Ivey Publishing

Organizational Behaviour, Concepts, Controversies, Applications

Langton, N.; Robbins, S.P.; Judge, T.A.,6e (Canada, Pearson Education, 2013)
Prepared By under review,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
What is Organizational Behaviour?

Chetan Joshi, Hari Bapuji, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13C044
Publication Date: 12/10/2013
Revision Date: 12/9/2013
Length: 7 pages

In the hotel industry, the reuse of towels is considered a main step toward reducing hotels’ high carbon footprint. Windermere Manor, a private, high-end hotel, has established a routine to encourage its guests to reuse towels; however, the hotel’s towel-replacement rate exceeds its towel-reuse rate. The intended routine for identifying towels for reuse is not being followed, even by the hotels’ own housekeeping staff. The hotel's general manager examines the reasons for the breakdown of routine and considers ways of correcting the situation.

Teaching Note: 8B13C044 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Organization design; communication to stakeholders; sustainability; research methods; operations; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jamie Ladge, Cynthia Ingols, Jeanne McNett

Product Number: 9B12C049
Publication Date: 11/29/2012
Revision Date: 11/29/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case looks closely at the management of a branch of the YMCA in Boston during periods of growth and contraction and at the development of Wendy Zinn’s career, all in the context of the YMCA’s organizational culture. The roles of strategy, decision-making, leadership and organizational culture are described as critical both to the organization’s development and to the career development the organization affords. Social capital and networking skills are also critical success factors in the YMCA’s growth.

Teaching Note: 8B12C049 (8 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Corporate Culture; Career Development; Staffing; Human Resources Management; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Lyn Purdy, Jason Ravesi

Product Number: 9B12M014
Publication Date: 3/16/2012
Revision Date: 3/16/2012
Length: 11 pages

In January 2000, World Championship Wrestling (WCW)’s executive VP was faced with a challenging decision. He had been appointed as executive VP just three months ago, and was tasked with restoring the company to a profitable position. However, WCW’s on-screen performance was suffering; ratings for the flagship WCW Monday Nitro television program had fallen to their lowest levels in nearly three-and-a-half years. WCW was losing its market leadership position, its viewing audience, and even some of its on-screen talent to its major competitor, the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). The executive VP faced problems on a number of fronts: a talent roster low on motivation and morale, turnover among both the writing staff and company leadership, and a rapidly shrinking audience. Furthermore, the current instability in leadership meant that another major change would seriously impact the already low morale among WCW’s on-screen talent and support staff.

Teaching Note: 8B12M014 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Leadership; Strategic Direction; Employee Morale; Professional Wrestling; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Perception, Personality and Emotions

Margaret Sutherland, Verity Hawarden

Product Number: 9B12A039
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
Revision Date: 8/16/2012
Length: 10 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - African Business Cases Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case chronicles the origins and growth of Sorbet, a chain of beauty salons targeting upper income women in South African metropolitan areas. Owner Ian Fuhr identified an opportunity to redefine the beauty salon experience in South Africa by offering customers a service unlike anything in the industry. He carefully managed human resources to motivate employees and grow the client base. To complement this, the company started an external beauty therapy school to improve staff and train potential employees. In addition, Fuhr stressed the importance of growing brand awareness and carefully adjusted the company’s sales mix to maximize all potential profit margins, all while developing a customer-centric culture. By 2011, two new businesses had been launched under the Sorbet brand (wellness services; event management). Such expansion plus regional diversification options all had to be considered while keeping service quality levels high.

Teaching Note: 8B12A039 (12 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Brand Positioning; Brand Personality; Brand Awareness; Brand Management; Human Resources Management; Marketing Strategy; Employee Branding; Employee Participation; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Lyn Purdy, James O'Brien

Product Number: 9B12C024
Publication Date: 5/17/2012
Revision Date: 5/17/2012
Length: 4 pages

This case series describes a general manager’s decision of whether to fire an employee at a performing arts company. The scope of the case includes the organization of the company, the decision to hire the employee, his performance, and the decision to end the employment relationship. The general manager’s selection practices are described, and two role-playing exercises are included.

Teaching Note: 8B12C024 (6 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Firing; Performance Management; Employee Counselling; Employee Selection; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Values, Attitudes, and Diversity in the Workplace

Charlice Hurst, Karen MacMillan, Thomas Watson

Product Number: 9B14C017
Publication Date: 6/11/2014
Revision Date: 6/17/2014
Length: 6 pages

In 2013, controversy arose over the actions of Adria Richards, a developer-evangelist, in response to remarks she overheard being made by two male attendees at a technology conference. After she reported what she believed to be sexist remarks by posting a photo of the men and a comment on Twitter, the two men were asked to leave the conference session and one was soon fired. A firestorm ensued during which Richards' actions were subjected to scrutiny and the larger question of whether sexism hindered women's participation in the technology industry received a great deal of attention.

Teaching Note: 8B14C017 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Diversity; voice; women; crisis management; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gerard Seijts, Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B13C035
Publication Date: 10/9/2013
Revision Date: 12/2/2013
Length: 7 pages

The Chief of the Australian Army faces a significant public scandal. In recent weeks, allegations have emerged that members of the country’s defence forces, including officers, shared explicit emails and photos that denigrated women. The scandal occurs as the Australian Defence Force is actively encouraging more women to join the ranks of the military. The Chief of the Australian Army needs to devise a strategy to communicate to the victims of the scandal, members of the army and the general public that the Australian Army is a national institution with strong values and moral standards and will not tolerate chauvinism of any kind.

Teaching Note: 8B13C035 (12 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Sexism; organizational culture; leadership character; communication; change; Australia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Cara C. Maurer, Andrew Cornies

Product Number: 9B12C027
Publication Date: 10/26/2012
Revision Date: 10/25/2012
Length: 8 pages

This case concerns the implementation and strategic direction of LGBTA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and ally) initiatives at TD Bank Financial Group (TD). In order to maintain its position as the “employer of choice” for the LGBTA community, TD must expand the measures it had taken since its Diversity Leadership Council was created in 2006 to promote a comfortable, barrier-free and inclusive work environment for all employees. TD’s corporate diversity group had been providing a growing number of resources, events and LGBTA-related sponsorships for the past six years, resulting in an exponential growth of engagement by LGBTA employees, but lately the bank’s competitors and other large companies were catching up. Moreover, a recent review showed that there was a large variance in the quality of experience between the different subgroups of TD’s LGBTA community. The bank’s senior manager of corporate diversity must report within a week to the Diversity Leadership Council on how to solve these issues.

Teaching Note: 8B12C027 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Change Management; Corporate Social Responsibility; Diversity Management; Social Values and Economic Value; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
Theories of Motivation

Dionne Pohler

Product Number: 9B11C042
Publication Date: 1/17/2012
Length: 16 pages

A new faculty member is engaged in a decision-making process surrounding the development of a points-based system designed to allocate merit pay at a business school. The process is forcing her to evaluate how she is structuring the allocation of her work, which is directly affecting her motivation toward coaching a student case competition team. Edwards has historically used a judgment-based approach to the allocation of merit. The case outlines the rationale used in the design of the new points-based system, discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages, and highlights the perspectives of different stakeholders throughout the process, including the union, the faculty, and senior administration. The union is opposed to merit, so has outlined fairly stringent criteria for the awarding of merit in the new collective agreement. Faculty opinion is mixed surrounding merit more generally, and the implementation of a points-based system versus a judgment-based system in particular. Senior university administration is committed to the continuation of the merit system at the university as a tool to reward outstanding performance and to retain star faculty. The individual departments at Edwards are in the midst of finalizing the standards and procedures for allocation of merit-based pay. The protagonist is uncertain about how her department will proceed in the design and allocation of points, and how it will result in her re-allocating her work tasks.

Teaching Note: 8B11C042 (13 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Motivation; Compensation; Performance Measurement/metrics; University Administration; Unions; Saskatchewan, Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Karen MacMillan

Product Number: 9B11C034
Publication Date: 9/7/2011
Revision Date: 10/10/2018
Length: 5 pages

The owner of a large hardware, furniture, and building centre faced a dilemma regarding how to manage the upcoming wage review process. After two consecutive years of frozen wages, employees were impatient for financial progress, but there was no extra money in the budget. It was possible to pump savings from upcoming process improvement initiatives into wage increases. However, the owner had limited motivation to channel hard-won funds to underperforming employees. On the other hand, he was eager to reward the people who added value. Yet a plan that rewarded only some employees could result in an angry backlash. He had to decide if he wanted to divert the savings into compensation and, if so, he needed an effective distribution plan.

Teaching Note: 8B11C034 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Motivation; Compensation; Organizational Justice; Bounded Rationality
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gerard Seijts, Jana Seijts, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B09C016
Publication Date: 9/1/2009
Length: 10 pages

Transkin Income Fund provided freight transportation services in Canada and the United States. In mid February 2009, in response to a sharp fall in demand for transportation services due to the economic crisis, the chief operation officer had suggested that each of his six freight divisions and six support divisions and the corporate division should all implement a salary rollback. The chief operating officer (COO) believed that a strong message needed to be sent to customers, shareholders, banks, owner-operators, drivers and suppliers that Transkin was being proactive by taking action internally to ride out the crisis. Two of the 13 general managers resented the COO's plan. The two dissenters were from Transkin's two most profitable divisions; they were also the most senior executives. Both had their own reasons to resist the COO's idea. The COO wondered how he should respond to both dissenters - he wanted the support of every general manager for the salary rollback.

Teaching Note: 8B09C16 (7 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Leading Change; Motivation; Recession
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 5:
Motivation in Action

Srinivasan Tatachari

Product Number: 9B14C002
Publication Date: 3/12/2014
Revision Date: 3/7/2014
Length: 7 pages

This case traces the various events that happen in the organizational journey of a newcomer to the corporate world. It is based on the real-life incidents of a new employee in a leading information technology (IT) services company, Xciting, in India. Xciting is one of India’s top IT and IT-enabled services companies, with offices around the globe. With revenues in excess of $6 billion in 2010 and a global headcount of around 100,000, Xciting is a popular and reputable company in the global software services industry.

The case covers the initial year of the employee’s work with Xciting, following college graduation. She undergoes a training period with examinations in order to determine an appropriate work domain and relocation destination within India. She experiences organizational culture shock and location anxiety, and must respond to difficult co-workers and cancelled projects. In September 2011, with the first yearly review approaching, she reflects on her journey at Xciting and has to decide on what she wants to do with her career. Is there a mismatch between her expectations and those of Xciting?

Teaching Note: 8B14C002 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Socialization; social identity; newcomer; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Karen MacMillan, Meredith Woodwark

Product Number: 9B12C048
Publication Date: 11/15/2012
Revision Date: 11/15/2012
Length: 4 pages

The owner and general manager of a large retail establishment faced a dilemma about whether his long-time yard manager was still the right person for the job. The business increasingly depended on providing superior customer service in order to compete in the market. Recently, the owner had placed a personal friend in the operation as an assistant to the yard manager. This new addition had shown a real talent for developing employees and driving performance improvements. As a result, customer service feedback had drastically improved. The owner realized that the assistant had become the real leader of the yard. He wondered how to keep the momentum of the changes going while still showing due respect to a loyal employee.

Teaching Note: 8B12C048 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Leadership; Performance Management; Employee Motivation; Human Resources, Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jane M. Howell, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11C005
Publication Date: 1/24/2011
Revision Date: 3/18/2011
Length: 3 pages

This role-play case follows the Performance Coaching case involving Darcy Gallagher. You are the new general manager of the Elmwood Group and four weeks ago you conducted a performance review with your direct report, Darcy Gallagher, who is a sales manager, and outlined three leadership gaps that Gallagher needed to address. The purpose of this new meeting is to discuss Gallagher’s career aspirations at Elmwood Group. In advance of your meeting, Gallagher has submitted his career development plan to you and he aspires to be a vice president at Elmwood, which is unrealistic. In this career coaching discussion, Gallagher needs a reality check about his career plan, and his capability and motivation to develop the strong skills in leading and developing people that are required in leadership roles.

Teaching Note: 8B11C005 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Candid Feedback; Career Coaching; Development Plan; Coaching a High Performer
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:
Groups and Teamwork

Rupali Pardasani, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B13C025
Publication Date: 8/19/2013
Revision Date: 8/9/2013
Length: 10 pages

The COO of a global knowledge-outsourcing and technology-services firm has been selected by his company’s board of directors to step in and rescue a large-scale digitization project that is in danger of missing its rapidly approaching deadline. The project requires the firm to create digital archives of a daily American newspaper, spanning a coverage time of 150 years. With teams from two different countries paired to work on this significant venture, things quickly go awry on several levels as a result of misunderstandings about client expectations, lack of employee training (both from a standpoint of cultural awareness and with respect to the use of new technology) and poor project management. The COO must quickly develop an action plan to address these issues and ensure the success of the project in the face of an ultimatum from the client: deliver the project on time or lose it completely.

In the role of the COO, students must create an action plan to overcome the issues that threaten to derail the project.

Teaching Note: 8B13C025 (10 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Planned change; cross-cultural communication; globally distributed team; project failure; India; Philippines
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Syed Salman Ahmad, Santosh Kumar, Sheetanshu Mishra

Product Number: 9B13C010
Publication Date: 5/7/2013
Revision Date: 5/6/2013
Length: 7 pages

This case revolves around the experiences of an MBA student at an Indian business school. The student is dynamic, capable and intent on high achievement, but his pursuit of recognition eventually hampers his and his team’s learning and performance. The case is based on an event that happens within a course on organizational behaviour where the student makes a major mistake in his analysis of a case due to his need to demonstrate his competence and validate himself. This hurts his and his team’s performance on an assigned task. After the event, the student and his team members reflect on the events that led to this mistake. They also take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation - Behavior (FIRO-B) assessments to determine their personality preferences and interpersonal needs that might have influenced the team’s functioning.

Teaching Note: 8B13C010 (26 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Personality motivation; perception decision-making; group dynamics leadership; learning performance; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Padhmanabhan Vijayaraghavan

Product Number: 9B12C019
Publication Date: 5/7/2012
Revision Date: 2/11/2013
Length: 5 pages

FIS Consulting Services was a business process outsourcing company specializing in consulting and financial advisory for global clients. This case deals with an offshore project team in the United States that was characterized by intra-group competitiveness, poor leadership and resource sharing, poor coordination, and limited cooperation. At the outset, the team developed a one-sided focus on achieving a high performance appraisal rating rather than completing the project as a team. The team underwent an inadequate group development process, which was manifested in the team’s immaturity. Poor leadership and lack of behavioural norms led the team to move forward with conflicting beliefs, structural inadequacy, lack of guidance, and low cohesiveness. These factors led to a decline in the team’s performance and stood as obstacles to the project’s progress. Furthermore, these events damaged the reputation of the firm. The human resources manager needed to take urgent measures to save the project team.

Teaching Note: 8B12C019 (8 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Team Development Process; Team Conflict; Consulting and Financial Advisory; India; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:

Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12C020
Publication Date: 4/24/2012
Revision Date: 5/3/2012
Length: 14 pages

On June 30, 2011, Research in Motion (RIM) co-CEOs Jim Balsillie and Mike Lazaridis unexpectedly found themselves facing serious public scrutiny, not from competitors, market analysts, or consumers, but from one of their own senior executives. In an attempt to have their voice heard, an anonymous senior-level RIM employee addressed an open letter to both Balsillie and Lazaridis; however, the letter was sent to the online technology news provider Boy Genius Report (BGR). In a year during which RIM already faced pressures from a dwindling market share, failed product attempts, and a sinking stock price, Balsillie and Lazaridis needed to figure out how to respond to the claims of the letter publicly, but more importantly how to communicate to RIM employees internally.

Teaching Note: 8B12C020 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Communications; Leadership; Corporate Culture; Employee Attitude; Organizational Behaviour; Uncertainty; Smartphones; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B11C016
Publication Date: 9/9/2011
Revision Date: 9/6/2011
Length: 4 pages

The vice president of communications of Domino’s Pizza International faced a significant threat to his company’s reputation due to negative social media exposure. A video had been posted on YouTube two days earlier by a Domino’s employee that showed two Domino’s employees at a North Carolina franchise tampering with customers’ pizza and sandwich orders. The employee stuck cheese up his nose, sneezed on the food prior to boxing it up, and could be overheard in the video admitting that the orders would soon be delivered to unsuspecting customers. The video went viral; it had been reposted to Twitter and Facebook, and received almost a million views and many comments on YouTube. It was also receiving attention from both local and national media channels. The senior executive team of Domino’s was meeting with the vice president in a matter of hours, and Domino’s social media team would need to devise a plan to respond to the video to protect Domino’s strong brand image before it was too late.

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Teaching Note: 8B11C016 (5 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Social Media; Crisis Management; Brand Management; Management Communication; Fast Food; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 8:
Power and Politics

Steven D. Charlier, Martin M. Brennan

Product Number: 9B13C022
Publication Date: 8/8/2013
Revision Date: 7/10/2013
Length: 17 pages

A management consultant has been hired to fix the morale issues at a branch of SkillsForTomorrow (SFT) in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States. SFT is a government-sponsored organization tasked with helping at-risk young adults gain vocational training toward preparing them for a successful work career. Several factors appear to be influencing the morale of the SFT management team. Unfortunately, some of these factors point directly to the sponsor of the consulting project, the executive director at SFT Harrisburg. The consultant must identify the root causes of the management discord and derive a solution that can help solve the various issues. At the same time, the consultant will need to consider the political and interpersonal aspects of the consulting relationship between herself and the executive director in crafting and presenting a solution.

Teaching Note: 8B13C022 (10 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Teams; conflict; communication; consulting; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Pavitra Mishra, Rajen Gupta

Product Number: 9B11C009
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 14 pages

AWARD-WINNING CASE: Adjudged third-best case at the ISB Case Competition 2010 held in partnership with the Richard Ivey School of Business and the Association of Indian Management Schools and sponsored by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants.

ABC Energy Limited (ABCEL) was created in March 2007 by ABC Infra Private Limited and XYG Private Limited. In September 2007, MNP Finance Limited joined ABCEL as an equity partner. In 2010, ABCEL operated in power generation and had plans to diversify into transmission and distribution. It aspired to be a world-class energy company with operations in India and neighbouring countries. ABCEL had grown by investing in greenfield projects and acquiring existing operations. The promoters of ABCEL had set a target of achieving a project portfolio of 30,000 megawatts by 2015, up from the current portfolio of 8,655 megawatts. The chief executive officer of ABCEL wanted to discuss the following issues at the board meeting on July 31, 2010, with regard to the opportunities and challenges in the growing market: 1) the key organizational needs that ABCEL might have in achieving its target by 2015, 2) the present culture of ABCEL, 3) the relationship between the culture and extent of formalization and hence the ramp-up of formalization that ABCEL might require, and 4) the method of introducing this formalization.

Teaching Note: 8B11C009 (11 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Formalization; Organizational Culture; Growth Strategy; Power Generation; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Gerard Seijts, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B09C017
Publication Date: 8/28/2009
Revision Date: 12/11/2009
Length: 15 pages

The case focuses on the turnaround situation facing the newly elected chief executive officer (CEO) of the Vancouver YMCA. The YMCA has suffered a long series of operating deficits ($9 million per year), has mounting debts to third parties, declining membership, and a maxed out $1 million operation line of credit. There are issues with its assets (old facilities with little renovations done over the past three decades), political infighting and union issues. The CEO has to work to turn the situation around before the organization goes bankrupt.

Teaching Note: 8B09C17 (13 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Change Management; Employee Participation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 9:
Conflict and Negotiation

Eric Weinberg, Jean Phillips

Product Number: 9B12C036A
Publication Date: 9/27/2012
Revision Date: 4/29/2016
Length: 3 pages

This is one exercise in a 4-part series entitled Job Offer Negotiation Exercises. This exercise gives participants the opportunity to act as the Maximum Motivation candidate in a job offer negotiation.

The purpose of this role-play case series is to give participants the opportunity to experience a job offer negotiation as both the job candidate and the employer. The exercise involves two distinct negotiation scenarios, allowing participants the opportunity to play both roles and to practice and apply concepts and skills learned in the first negotiation session. If desired, only one of the two scenarios can be negotiated if only one hour is available for the activity. One negotiation occurs for a job with a company called Maximum Motivation (A and B cases) and the other is for a job with a company called People Power (C and D cases). Participants work in pairs, with one playing the role of the job candidate and the other playing the role of the company representative. In both scenarios, the company considers the candidate to be the top applicant and would like to finalize the hire. Also in both scenarios, the job candidate has an acceptable alternative — another job offer from a rival company called PerformanceMax — and needs to accept or decline the PerformanceMax offer the next day. Thus, it is important that both sides reach an acceptable employment arrangement during this negotiation, or the candidate will not be hired. When both sides have negotiated an acceptable agreement, or when either partner decides to end the negotiation, the negotiation is over. After group discussion, participants find a different partner who last played the opposite role, switch roles, and complete the second negotiation scenario.

Teaching Note: 8B12C036 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Negotiation; Hiring; Compensation; Staffing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, Michael Train, Jeanne McNett

Product Number: 9B11M104
Publication Date: 11/23/2011
Revision Date: 11/26/2012
Length: 9 pages

In recent years, incidents of piracy have increased dramatically off the coast of the failed state of Somalia. In this case, a group of 14 pirates have hijacked a cargo ship full of machinery, but have yet to make any demands. They hold hostage a multinational crew of 20 (whose captain and two officers are American), the ship, and the cargo. The chief operating officer of an international shipping company must choose among alternative strategies to get the crew, cargo, and ship back safely with as little cost as possible.

Teaching Note: 8B11M104 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Corporate Responsibility; Risk Analysis; Risk Management; Transportation; Crime; Somalia; Africa; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 10:
Organizational Culture

Colleen Sharen

Product Number: 9B14C001
Publication Date: 2/13/2014
Revision Date: 2/12/2014
Length: 10 pages

In May 2013, the founder and executive director of the St. John the Compassionate Mission, a faith-based, non-profit social service organization located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, needs to plan for his retirement. He has been the driving force behind the organization for the past 27 years, and it reflects his vision that meaningful work helps people get off welfare, attaining dignity and a sense of personal value in the process. To that end, the Mission provides opportunities for everyone in the community to work through employment in one of its two social enterprises — a thrift store and a bakery — or through volunteer opportunities. Because its organizational culture emphasizes collaboration and consultation not only with its staff leadership council and board of directors but also with all members of the community, its decision making has been fluid and in response to perceived needs rather than forward planning. Now he needs to ensure an effective succession that protects the organization's culture, values and beliefs and ensures the safety of a vulnerable population.

Teaching Note: 8B14C001 (10 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Servant leadership; succession planning; organizational culture; leadership; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jeffrey Gandz

Product Number: 9B12C001
Publication Date: 1/24/2012
Revision Date: 1/25/2012
Length: 31 pages

TD Bank Group was one of the few large financial institutions in the world to have prospered during the financial meltdown and subsequent recession in 2008/9. It did this without any government assistance. Furthermore, it emerged from the crisis substantially larger in terms of market capitalization and assets while having the best performance of any of the Big-5 Canadian banks in terms of stock price and total shareholder return during the period 2003-2011.

The case describes many of the actions led by TD’s CEO, Ed Clark, following his promotion to that role after severe credit losses at the bank. It describes a shift of strategy that focused on reducing market, credit, and liquidity risk while increasing strategic risk. It also describes in depth the governance and management approach to risk at the bank as well as identifying important issues such as the establishment of a risk-management culture, the relationship between executive compensation and risk, and the formulation and promulgation of a clear statement of risk appetite. Further, it allows the instructor to focus on the many types of risk that have to be managed in a financial organization including strategic, market, credit, liquidity, operational, insurance, legal/regulatory, and reputational risk and how these might be traded-off against each other.

Students are required to identify which actions taken by TD are likely to have contributed to the bank’s excellent performance and the extent to which those actions may have been reflected in the performance of the bank’s stock. They need to consider whether avoiding market, credit, and liquidity risk was worth it for TD given that the company did not achieve superior performance to its peers before the financial crisis, a fact that was reflected in its disappointing stock performance.

Teaching Note: 8B12C001 (4 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Risk Management; Organizational Culture; Management of Financial Institutions; Financial Crisis; Canada
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 11:

Gerard Seijts, Jeffrey Gandz, Mary M. Crossan

Product Number: 9B14C016
Publication Date: 3/18/2014
Revision Date: 4/4/2018
Length: 5 pages

Business schools have done an admirable job of teaching competencies, and many business organizations have defined the framework of competencies that are required to be successful in the institution. However, much less attention has been spent on leadership character and the importance of commitment to the leadership role. There is no consistent understanding among executives about what character means, despite a concurrence that it is important. The movie Invictus portrays Nelson Mandela in his first year as the first black president of the newly desegregated South Africa as he persuades not only both black and white populations to support the national rugby team in its effort to win the World Cup but also the players themselves. It provides a truly brilliant illustration of not only the competencies required to lead but also the leadership character and commitment that are needed to lead during trying times.

Teaching Note: 8B14C016 (17 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: leadership development; character; competencies; commitment; South Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gerard Seijts, William T. Watson

Product Number: 9B12C039
Publication Date: 10/24/2012
Revision Date: 10/11/2013
Length: 10 pages

In 2010, approximately 20,000 barrels of oil being shipped south by Enbridge spilled into Michigan’s Talmadge Creek, contaminating wetlands around Battle Creek and the nearby county seat of Marshall, including a stretch of the Kalamazoo River. The timing of the incident could not have been worse. The pipeline had been carrying controversial tar sands oil at a time when Enbridge and its competitors were seeking to greatly expand their pipeline networks across North America. Moreover, the pipeline failure came on the heels of BP's much larger oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, amid a period of heightened public intolerance toward oil spills. As a result, Enbridge faced massive public relations (PR) and regulatory challenges. Enbridge's reputation was clearly at risk since the company had promoted itself as a true believer in corporate social responsibility, which had raised the stakes when dealing with the industrial accident. The CEO of Enbridge faced an almost impossible challenge. He needed to prove to American citizens — and to industry regulators, market watchers, company shareholders and Enbridge employees — that his company deserved to be judged on its own merits, not as a Canadian version of BP. To meet this challenge, he needed to demonstrate that Enbridge was run by people who not only wanted to make amends but could be trusted to do so.

Teaching Note: 8B12C039 (9 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Leadership; Crisis; Communication; Leadership Character; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Gerard Seijts, William T. Watson

Product Number: 9B12C040
Publication Date: 10/24/2012
Revision Date: 10/11/2013
Length: 5 pages

This is a supplement to Enbridge Michigan Oil Spill: Patrick Daniel's Challenge (A), 9B12C039.

Teaching Note: 8B12C039 (9 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Leadership; Crisis; Communication; Leadership Character; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 12:
Decision Making, Creativity, and Ethics

Neha Paliwal Sharma, Jyotsna Bhatnagar

Product Number: 9B12C028
Publication Date: 9/4/2012
Revision Date: 5/15/2014
Length: 12 pages

Sitara was a village in India whose local governing body had 15 members headed by the gram-pradhan. In 2011, the gram-pradhan had approved a project for renovation of a large village pond as per the directives of the central government’s MNREGA scheme. However, on starting the excavation work at the project site, it was found that the area was extremely marshy. Manual labourers turned up at the site everyday but declined to work in life-threatening conditions. MNREGA prohibited the use of machines except in the case of extraordinary circumstances without exactly defining what such circumstances might be. Thus, the gram-pradhan was forced to pay labour fees for no work. The case is set at this juncture, where a solution must be found. Part A illustrates how the Indian style of management that relies on competencies such as jugaad (creative improvisation), innovation, and resourcefulness leads to talent management and capability-building even at the bottom of the pyramid. Part B brings forth the trade-off between the management practice of jugaad and management through “systematic innovation.” Part C sheds light on the public policy approach of examining the whole situation. The case also explores the competencies needed for the effective functioning of social and commercial institutions in the Indian context.

Teaching Note: 8B12C028 (19 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Human Resource Management; Mental Model and Competency; Public Policy Governance; Bottom of the Pyramid; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Zsuzsanna Kispal-Vitai

Product Number: 9B11C049
Publication Date: 3/7/2012
Length: 7 pages

A young entry-level employee starts work in the hotel industry in Eastern Europe. The case describes her experiences and shows the HRM practices in the particular hotel in which she works. The issue for analysis is less whether or not the employee should stay or leave this hotel, which has minimal pay and poor working conditions, and more the overall nature of human resources (HR) operations at this service organization, with regard to ethics and sustainability.

Teaching Note: 8B11C049 (12 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Hotel Management; Human Resource Management; Job Satisfaction; Ethics; Motivation; Eastern Europe
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Hwee Sing Khoo, Audrey Chia, Vivien K.G. Lim

Product Number: 9B10M017
Publication Date: 4/21/2010
Length: 14 pages

This case illustrates the rise and fall of the former chief executive officer (CEO) of the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Singapore, T.T. Durai. In June 2007, Durai was charged with corruption and sentenced to three months in jail. Just less than two years prior, he had been the prolific CEO who had transformed the NKF from a small foundation into Singapore's largest charity, with 21 dialysis centres. Durai spent 37 years of his life volunteering and working with the NKF, and initiated research, marketing and fund-raising strategies for the charity. Under Durai's helm, the charity's revenue grew from $17 million to $116 million. Dialysis centres in other parts of the world sought Durai's expertise to improve their dialysis programs. This case documents the unfolding events that led to surprising revelations in court. These include Durai's leadership style, controversial decisions, bountiful entitlements and debatable actions taken to achieve his aims. In all, the case provides a perceptive insight into how differing perceptions of responsible leadership affected the stakeholders of the NKF, and encourages readers to analyze and propose how things could be improved, or could have turned out differently.

Teaching Note: 8B10M17 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Health Administration; Transformational Leadership; Ethical Issues; Non-Profit Organization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 13:
Organizational Structure

Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C022
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 12 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future.

See B Case 9B14C023.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C023
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/24/2014
Length: 9 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future.

See A Case 9B14C022.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B10M020
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 15 pages

This case examines the giant Canadian mining corporation, Barrick Gold Corporation (Barrick), (called Africa Barrick Gold plc since 2009), and the way it engages in sustainable community developments that surround its mining activities in Tanzania. Following recent organized tensions and heightened criticism from local communities, media, international social lobbyists and local not-for-profit organizations (NFOs), Barrick has attempted to deal with the local communities in a responsible manner. At issue for senior management was whether there was much more that it could reasonably do to resolve the tensions.

The case considers: how MNEs seek social license and local legitimacy; the relevance of hybrid institutional infrastructures; the evolving global roles for MNEs and their subsidiaries. The case is appropriate for use in courses in international management, global corporations and society, and international development and sustainable value creation.

Teaching Note: 8B10M20 (18 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Subsidiaries; Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Cross Sector Social Partnership; Government Relations
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 14:
Organizational Change

Caren Scheepers, Jabu Maphalala, Chantel van der Westhuizen

Product Number: 9B14C027
Publication Date: 6/18/2014
Revision Date: 6/18/2014
Length: 14 pages

In 2013, the chief executive officer of South Africa’s fourth largest bank, the Nedbank Group Limited, is considering the past and future of his organization. The company is in the process of transformation from a low point in 2003 of poor staff morale and falling share prices, with the threat of losing its licence because of poor capital liquidity, to the best bank in Africa, winning praise for its efforts in environmental sustainability and promoting the post-Apartheid government’s broad-based black economic empowerment policy. Through acquisitions and joint ventures, the company is expanding into neighbouring countries with the result that, after a period of retrenchment, the number of branches and staff has grown. Clearly, his and his predecessor’s clear vision, measurement and focus on culture have enabled the turnaround and subsequent organizational transformation. Yet, in the midst of the global financial crisis, the company is facing increasing competition not only from other banks throughout Africa but from telecommunications companies and retailers that operate financial services. The question now is: Can these transformation efforts be sustained?

Teaching Note: 8B14C027 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Transformational leadership; turnaround; organizational culture; management succession; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Gerard Seijts, Robert Way

Product Number: 9B14C014
Publication Date: 3/14/2014
Revision Date: 3/14/2014
Length: 16 pages

In late 2006, the Rouge Valley Health System’s board of directors began to grasp the gravity of the leadership challenge set before them: rescue the amalgamated Scarborough Centenary Hospital and the Ajax and Pickering General Hospital, which was financially a “basket case,” or face an imposed government takeover. A recently completed independent peer review conducted from June through November 2007 came down hard on the former senior leadership team for poor performance and lack of accountability. To reverse the hospital’s grave prognosis, the board needed to perform triage: work with their new chief executive officer to stop the financial bleed, restore faith among the hospital’s senior management and work towards a new organizational culture.

Teaching Note: 8B14C014 (15 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Health care; leadership; change management; mergers; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Cara C. Maurer, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10C026
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Revision Date: 11/7/2011
Length: 14 pages

L’Oreal S.A. is in the process of implementing a global diversity strategy. The firm's Europe diversity director is working with various country units to roll out the strategy. The director faces obstacles such as cultural differences between countries and, generally, low awareness of the benefits a diversity strategy can bring.

Teaching Note: 8B10C026 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Behaviour; Communications; Cosmetics; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA