Note: 8B10M11 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Strategy Development; Business Sustainability; Performance Assessment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BANK AUDI: LEADING THROUGH SUSTAINABILITY
Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B16M168
Publication Date: 10/13/2016
Revision Date: 10/13/2016
Length: 11 pages

Bank Audi, a leading financial institution, was founded in Lebanon in 1830 and, over the years, had been engaged in various forms of philanthropic, charitable giving embodying its responsibility towards its various stakeholders. The head of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) unit faced a prominent decision. How could the bank consolidate its CSR efforts—which had taken a largely philanthropic approach, especially between 2010 and 2012—in the context of a coherent strategy that built on the assessment of aspects that were material and critical to both the bank and its key stakeholders? Setting the bank’s CSR priorities would serve as the basis of a coherent CSR strategy for Bank Audi.

Teaching Note: 8B16M168 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: materiality, strategic corporate social responsibility, CSR, philanthropy, MENA
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Corporate Responsibility Strategies for Sustainability

TATA POWER: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Rama Deshmukh, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B10M013
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 18 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case describes the strategic dilemma involved in making a decision on the method of operation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) department for one of the leading Indian multinational corporations, Tata Power Company (TPC) from Tata Group of Companies. TPC had undertaken the CSR activities for decades, reflecting the company's commitment towards sustainable energy generation without undue compromise to human and environmental development. These activities were undertaken as a voluntary initiative by the employees of TPC, and there was no separate CSR department. However, with large scale expansion, the need to have CSR as a separate entity was felt. The dilemma for the decision manager was whether to create a separate CSR department or continue with the existing set up. Other related issues needed to be addressed strategically as well as tactically to maintain a balance between shareholders' interest and other stakeholders.

Teaching Note: 8B10M13 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability; Opportunity Recognition; Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholders; Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SOLUTIONS CARE ASSOCIATION: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B11M004
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 19 pages

This case focuses on Solutions Care Association (SCA) — a nonprofit health care organization established in 2000 that quickly became a leader in environmental stewardship and social responsibility. With headquarters in Nevada, United States, the company had a strong mission and socially responsible culture, which helped attract talent and launch social and environmental initiatives. Despite its numerous achievements and awards, however, there was limited awareness internally and externally about these initiatives and their impact on business and society. In addition, the company did not have a comprehensive way to track and report these achievements. As an emerging leader of the integrated health care plan in the United States, Solutions Care Association had both the responsibility and the opportunity to be a model of what American health care should look like. With growing concerns over and scrutiny of the health care industry, there was no better time for Solutions Care Association to continue to strengthen its leadership position in addressing key social and environmental problems, such as providing affordable health care, reducing climate change impacts, phasing out toxic chemicals and creating a safe, culturally sensitive, and supportive environment for employees, patients, and suppliers.

Teaching Note: 8B11M004 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Strategy Development; Communications; Health Care; Corporate Social Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NEW BALANCE: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B10M011
Publication Date: 1/28/2010
Length: 21 pages

This case focuses on New Balance, a privately held company and the fourth largest athletic footwear manufacturer in the world. Founded over 100 years ago, New Balance has a strong social responsibility culture and mission established by its owners. Its commitment to employees, for example, was expressed through maintaining domestic manufacturing in the United States (the only large footwear manufacturer to do so presently) and avoiding layoffs in the deep recession of 2007-2009. In the late 1990s, the company established the Responsible Leadership Steering Committee to address human rights issues in overseas factories. Throughout the years, private ownership had allowed New Balance to take risks and make choices that publicly held companies might not have been able to do; at the same time, private ownership also meant lower pressures to disclose social and environmental performance. The owners were also very humble and hesitant to talk aloud about social responsibility. As a global player, the present challenge for the company has become to move corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the next level from doing what's right to fully integrating CSR into the business strategy. The overall goal of the case is to use the provided information from a comprehensive company assessment to identify a few key areas where New Balance can focus on and demonstrate industry leadership while also supporting the bottom line. A set of key questions is included at the end of the paper to guide student's discussion around critical issues for building an integrated CSR strategy for New Balance, considering its culture, structure and present level of corporate citizenship management.

Teaching Note: 8B10M11 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Strategy Development; Business Sustainability; Performance Assessment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Managing Stakeholders in the Digital Age

APPLE AND ITS SUPPLIERS: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Sun Hye Lee, Michael J. Mol, Kamel Mellahi

Product Number: 9B16M040
Publication Date: 3/22/2016
Revision Date: 3/4/2016
Length: 10 pages

In a 2014 documentary, the multinational technology company Apple Inc. was implicated in alleged human rights violations at Pegatron, a large Chinese supplier that assembled Apple's iPhones. The allegations followed similar, well-publicized violations in 2009 at another China-based Apple supplier. Although Apple had promised to improve its practices, doing so had clearly proven to be a difficult task. How should Apple respond to these new allegations? Should it evade the accusations and instead point to its existing efforts? Could it do more to protect workers? Should it rethink its offshoring and outsourcing strategy? Is it fair to blame Apple for the activities of its suppliers? Where does the blame fall?

Teaching Note: 8B16M040 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Customer service, relations, supply chain, offshoring, CSR, worker safety, ethical business operations, regulations, public image, worker rights, Foxconn, original design manufacturer, ODM, fair labour, responsibility
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GREENPEACE'S UNFRIEND COAL CAMPAIGN AND FACEBOOK
Michael Sider, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12M011
Publication Date: 2/10/2012
Revision Date: 10/28/2013
Length: 10 pages

Facebook’s director of policy communications was faced with a situation caused by a YouTube video posted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) Greenpeace. This video publicly critiqued the environmental sustainability of Facebook’s decision to build a new data centre, its main objection being that the new facility would be connected to a local utility provider that supplied electricity mainly from the burning of coal, one of the largest sources of global warming. This video was only the latest of a series of actions, commenced by Greenpeace eight months earlier, immediately following Facebook’s decision to build the new facility. Greenpeace had dubbed these actions the “Unfriend Coal Campaign,” which now had 500,000 followers and had generated numerous media stories. Greenpeace’s goal was to pressure Facebook into adopting cleaner energy policies by leveraging Facebook’s own social media against the company. As Facebook had no plans to stop building the facility, its director needed to figure out the best course of action to take in response to the mounting pressure from Greenpeace, in order to alleviate the increasingly negative attention from media and consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B12M011 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Ethical Issues; Social Media; Facilities Planning; Non-governmental Organizations; Communications; Corporate Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HOST EUROPE: ADVANCING CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN A MEDIUM-SIZED IT COMPANY
Rüdiger Hahn

Product Number: 9B10M042
Publication Date: 6/10/2010
Length: 17 pages

The case deals with issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the specific setting of a medium-sized enterprise (Host Europe) in the IT industry. Host Europe is the third largest webhosting company in German-speaking Europe. In recent years, the company has put substantial efforts into living up to its CSR and improving sustainability. The case presents the IT sector in Europe and Germany and highlights several industry-related issues such as green IT (especially in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and e-waste) and the digital divide. Host Europe has already implemented a couple of measures, such as building a new energy-efficient green data centre, switching to renewable energy, promoting virtualization, introducing several workplace measures, pursuing efforts to improve family friendliness, and publishing a sustainability report. However, there are still some challenges ahead and students are asked to think about further efforts of Host Europe to complete its path to becoming a responsible and sustainable medium-sized IT company.The case can either be used as an introductory case for CSR in medium-sized businesses and sustainability in the IT industry, or in advanced-level CSR and sustainability courses. As an introductory case it provides in-depth insights into a company that has already put substantial efforts into becoming a responsible and sustainable IT company. Students learn about various sustainability and CSR issues and measures in the specific context of a medium-sized enterprise. As an advanced case for CSR and sustainability, it can be used to build upon the existing knowledge of students and to ask them to come up with other ideas and a sophisticated strategy to pursue further CSR and sustainability. For example, since Host Europe is not certified according to environmental or social standards yet, students could come up with a detailed and customized plan on how to implement such a management system for the company.

Teaching Note: 8B10M42 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Communications; Sustainable Development; Information Technology; Computer Industry; Corporate Social Responsibility; Green IT; Organizational Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Political CSR: The Corporation as a Political Actor

ENERGY, POVERTY AND THE MARKET: THE CSR STRATEGY OF COELCE IN BRAZIL


Product Number: 9402011015
Publication Date: 6/15/2011
Length: 20 pages

This case aims to address the issues of Sustainable Development (SD) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in emergent countries. More specifically, the case focuses on one of the major industries in the SD debate (the energy industry) in one of the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil). This case stimulates discussion on two topics: poverty (its consequences in terms of development in an emergent country) and strategic CSR (a specific kind of CSR in which companies integrate social and environmental causes in their strategic plans to create competitive advantages). We study the case of Coelce (energy company in Brazil), a subsidiary of the Spanish multinational corporation. The case starts in 2006, when Coelce faced the following dilemma: How can Coelce be socially and environmentally innovative to conquer new clients and guarantee profitability? We show the Ecoelce project and how it has allowed Ecoelce's managers to achieve this goal by adopting a strategic CSR approach.

Teaching Note: 5402011008 (12 pages)
Issues: Corporate social responsibility; Sustainable development; Energy; Poverty; Brazil
Setting: Brazil




GOOGLE IN CHINA


Product Number: P54
Publication Date: 11/15/2006
Revision Date: 11/15/2006
Length: 8 pages

Using servers located in the United States, Google began offering a Chinese-language version of Google.com in 2000. The site, however, was frequently unavailable or slow because of censoring by the Chinese government. After extensive debate within the company, Google decided to offer a modified version of their site, Google.cn, using servers in China. Explores how Google and various foreign Internet companies entering the Chinese market responded to Internet censorship. Companies offering Internet services had to pledge not to circulate information that damages the honor or interests of the state or disturbs the public order or destroys public stability. Google.cn did not include features that allowed users to provide content--it offered neither e-mail nor the ability to create blogs--since user-generated material could be seized by the Chinese government, putting individuals in jeopardy of being arrested. Google planned to exercise self-censorship, conform to Chinese laws, and be thoughtful about the services it provided. Along with other Internet companies, however, Google faced severe criticism and political pressure in the United States for what was seen as cooperating with Chinese government censorship. Google had to decide whether to change its operating policies and what to do about the criticisms.

Issues: Business & government relations;Internet;Government policy;Strategic planning;Implementing strategy




RETHINKING POLITICAL ACTIVITY AT TARGET
Brian Richter, Anisha George

Product Number: 9B12M107
Publication Date: 11/29/2012
Revision Date: 11/29/2012
Length: 14 pages

The focus of the case is on understanding firms’ campaign contributions and lobbying strategies — and their limits. The case centers on controversy facing Target Corporation in 2010. In the wake of the Citizens United decision, Target was one of the first companies to take advantage of their newly acquired freedom to use corporate treasury money (rather than money in a corporate-linked PAC) to make a contribution to an independent expenditure committee (aka “Super PAC”). The company decided to make a donation to Minnesota Forward, a political action committee that had the primary goal of supporting job creation within the state. Pro-gay rights activists discovered that Minnesota Forward primarily backed Republican gubernatorial candidate Tom Emmer, who had previously supported traditional marriage. After this, Target, despite its liberal and socially responsible positioning, was subject to harsh criticism and activist protests as its donation was viewed as a contradiction to its social policies. The events put CEO Gregg Steinhafel in a position to revisit the company’s policies towards political activities. Should there be constraints on what the firm would do on the political front? If so, what should those be?

Teaching Note: 8B12M107 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Campaign Finance; Social Responsibility; Non-market Strategy; Governance; Activists; Political Activity; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Standards for CSR: Legitimacy, Impact and Critique

NESTLE'S NESCAFE PARTNERS' BLEND: THE FAIRTRADE DECISION (A)
Niraj Dawar, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06A020
Publication Date: 7/27/2006
Revision Date: 1/9/2008
Length: 24 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2006 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. In early 2005, Nestle is in the midst of a decision: whether or not the Fairtrade mark should be applied on Partners' Blend, a new instant coffee product to be marketed in the growing UK 'ethical' coffee segment. Application of the Fairtrade mark on the Partners Blend product means that Nestle must go against its historical position of not offering minimum guaranteed prices to coffee farmers. As part of their deliberations, Nestle executives must consider their coffee sourcing program at large, their corporate social responsibility framework, Nescafe and corporate Nestle branding, the UK market and the potential consumer benefits or backlash that could result from releasing such a product.

Teaching Note: 8B06A20 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: New Products; Corporate Responsibility; Brand Management; Product Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SUSTAINABILITY IN THE ARAB WORLD: THE ARAMEX WAY
Dima Jamali, Cedric Dawkins

Product Number: 9B11M060
Publication Date: 7/25/2011
Revision Date: 1/5/2017
Length: 16 pages

In 1982, Fadi Ghandour founded Aramex, a leading provider of logistics and transportation solutions with headquarters in Amman, Jordan. From its early inception, Ghandour strategically included principles and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the company’s culture in order to align business interests and competence with stakeholders’ needs. The community and environment were regarded as key stakeholders driving Aramex to act as a responsible citizen. Since its inception, Aramex had been involved in sustainability activities grouped into six primary areas: education and youth empowerment; community development; entrepreneurship; sports; environment; and emergency relief. Committed to growth and opening new offices globally, Aramex faced the challenge of preserving CSR as an integral part of its expansion strategy. In late January 2011, Ghandour and Hattar began brainstorming ways to address the need to harmonize CSR and sustainability values and practices across operations and ensure that sustainability principles were firmly institutionalized across branches and subsidiaries.

Teaching Note: 8B11M060 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Logistics and Transportation; Jordan, Middle East
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TRIP TRAP: MANAGING CERTIFICATION IN THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN
Jette Steen Knudsen, Dana Brown

Product Number: 9B14M120
Publication Date: 10/24/2014
Revision Date: 10/24/2014
Length: 8 pages

A small Danish design company seeks to collaborate with its largest supplier in Thailand in order to improve health, safety and environmental conditions, as well as labour standards, as a core element of complying with the UN Global Compact principles. The company takes its corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda seriously and has developed a new standard for CSR in its supplier factories that is implemented and audited by a non-governmental organization. New challenges emerge as attention shifts to the certification of production inputs such as wood. Although Western small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face pressures to audit their suppliers in developing countries, these SMEs often lack the financial and political resources to change behaviours in supplier factories. The firm’s quality manager must evaluate its sustainability approach. How much leverage can a small company expect to have with its suppliers? Furthermore, is the cost of auditing suppliers in a country such as Thailand too high?

Teaching Note: 8B14M120 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate social responsibility; global supply chain; small- and medium-sized enterprises; United Nations Global Compact; Denmark;Thailand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Corporate Responsibility Reporting

DIAMOND DEVELOPERS: MEASURING SUSTAINABILITY
Tim Rogmans

Product Number: 9B16M075
Publication Date: 4/27/2016
Revision Date: 4/27/2016
Length: 8 pages

In late 2014, Diamond Developers was building Dubai’s first large sustainable city, which was a mixed-use community designed to set new standards in environmental sustainability in the Middle East and beyond. As the project neared completion, the company’s co-founders needed to decide how to measure the development’s sustainability performance. Existing sustainability rating schemes had faced heavy criticism and were not easily applicable in Dubai’s desert climate. The co-founders therefore needed to determine whether the company should adapt one of the existing measurement systems or design its own sustainability performance measures. Regardless of the measurement system the company chose, the co-founders needed to decide how to define, measure, and manage sustainability as part of a unique real estate development project.

Teaching Note: 8B16M075 (6 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: sustainability, real estate, performance indicators
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ENBRIDGE: LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE
Fernanda Lorenzetti Alves, HangXing Ma, Irene Herremans, Cameron Welsh

Product Number: 9B16M025
Publication Date: 2/25/2016
Revision Date: 2/22/2016
Length: 15 pages

In 2009, Enbridge announced the Neutral Footprint program to enhance its social licence to operate, increase its corporate responsibility, and in turn improve its corporate reputation through good performance. The program also gave Enbridge an opportunity to provide information about its financial and non-financial performance. By the end of 2012, Enbridge had suffered from unfavourable publicity due to oil spills. It also encountered a great deal of opposition against its proposed Northern Gateway pipeline project. The company’s situation was further complicated by the retirement of its chief executive officer who had started the Neutral Footprint program. Enbridge’s new chief executive officer and president needed to be convinced of the benefits of the Neutral Footprint program, most of which were difficult to quantify. Would the project be cancelled, continue as is it was, or become even more engrained in Enbridge’s culture?

Teaching Note: 8B16M025 (8 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability plan, Reduction of GHG emission, land disturbance, renewable energies, CO2 emissions, carbon footprint, power, risk management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
NGO Activism and CSR

PETA'S KENTUCKY FRIED CRUELTY, INC. CAMPAIGN
Gerard Seijts, Michael Sider

Product Number: 9B03C045
Publication Date: 11/5/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 20 pages

A year and a half after calling off their campaign against fast-food giant McDonald's, the vegan campaign coordinator of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), contacted Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) to warn them that they would be the next target. He pointed out in his letter that while many of KFC's competitors had convened advisory panels to help them investigate the welfare of animals raised and slaughtered for their businesses, KFC appeared completely uninterested in the issue. PETA would rather not engage KFC in a campaign, but if the company refused to put together an animal welfare panel and to begin to look into the issue of how to raise and slaughter their chickens more humanely, all the leaflets, action alerts, posters, billboards, T-shirts and press releases PETA was now preparing would be dedicated to KFC and its cruel treatment of chickens. In January 2003, PETA, fed up with what it saw as KFC's lack of open communication, public misinformation, and outright stonewalling on change, announced a campaign against the company to the media in a news event replete with bloody descriptions of the cruelties of KFC's animal factories. Now it was time for Kentucky Fried Chicken to respond.

Teaching Note: 8B03C45 (12 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Business and Society; Ethical Issues; Crisis and Change; Management Communication
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



OF ORANGUTANS AND CHAINSAWS: CARGILL, INC. CONFRONTS THE RAINFOREST ACTION NETWORK ADVOCACY
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B12M062
Publication Date: 7/3/2012
Revision Date: 6/27/2012
Length: 10 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case won the 2012 Oikos Sustainability Case Writing Competition. Cargill, Inc., the privately owned, U.S.-based agribusiness company, was one of the largest sellers of palm oil in the world. Starting in 2007, the company was targeted by the Rainforest Action Network (RAN), a non-governmental organization (NGO) that advocated environmentalism. RAN targeted Cargill because the production of palm oil in countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia destroyed rainforests. Pressure was put on Cargill’s customers, including Nestle, to demand palm oil produced by sustainable farming. Palm oil producers formed an industry-monitoring body called the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). A September 2011 announcement of Indonesia’s withdrawal from the RSPO warranted a response from Cargill to combat the strident protest of RAN. Cargill’s CEO had to come up with a plan of action to respond to RAN’s demands.

Teaching Note: 8B12M062 (12 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Stakeholder Management; Sustainability; Environmentalism; Indonesia; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Government as a Regulator of CSR: Beyond Voluntarism

MSPL LIMITED: CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN MINING
Amit Gupta, Amita Joseph

Product Number: 9B12C023
Publication Date: 5/22/2012
Revision Date: 5/15/2012
Length: 19 pages

MSPL Limited was an iron ore mining and processing company in India. Owned by the Baldota Group, it also had interests in shipping, pelleting, and wind energy. In January 2012, MSPL’s businesses and operations were headed by Narendrakumar A. Baldota and his two sons. MSPL’s main source of revenue, the Vyasankere Iron Ore Mine (VIOM), was one of the largest iron ore mines in the private sector in India. MSPL had been progressive and proactive in its approach to sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Many of its initiatives predated government legislation related to environmental, employee, and community issues. MSPL’s policies towards environmental issues and local communities had been driven by the beliefs and vision of its founder and chairman, Baldota’s father. Baldota expanded MSPL’s initiatives related to the environment, employees, and communities. The case deals with the choices and decisions that Baldota had made regarding the numerous CSR and sustainability initiatives undertaken by the organization. Were there other initiatives that MSPL should have undertaken? Was it even necessary for the company to carry out CSR activities in the local communities?

Teaching Note: 8B12C023 (16 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Stakeholders; Mining; Natural Resources; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTMENT FUNDS IN FRANCE: REGULATIONS AND RETAIL (A)
Diane-Laure Arjalies, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B16N016
Publication Date: 9/29/2016
Revision Date: 9/29/2016
Length: 12 pages

In 2012, the French government was faced with the challenge of setting the standards for socially responsible investment funds. A broader issue was the set of roles and responsibilities that regulators needed to take to ensure the best interest of society and the retail market. Retail consumers were different from institutional clients because they were numerous, they may not have had access to the same information available to more sophisticated investors, and because their thoughts on the financial markets were most likely to be based on what they had read and heard in the news. The government had to decide how to go about creating standards that could be applied to socially responsible investment funds. Also see supplement 9B16N017.

Teaching Note: 8B16N016 (6 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Social responsibility, investment, industry, standards, collaboration, SRI
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAL-MART PUERTO RICO: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Myrna Comas, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B10M024
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 14 pages

Sowing the Development of the Country (SDC) was a public-private partnership between Wal-Mart Puerto Rico (Wal-Mart PR), the island's Department of Agriculture as well as its Economic Development Bank (EDB), two NGOs Caborroje's Pro Salud y Ambiente (Caborroje's Pro Health and Environment) and ConectaRSE (a corporate social responsibility (CSR) promotion non-governmental organization(NGO)), and a group of local farmers. The objective of the project was to promote sustainable development on the island by encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurs by developing small agro-businesses. Wal-Mart acted as the primary buyer. The project faced many challenges, such as farmers' difficulties in meeting quality standards and delivery schedules, the lack of an existing vehicle through which to access funding from the EDB, and, most importantly, changes in the political party in power. Project partners had to develop a position from which to negotiate a new alliance with the incoming government administration. Since Wal-Mart was determined to guarantee the continuity and expansion of the SDC project, Wal-Mart had to step into the project champion role.

Teaching Note: 8B10M24 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade
Issues: Government and Business; Corporate Social Responsibility; Developing Countries; Partnership; Public Administration
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
CSR Communication: What is it? Why is it important?

EARLS RESTAURANTS LTD.: THE IMPORTANCE OF A COMMUNICATION PLAN
Mary Weil, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B16C052
Publication Date: 1/6/2017
Revision Date: 1/6/2017
Length: 13 pages

Earls Restaurants, Ltd., a Canadian restaurant chain headquartered in Vancouver, was facing a communications crisis in April 2016, when it changed its sourcing policy with regard to beef. In a bid to appeal to millennial consumers, who were conscious of animal welfare standards, it decided to source beef from a U.S. farm that had its beef independently certified as humane. This cut out the restaurant’s traditional supply sources among Canadian ranchers, most specifically in Alberta, where the restaurant chain had been founded. The backlash was immediate. After discussing the situation with his core management team and asking a consultant for help formulating a communication strategy, the company’s president had to decide how to proceed to restore the company’s reputation. Should Earls do nothing and wait for the attention to die down, go back to sourcing its beef through Canadian suppliers, or continue to serve humane beef in its restaurants?

Teaching Note: 8B16C052 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: corporate reputation, communication strategy, social media
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SCANDINAVIAN AIRLINES: THE GREEN ENGINE DECISION
Jennifer Lynes

Product Number: 9B09M028
Publication Date: 6/11/2009
Length: 11 pages

Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) is an innovator of strategic environmental management in the airline industry. Being a first-mover can have both its advantages and disadvantages. This case looks at the airline's decision of whether they should invest in the best available environmental technology for a fleet of new aircraft that would serve them for the next 25 years. While the technology for these low-emission engines had been around since the 1970s, it had never really been commercialized. SAS was feeling pressure from the regulatory authorities with regards to potential new charges and taxes that could affect the future operating costs of the fleet. Despite these anticipated future costs, at the time of the decision, the director of aircraft and engine analysis for SAS could not make an economic case for the more expensive engines. The challenge was for the fleet development team to try to convince the SAS management team to spend the extra kr5 million (Swedish Kronor) per aircraft for the dual combustor engine. Given that corporations are faced with increasing pressure with regards to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, this case study presents an opportunity for discussion and analysis of various environmental concepts including strategic environmental management, adoption of best available environmental technologies, the role of internal environmental leadership in a large corporation and the effect of market-based mechanisms to improve a sector's environmental performance. The case illustrates the complexities of environmental decisions in striking a balance between meeting ambitious commitments and dealing with real capabilities of companies and external pressures.

Teaching Note: 8B09M28 (14 pages)
Issues: Corporate Culture; Management Decisions; Competitive Advantage; Environment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
CSR and Crisis Communication Strategies

ARLA FOODS AND THE CARTOON CRISIS (A)
Henry W. Lane, Mikael Sondergaard, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B08M005
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 12 pages

After a Danish newspaper publishes cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad, consumers across the Middle East decide to boycott Danish goods. Arla Foods (Arla) is one of Europe's largest dairy companies. Suddenly, it finds itself caught in the middle of a crisis that appears to be beyond its control. Prior to the boycott, the Middle East was Arla's fastest growing region and represented an important component of the company's long-term growth strategy. As the largest Danish company in the region, it stands to lose up to $550 million in annual revenues. Students are asked to take the role of the communication director for Arla, who, along with other members of the newly formed Crisis and Communication Group, must decide on a course of action to deal with the crisis. The case addresses a variety of topics, including culture and religion, international management, risk management, crisis communications, and managing in a boycott situation. It also creates an opportunity to discuss doing business in the Middle East and management in an Islamic context.

Teaching Note: 8B08M05 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Boycott; Crisis Management; Women in Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ARLA FOODS AND THE CARTOON CRISIS (B)
Henry W. Lane, Mikael Sondergaard, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B08M006
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 5/26/2010
Length: 5 pages

The communications director of Arla Foods is hoping the decision to denounce to the cartoons will bring an end to the boycott. Instead, it brings complaints from Danish women's groups. This is a supplement to Arla Foods and the Cartoon Crisis (A), Ivey product 9B08M005.

Teaching Note: 8B08M05 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Boycott; Intercultural Relations; Women in Management; Crisis Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NESTLÉ: A SOCIAL MEDIA NIGHTMARE (A)
Jana Seijts, Benjamin Bigio

Product Number: 9B10M103
Publication Date: 3/28/2011
Length: 12 pages

As the largest food and drink company in the world, Nestlé S.A. prided itself on a solid reputation built over the past 150 years. On March 17, 2010, the chairman of the board of directors was surprised by a YouTube video created by the environmental activist group Greenpeace. The graphic and provocative video criticized Nestlé for its use of palm oil in Nestlé products. It helped Greenpeace make a bold statement: Nestlé products were leading to deforestation and the extinction of orangutans. Within 24 hours, the video had more than 100,000 views and anti-Nestlé campaigns quickly emerged on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media networks around the world. At the same time, Greenpeace activists dressed up as orangutans and protested at Nestlé’s headquarters and factories in Europe. Activists urged the company to stop sourcing palm oil from companies that destroy forests in the process. Considering the popularity and force of social media, how should Nestlé react to the YouTube video?

Teaching Note: 8B10M103 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Public Relations; Crisis Communication; Social Media; Food and Beverage
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



OPTIX CORPORATION


Product Number: UVABC0159
Publication Date: 12/28/2001
Length: 9 pages

In this disguised case, newly appointed Vice President for Corporate Communication Andrea Tilman must choose among different strategies to align corporate philanthropy programs with long-term corporate philosophy and business strategy at the U.S. subsidiary of a Japanese multinational corporation. The guiding corporate philosophy is the principle of kyosei, or living and working together for the common good. In selecting the strategy, Tilman must consider factors such as the company as a whole, straightforward measurement of results, budget size, and how and to whom she should communicate the new program once it was implemented. This case illustrates the key strategic role of corporate communication and philanthropy in enacting social responsibility. The topic leads to spirited discussions about the value of corporate philanthropy and whether it is in the shareholders' financial interest.

Teaching Note: UVABC0159T (9 pages)



Chapter 13:
CSR and Reputation: Too Much of a Good Thing?

BP AND CORPORATE GREENWASH
Michael Sider

Product Number: 9B05C010
Publication Date: 2/21/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 7 pages

Bp's green re-branding efforts began officially with the unveiling of its new bp Helios mark, named after the Greek sun god. The new logo did away with 70 years of corporate branding, replacing the bp shield, long associated in consumers' minds with the strength of British imperialism. The Helios mark cost US$7 million to develop and was forecast to cost the company another US$100 million a year to integrate into marketing and operations over the next two years. At the logo's unveiling, the company's chief executive officer directed attention to the company's recent purchase of the solar energy company Solarex, an acquisition that made bp the world's largest solar energy company. The unveiling of the Helios logo was a formalization of a re-branding strategy that had begun to emerge the year before with the CEO's announcement that 200 new bp sites around the world would be powered in part by solar energy, through solar panels placed on the roofs of gas pumps, and his commitment to reducing bp's own carbon dioxide emissions by 10 per cent by the year 2010. From the start, however, environmental groups heaped scorn on bp's green re-branding. Greenpeace gave the company its Greenhouse Greenwash Award, given to the largest corporate climate culprit on earth.

Teaching Note: 8B05C10 (4 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Ethical Issues; Communications; Public Relations; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA AND THE OLYMPIC TORCH RELAY: MANAGING CORPORATE CRISIS AMID EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF MULTINATIONAL FIRMS


Product Number: HKU812
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Length: 20 pages

Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Chinese people were outraged by repeated interruptions of the Olympic torch relay in Paris on 7 April 2008. Soon after the incident, LVMH Group, a shareholder of the retailer Carrefour, was accused by some Chinese internet users of donating money to the exiled spiritual leader of Tibet. The rumor spread on the internet quickly, leading to calls for a large-scale boycott of Carrefour on 1 May 2008. Despite the souring public sentiment, Carrefour did not provide a consistent response to the public, even after one whole week of the crisis. The situation deteriorated quickly, with demonstrations taking place in various cities across China. Meanwhile, further rumors about Carrefour's anti-boycott promotions were circulating on the internet. How should the local management react to the public relations crisis and how can Carrefour manage its corporate image going forward?

Teaching Note: HKU813 (14 pages)
Issues: Business & government relations;Business ethics;Social responsibility;Public relations;Marketing;Internet;Crisis management;Risk management;Competitive strategy




COCA-COLA GOES GREEN: THE LAUNCH OF COKE LIFE
Matthias Koch

Product Number: 9B16A018
Publication Date: 6/2/2016
Revision Date: 6/13/2016
Length: 10 pages

In June 2013, The Coca-Cola Company (TCCC) launched Coke Life, a naturally sweetened but sugar-reduced carbonated soft drink. Coke Life complemented TCCC's established product line consisting of Coca-Cola Classic, Diet Coke, and Coke Zero. Coke Life substituted a portion of the sugar component with stevia leaf extract and contained 35 per cent less sugar than Coca-Cola Classic. TCCC claimed that “Coke Life is for adults looking for a great tasting Coke but [one with] fewer kilojoules and [that is] sweetened from natural sources.” Affected by governmental interventions, such as the implementation of special taxes and warning labels, the consumption of soft drinks had slowed down significantly, which had caused leading soft drink manufacturers to introduce “green” product modifications of their traditional beverages. When TCCC launched Coke Life, the market for carbonated soft drinks was highly competitive and was shrinking in part due to concerns over soft drinks contributing to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Was Coke Life likely to be successful? Or was it simply a “greenwashed” product in a highly segmented market?

Teaching Note: 8B16A018 (17 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: marketing ethics, Coke Life, product launch, greenwashing, green, global
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
The Corporate Construction of Transparency and (In)Tranparency

AXEL SPRINGER AND THE QUEST FOR THE BOUNDARIES OF CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY


Product Number: ESMT-714-0143-1
Publication Date: 2/18/2014
Length: 18 pages

The case deals with the quest for boundaries of corporates’ social and environmental responsibility. It poses the question where the responsibility of a company might start or end in a given context and once the company has been able to assess the extent to which it holds itself responsible, what action it ought to take in this regard. In the case of Axel Springer the question is focused on the aspect how much responsibility the company might have for its supply chain: how far and how deep down the supply chain does or should responsibility of a corporation reach? On what facts does this responsibility depend? The publishing house Axel Springer AG serves as good example as it wonders about the scope of their responsibility: After making the strategic decision to move aggressively into the field of digital news and media, the company wonders about their responsibility for digital devices, in particular with respect to conflict minerals that are extracted for the production and use of such electronic devices under highly problematic conditions.

Teaching Note: ESMT-714-0143-8 (24 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Business ethics; Social responsibility; Production ethics; International ethics; Transparency; Workplace exploitation; Supply chain sustainability ; Social responsibility
Setting: Germany; Congo; €3.2 billion revenue; 12,900 employees; 2012




INGREDIENT BRANDING & SUPPLY CHAIN TRANSPARENCY IN YHE JEANSWEAR INDUSTRY: THE ISKO CASE


Product Number: 13610
Publication Date: 11/10/2016
Revision Date: 9/29/2016
Length: 32 pages

ISKO is the global leading player in premium denim. The company has the main goal of better managing and orchestrating its denim supply chain, to become more visible on the final market at B2B2C level and to become “the key ingredient” in this segment. In the same industry, other players share the same ambitions such as Archroma. On the other hand, several brands such as Patagonia, Guess, Haikure, Levi’s, Diesel and Nudie Jeans are looking to ingredient branding projects as differentiation opportunities.
The case study helps facilitating the classroom discussion on the following topics: supply chain complexity, orchestration, sustainability, ingredient branding projects, innovation and supply chain transparency in the denim and jeanswear industry.
Students will also engage in a role-playing during which they will play the role of different companies and will have to decide which ingredient branding projects should be implemented for the following year. They will learn the main implications to be considered in the different supplier/customer perspectives, the main complexities and trade-offs to be managed in those projects.


Teaching Note: 13611 (33 pages)
Issues: Ingredient branding, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, strategy, supply chain management, supply chain transparency, B2B2C, denim industry, jeanswear industry, fashion, business strategy strategic marketing, operations management, role playing, orchestration
Setting: Global; 1.306.208,4 US$ mn; 2015-2016




LABORVOICES: BRINGING TRANSPARENCY TO THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN


Product Number: NA0327
Publication Date: 2/14/2015
Length: 13 pages

Social entrepreneur Kohl Gill founded LaborVoices in 2010 with the goal of using mobile phone technology to bring transparency to the global supply chain. Gill's vision was to build a company that would allow workers in supplier factories for major brand companies-initially in Bangalore, India, and later in other locations-to use their mobile phones to report and share information about factory conditions. This information could potentially be useful to a variety of groups: the workers themselves, nongovernmental organizations and unions that sought to improve working conditions in the global supply chain, factory managers who wished to attract and retain high-quality workers, monitoring and auditing organizations that wished to improve their information sources, and international brand companies that sought to assure compliance with their codes of conduct and to protect against reputational risk. The case describes the experiences and thought processes that led to Gill's business concept. It also provides information on labor conditions and supply chain dynamics in the textile and garment industry in southern India. At the end of the case, Gill is reviewing various business models and considering how to launch his social enterprise successfully.

Teaching Note: NA0328 (26 pages)
Issues: Social entrepreneurship;Social enterprise;Global supply chain;Business model generation;Social responsibility;Business ethics;Sustainability;Working conditions;Types of audits;Strategy



Chapter 15:
Business and Human Rights: Not Just Another CSR Issue

CHINA MINMETALS CORPORATION AND NORANDA INC.
Isaiah A. Litvak

Product Number: 9B06M013
Publication Date: 2/6/2006
Revision Date: 10/26/2011
Length: 16 pages

The proposed takeover of Noranda Inc. (one of the biggest mineral players in the world) by the Chinese state owned enterprise, China Minmetals Corporation, was cause for Canadian government concern as it required some understanding about the workings and objectives of state owned enterprises. There was particular concern around the labour issues and human rights violations in China, and the possible impact of these on the proposed takeover. Equally important, Canada ran the substantial risk of sending the wrong message to the People's Republic of China if it was to block such a takeover, and in some respects, to be seen as shutting its doors to one of the world's largest and most powerful emerging economies.

Teaching Note: 8B06M13 (13 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: China; Government and Business; Ethical Issues; Business and Society; Politics
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LGBTA AT TORONTO-DOMINION BANK IN 2012
Cara C. Maurer, Andrew Cornies

Product Number: 9B12C027
Publication Date: 10/26/2012
Revision Date: 10/25/2012
Length: 8 pages

This case concerns the implementation and strategic direction of LGBTA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and ally) initiatives at TD Bank Financial Group (TD). In order to maintain its position as the “employer of choice” for the LGBTA community, TD must expand the measures it had taken since its Diversity Leadership Council was created in 2006 to promote a comfortable, barrier-free and inclusive work environment for all employees. TD’s corporate diversity group had been providing a growing number of resources, events and LGBTA-related sponsorships for the past six years, resulting in an exponential growth of engagement by LGBTA employees, but lately the bank’s competitors and other large companies were catching up. Moreover, a recent review showed that there was a large variance in the quality of experience between the different subgroups of TD’s LGBTA community. The bank’s senior manager of corporate diversity must report within a week to the Diversity Leadership Council on how to solve these issues.

Teaching Note: 8B12C027 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Change Management; Corporate Social Responsibility; Diversity Management; Social Values and Economic Value; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KILLER COKE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST COCA-COLA
Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07C003
Publication Date: 1/31/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 23 pages

The CEO of Coca-Cola is faced with increasing criticism over the company's handling of alleged human rights abuses in Colombia. A grass roots protest movement known as The Campaign to Stop Killer Coke has built international support for a boycott of Coca-Cola products on college campuses. The campaign centers specifically on the intimidation and murder of union leaders at a specific Coca-Cola bottling plant in Colombia. Coca-Cola asserted that it was not responsible for such abuses. Rather, the violence at the Coca-Cola plant was the product of a political situation that was beyond the company's control. The company further argued that it was in compliance with local labor laws, and had been dismissed as the defendant in lawsuits filed in Colombia and U.S. courts. At the time of the case, Coca-Cola is faced with anti-Coke campaigns at more than 100 college campuses worldwide and official boycotts of its products at a number of large well-known campuses in the United States. In response, the company has undertaken an audit of its bottling plants in Colombia. It also launched a public relations campaign aimed at refuting accusations of human rights violations. The case can be used to discuss corporate ethics, extraterritoriality, marketing and public relations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C03 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Trade Unions; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Supplier Selection; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
Anti-Corruption Governance and Global Business

CORRUPTION: THE INTERNATIONAL EVOLUTION OF NEW MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B09M065
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Many countries have become increasingly concerned with the subject of corruption, and managers today must deal with changes in ethical norms and laws. New laws and international agreements seek to create a worldwide shift towards the reduction of corruption, and so management responsibilities are continually evolving. Both Transparency International and the World Bank provide estimates of the relative pervasiveness of corruption in different countries. Yet this subject is ambiguous and complex, creating significant challenges for managers. Both Volkswagen and Siemens have recently experienced public criticism and legal prosecution over corruption issues, some relating to internal and inter-corporate relations. Some cultures appear to accept corrupt practices as part of normal business-government relations. In China, guanxi is widely seen as a requirement for business success with the establishment of personal relationships that include an ongoing exchange of gifts and personal favours. Some managers may argue that the giving of gifts is acceptable, that bribes to expedite decisions may be necessary, and that only certain types of bribes should be seen as inappropriate corruption. However, this perspective involves the difficulty of drawing a line to guide decisions of corporate employees, and for many managers it is now necessary to implement clear corporate guidelines in regard to what they consider to be corruption. In this context, some managers may decide to avoid investing in certain countries until the culture of corruption has changed.

Teaching Note: 8B09M65 (3 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Business and Society
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MALAWI BUSINESS ACTION AGAINST CORRUPTION
Oonagh Fitzgerald, James Ng'ombe

Product Number: 9B07M037
Publication Date: 10/4/2007
Length: 18 pages

The founding executive director of the African Institute for Corporate Citizenship (AICC), felt very tense as he typed the last revisions to the speech he would be giving to a Llongwe merchants' association later in the week. He really enjoyed proudly describing his initiative, "Business Action Against Corruption", and the Business Code of Conduct for Combating Corruption in Malawi, to potential new partners. However, the founding executive director was beginning to feel concerned about its slow pace of adoption. He was particularly worried about how to manage the delicate relationship with the government.

Teaching Note: 8B07M37 (6 pages)
Issues: Negotiation; Ethical Issues; Corporate Responsibility; Globalization; Political Environment; Procurement
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: IKEA’S EXPANSION TO THE EAST (A)


Product Number: ESMT-716-0169-1
Publication Date: 5/30/2016
Length: 8 pages

This four-part case series can be used to discuss business ethics, compliance/governance, integrity management, reacting to and preparing against corruption in the context of internationalization and allows to also briefly touching upon the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Case (A) describes a challenge IKEA was facing, while trying to enter Russia in 2000. The company was preparing to open its first flagship store on the outskirts of Moscow, only the first of several planned projects. After substantial investments in infrastructure and logistics, IKEA focused on marketing, but quickly faced a sudden complication. Its major ad campaign in the Moscow Metro with the slogan “[e]very 10th European was made in one of our beds” was labeled “tasteless”. IKEA had to stop the campaign because it “couldn’t prove” the claim. Soon Lennart Dahlgren, the first general manager of IKEA in Russia must have realized that the unsuccessful ad campaign was going to be the least of his problems: A few weeks before the planned opening, the local utility company decided not to provide their services for the store if IKEA did not pay a bribe. What should IKEA and Lennart Dahlgren do? Was there any alternative to playing the game the Russian way, and paying?

The subsequent cases (B), (C), and (D) describe IKEA’s creative response to the challenges described in case (A), and then report about new challenges with alleged corruption within IKEA and in the legal environment, and finally raise the question whether IKEA can be considered to have a social responsibility to fight corruption on a societal level in order to build the platform for its own operation in Russia.


Teaching Note: ESMT-716-0169-8 (20 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: corporate social responsibility, business ethics, corruption in particular, governance and compliance, intercultural/cross-cultural management, cross-cultural ethics, challenges of internationalization/globalization
Setting: 2000-2010




CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: IKEA’S EXPANSION TO THE EAST (B)


Product Number: ESMT-716-0170-1
Publication Date: 5/30/2016
Length: 5 pages

This four-part case series can be used to discuss business ethics, compliance/governance, integrity management, reacting to and preparing against corruption in the context of internationalization and allows to also briefly touching upon the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Case (A) describes a challenge IKEA was facing, while trying to enter Russia in 2000. The company was preparing to open its first flagship store on the outskirts of Moscow, only the first of several planned projects. After substantial investments in infrastructure and logistics, IKEA focused on marketing, but quickly faced a sudden complication. Its major ad campaign in the Moscow Metro with the slogan “[e]very 10th European was made in one of our beds” was labeled “tasteless”. IKEA had to stop the campaign because it “couldn’t prove” the claim. Soon Lennart Dahlgren, the first general manager of IKEA in Russia must have realized that the unsuccessful ad campaign was going to be the least of his problems: A few weeks before the planned opening, the local utility company decided not to provide their services for the store if IKEA did not pay a bribe. What should IKEA and Lennart Dahlgren do? Was there any alternative to playing the game the Russian way, and paying?

The subsequent cases (B), (C), and (D) describe IKEA’s creative response to the challenges described in case (A), and then report about new challenges with alleged corruption within IKEA and in the legal environment, and finally raise the question whether IKEA can be considered to have a social responsibility to fight corruption on a societal level in order to build the platform for its own operation in Russia.


Teaching Note: ESMT-716-0169-8 (20 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: corporate social responsibility, business ethics, corruption in particular, governance and compliance, intercultural/cross-cultural management, cross-cultural ethics, challenges of internationalization/globalization
Setting: 2000-2010




CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: IKEA’S EXPANSION TO THE EAST (C)


Product Number: ESMT-716-0171-1
Publication Date: 5/30/2016
Length: 7 pages

This four-part case series can be used to discuss business ethics, compliance/governance, integrity management, reacting to and preparing against corruption in the context of internationalization and allows to also briefly touching upon the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Case (A) describes a challenge IKEA was facing, while trying to enter Russia in 2000. The company was preparing to open its first flagship store on the outskirts of Moscow, only the first of several planned projects. After substantial investments in infrastructure and logistics, IKEA focused on marketing, but quickly faced a sudden complication. Its major ad campaign in the Moscow Metro with the slogan “[e]very 10th European was made in one of our beds” was labeled “tasteless”. IKEA had to stop the campaign because it “couldn’t prove” the claim. Soon Lennart Dahlgren, the first general manager of IKEA in Russia must have realized that the unsuccessful ad campaign was going to be the least of his problems: A few weeks before the planned opening, the local utility company decided not to provide their services for the store if IKEA did not pay a bribe. What should IKEA and Lennart Dahlgren do? Was there any alternative to playing the game the Russian way, and paying?

The subsequent cases (B), (C), and (D) describe IKEA’s creative response to the challenges described in case (A), and then report about new challenges with alleged corruption within IKEA and in the legal environment, and finally raise the question whether IKEA can be considered to have a social responsibility to fight corruption on a societal level in order to build the platform for its own operation in Russia.


Teaching Note: ESMT-716-0169-8 (20 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: corporate social responsibility, business ethics, corruption in particular, governance and compliance, intercultural/cross-cultural management, cross-cultural ethics, challenges of internationalization/globalization
Setting: 2000-2010




CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: IKEA’S EXPANSION TO THE EAST (D)


Product Number: ESMT-716-0172-1
Publication Date: 5/30/2016
Length: 4 pages

This four-part case series can be used to discuss business ethics, compliance/governance, integrity management, reacting to and preparing against corruption in the context of internationalization and allows to also briefly touching upon the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Case (A) describes a challenge IKEA was facing, while trying to enter Russia in 2000. The company was preparing to open its first flagship store on the outskirts of Moscow, only the first of several planned projects. After substantial investments in infrastructure and logistics, IKEA focused on marketing, but quickly faced a sudden complication. Its major ad campaign in the Moscow Metro with the slogan “[e]very 10th European was made in one of our beds” was labeled “tasteless”. IKEA had to stop the campaign because it “couldn’t prove” the claim. Soon Lennart Dahlgren, the first general manager of IKEA in Russia must have realized that the unsuccessful ad campaign was going to be the least of his problems: A few weeks before the planned opening, the local utility company decided not to provide their services for the store if IKEA did not pay a bribe. What should IKEA and Lennart Dahlgren do? Was there any alternative to playing the game the Russian way, and paying?

The subsequent cases (B), (C), and (D) describe IKEA’s creative response to the challenges described in case (A), and then report about new challenges with alleged corruption within IKEA and in the legal environment, and finally raise the question whether IKEA can be considered to have a social responsibility to fight corruption on a societal level in order to build the platform for its own operation in Russia.


Teaching Note: ESMT-716-0169-8 (20 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: corporate social responsibility, business ethics, corruption in particular, governance and compliance, intercultural/cross-cultural management, cross-cultural ethics, challenges of internationalization/globalization
Setting: 2000-2010



Chapter 17:
Business and Transnational Environmental Governance

EXXONMOBIL AND THE CHAD–CAMEROON PIPELINE (A)


Product Number: UVAE0262
Publication Date: 11/24/2003
Revision Date: 7/5/2013
Length: 15 pages

This case presents the dilemma of a multinational oil and gas company, ExxonMobil, as it factors in the ethical issues related to the environment and cultural differences in deciding whether to proceed with building a pipeline in Chad and Cameroon, two of the poorest and most corrupt developing countries in West Africa. The many players in this project included the World Bank--which cofinanced the project and put restrictions into place that would hopefully prevent pipeline-related government corruption in both Chad and Cameroon--and many environmental and human rights groups that warned of potential disaster. The case also covers the environmental and social analysis of the areas that would be affected by the pipeline.

Teaching Note: UVAE0262T (9 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: environment, sustainability, public relations, cultural differences, risk assessment, corporate social responsibility, business government relations, global international foreign investment operations, analysis, stakeholder management, corruption




MARINE STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL


Product Number: M297
Publication Date: 6/1/1999
Revision Date: 11/16/2001
Length: 33 pages

In April 1999, John Gummer, chairman of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), an independent, global nonprofit organization, was charged with implementing an eco-labeling program for seafood products harvested in a sustainable manner. Through the program, MSC hoped to harness consumer purchasing power and thereby reverse the decline in the world's fisheries. This case describes traditional approaches to environmental problems and recent innovative strategies, provides examples of eco-labeling for a variety of products, and explores consumer attitudes toward the environment and consumer purchase behavior. Recent crises--the dolphin-safe tuna controversy and the swordfish boycott--provide evidence of the level of public interest that MSC's broad eco-labeling plan could tap into in the council's effort to reverse the decline in the world's fisheries. Because both of the earlier campaigns were tangible and focused on specific issues, it wasn't clear to Gummer that consumers would respond the same way to a more general label applied to all seafood products. Gummer wonders how the council could get customers to start shopping for labeled products and how the MSC should approach the industry to get seafood producers, processors, and retailers all on board.

Issues: Consumers;Marketing strategy;Strategic alliances;Environmental protection;Nonprofit marketing;Consumer behavior




SUSTAINABILITY AT TETRA PAK: RECYCLING POST-CONSUMER CARTONS
Garima Sharma, Indrajeet Ghatge, Chris Laszlo

Product Number: 9B12M069
Publication Date: 7/5/2012
Revision Date: 9/30/2013
Length: 16 pages

This case explores the problems that Tetra Pak India faced in its ambitious goal of recycling post-consumer cartons (PCC) in India, and the approach that it adopted in overcoming obstacles. It provides a deep understanding of PCC recycling and Tetra Pak’s broad program of incorporating social, environmental, health, and ethical issues in its day-to-day operations. Evident in the case are Tetra Pak India’s efforts to meet environmental objectives and the seemingly insurmountable challenges in India that appeared to prevent it from attaining its goals.

The case offers students an opportunity for an intellectually stimulating discussion on whether or not, and how, Tetra Pak India overcame problems to succeed in its PCC recycling initiative. Students will be able to understand the importance of the partnerships and alliances that Tetra Pak forged with non-governmental organizations, scrap dealers, rag-pickers, commercial establishments, and organizations that championed the cause of the environment. With ever-changing mindsets, increasing regulations, and growing customer expectations in India, Tetra Pak would have to be on its toes to ensure that its success from the PCC recycling initiative could be sustained and scaled up in the future. The case explores how Tetra Pak India could face the challenges of the future.


Teaching Note: 8B12M069 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Recycling; International; Environmental Regulations; Balancing Stakeholder Expectations; Brand Management; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 18:
Labour Rights in Global Supply Chains

BAYER CROPSCIENCE IN INDIA (A): AGAINST CHILD LABOR
Charles Dhanaraj, Oana Branzei, Satyajeet Subramanian

Product Number: 9B10M061
Publication Date: 1/27/2011
Length: 19 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case explores value-driven strategy formulation and implementation by bringing to the fore issues of ethics, responsible leadership, social intiatives in emerging markets, and the global-local tensions in corporate social responsibility. It examines how Bayer CropScience addressed the issue of child labor in its cotton seed supply chain in rural India between 2002 and 2008. Bayer had been operating in India for more than a century. In December 2002, the Bayer Group completed the acquisition of India-based Aventis CropScience. Bayer CropScience first learned about the occurrence and prevalence of child labor in its newly acquired India-based cotton seed operations a few months post-acquisition, in April 2003. The Aventis acquisition had brought onboard a well-known Indian company, Proagro, which already had operations in the cotton seed production and marketing - a new segment of the supply chain for Bayer. Child labor was widespread in cotton seed production — a traditional practice taken for granted not only by Indian farmers but also by several hundred Indian companies then accounting for approximately 90 per cent of the market share. The (A) case focuses on Bayer’s decision whether, when, and how to launch a self-run program that would take direct responsibility for tracking and eradicating child labor in rural India.

Teaching Note: 8B10M061 (11 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Emerging Markets; Strategy Implementation; Ethical Issues; Crisis Management; Corporate Responsibility; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MONITORING FACTORIES AROUND THE GLOBE: THE FAIR LABOR ASSOCIATION AND THE WORKERS RIGHTS CONSORTIUM


Product Number: SI108
Publication Date: 6/10/2008
Length: 25 pages

In 1999, the nonprofit Fair Labor Association (FLA) was launched to monitor factories around the world for sweatshop-related infractions. Another key nonprofit player, the Worker Rights Consortium (WRC), was launched in 2000. The two organizations had similar goals, but very different histories, strategies, and ways of operating. One major difference was that the FLA board included corporations, while the WRC board contained no industry representatives, but only representatives from the United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS), member universities, and labor-allied NGOs (non-governmental organizations). Mission-wise, the FLA focused on all apparel, while the WRC only focused on apparel bearing college and university names and logos. The fact that the FLA included company/industry representatives on its policy-making board, and the WRC did not, created not merely a difference but a source of immediate disagreement and conflict. By 2008, the WRC had grown from a membership of 44 colleges and universities at its founding to 174, and the FLA had grown from 100 colleges and universities to 205. Although the two organizations had often been closely associated together, appearing on panels, and even occasionally collaborating, their shared history had been controversial and tumultuous. Among the issues under continuing dispute were the role of third-party labor unions (which were not allowed by the government in countries such as China and Vietnam), the problem of living wages (which would raise production costs considerably), allegations voiced on the website FLA Watch (which seemed to many to be one-sided and unfair), and the overall impact of the anti-sweatshop movement's efforts (which led some to question how much progress had been made).

Issues: Manufacturing;Outsourcing;International business;Global business;Labor markets;Nonprofit organizations




TRIP TRAP: MANAGING CERTIFICATION IN THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN
Jette Steen Knudsen, Dana Brown

Product Number: 9B14M120
Publication Date: 10/24/2014
Revision Date: 10/24/2014
Length: 8 pages

A small Danish design company seeks to collaborate with its largest supplier in Thailand in order to improve health, safety and environmental conditions, as well as labour standards, as a core element of complying with the UN Global Compact principles. The company takes its corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda seriously and has developed a new standard for CSR in its supplier factories that is implemented and audited by a non-governmental organization. New challenges emerge as attention shifts to the certification of production inputs such as wood. Although Western small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face pressures to audit their suppliers in developing countries, these SMEs often lack the financial and political resources to change behaviours in supplier factories. The firm’s quality manager must evaluate its sustainability approach. How much leverage can a small company expect to have with its suppliers? Furthermore, is the cost of auditing suppliers in a country such as Thailand too high?

Teaching Note: 8B14M120 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate social responsibility; global supply chain; small- and medium-sized enterprises; United Nations Global Compact; Denmark;Thailand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA