Ivey Publishing

Basic Marketing Research: Integration of Social Media

Malhotra, N.K.,4/e (United States, Pearson, 2012)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introduction to Marketing Research

Dante Pirouz, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B12A005
Publication Date: 2/21/2012
Revision Date: 2/17/2012
Length: 12 pages

In May 2010, the “chief pain officer” of SalesBrain, a neuroscience-based marketing research and coaching company located in California, has been approached for advice by the marketing head of Digital Technology International (DTI), a Utah-based provider of technology solutions for the global publishing industry. DTI has been struggling with communicating the core value proposition of its offerings to customers, including leading newspaper publishers. Its frontline people are delivering messages that are technical, jargon-filled, and complex. Publisher-customers are unable to understand quickly how the technology solutions being offered by DTI can help them become competitive. The sales messages are also not consistent.

SalesBrain is suggesting a three-step process wherein it will identify the “pain points” being experienced by the publisher-customers of DTI; create a compelling set of claims that DTI could offer about its technology products; and guide its frontline salespersons towards developing appropriate sales scripts that they could use with prospective clients. SalesBrain is deploying the cutting-edge tools of neuroscience marketing in each of the three processes. The chief pain officer must choose between Layered Voice Analysis and Facial Action Coding System as a medium to serve the needs of DTI.

Teaching Note: 8B12A005 (4 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Business to Business Marketing; Marketing Research; Sales Management; Newspapers; Consumer Neuroscience; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Michael Goldman, Jennifer Lindsey-Renton

Product Number: 9B11A044
Publication Date: 2/2/2012
Revision Date: 10/16/2012
Length: 17 pages

Nawaal Motlekar is the managing director of Kwenta Media and founding editor of Mamas & Papas, a recently launched parenting magazine in South Africa. From her early entrepreneurial experiences, Motlekar developed a personal and professional interest in parenting magazines. As a Black South African woman married to an Indian man in an increasingly multi-racial and multi-cultural society, Motlekar recognized a gap for a parenting magazine that would appeal to a wider and more racially and culturally inclusive target market. After extensive research and development, she launched the Mamas & Papas magazine in early 2009. The case charts Motlekar’s journey as an entrepreneur, as well as her efforts between 2006 and 2009 to bring the magazine to life. The case explores the quantitative and qualitative research approaches employed by Motlekar, as well as her marketing and branding initiatives towards building a Mamas & Papas brand beyond just the physical magazine. With the magazine having been on shelves for 12 months, Motlekar and her board faced a number of decisions. These included options to increase advertising revenues and circulation, as well as choosing how to extend the Mamas & Papas brand into related categories.

Teaching Note: 8B11A044 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Brand Extension; Brand Management; Brand Positioning; Consumer Research; Marketing Research; Magazines; South Africa; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Allison Johnson, Natalie Mauro

Product Number: 9B11A001
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Revision Date: 3/8/2018
Length: 14 pages

The Canadian Pillsbury ready-baked goods cookie line is experiencing disappointing performance, and the marketing manager at General Mills Canada Corporation is under pressure to make strategic decisions that will help turn around the segment. The marketing manager has engaged the help of the consumer insight team to conduct market research studies that will shed light on consumers and their attitudes, behaviours, and preferences towards the product. The results from the market research studies have arrived, and the students, assuming the role of the marketing manager, must filter through them to determine how this information can be used to improve the performance of the cookie segment. More specifically, students will need to determine where the greatest opportunities lie, who the team should target, what brand messaging is the most relevant, and what type of communication plan would be most effective.

Teaching Note: 8B11A001 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Differences; Customer Segmentation; Brand Positioning; Value Proposition; Market Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Defining the Marketing Research Problem and Developing an Approach

Dante Pirouz, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B11A029
Publication Date: 10/11/2011
Revision Date: 8/15/2016
Length: 14 pages

In early 2008, Campbell Soup Company, a global food and beverage enterprise, is experimenting with a new way of understanding the mindset of its consumers. This has been prompted by the stagnation in sales of its soup products in the United States, its home market, where the soups category has matured. For decades, the company’s focus in marketing research has been on tracking how the end users, having bought its soup products at stores, consume them at home. But now, it is keen on tracking the shoppers while they are searching the retail aisles. The company is planning to deploy the techniques of consumer neuroscience, a relatively new discipline, for this purpose.

Teaching Note: 8B11A029 (9 pages)
Issues: Consumer Neuroscience; Packaged Goods Marketing; Consumer Insights; Merchandising and Retailing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

John Dawes

Product Number: 9B10A015
Publication Date: 7/5/2010
Length: 17 pages

The Salty Snacks case is a data analysis exercise using Excel. The case uses real data from a consumer goods panel. It presents the student with a table of purchase duplications for a set of salty snack brands, and the student's task is to identify the competitive structure of the market, that is, which brands compete more intensely with each other. The task is similar to what brand managers in consumer goods companies face on a regular basis. The case provides excellent skill development in Excel, is instructive about how to analyze competition and informs students about an empirical generalization in marketing: the Duplication of Purchase Law.

Teaching Note: 8B10A15 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Data Analysis; Consumer Behaviour; Competition; Brand Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Thomas Funk

Product Number: 9B04A021
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 9 pages

The Ontario Machinery Ring is a cooperative set up to perform a matchmaking service for farmers who want to have custom work done and farmers who want to do custom work. This concept is widespread in Europe but has not been tried in North America. The general manager of the organization has set up a prototype operation and is looking at expansion opportunities. Expansion will take more funds than are available and the general manager has sought financial assistance from the provincial Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Before committing funds to this project, the ministry requires marketing research to measure demand for the machinery ring concept. Supplemental cases, Ontario Machinery Ring (B) and (C), product 9B04A022 and 9B04A023 look at questionnaire development and data analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B04A21 (7 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Marketing Planning; Data Analysis; Sales Forecasting; Marketing Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Research Design

Randle Raggio, Ben Eubanks

Product Number: 9B13A027
Publication Date: 11/18/2013
Revision Date: 2/21/2014
Length: 13 pages

By 2010, Virginia had become the fifth-largest wine-producing state in the United States and Michael Shaps had developed a reputation as one of Virginia’s premier winemakers. He had recently doubled his annual production capacity and was considering whether to increase production of his own “Michael Shaps”-label wines (MS), or accept offers to produce private-label wines (PL) for customers — a service he dubbed “custom crush.” He could increase his profits by selling PL wines at higher margins. However, it would take time to grow this new business, and any capacity reserved for a “custom crush” operation would reduce the number of cases of his own MS wines that he could produce. The financials of custom crush looked very promising, because in addition to higher margins, revenue from PL would be guaranteed by contracts prior to harvest — a situation of unusual security in the volatile wine business. Although his MS wines were of high quality and regionally popular, producing his own labeled wines was more of a speculative business, subject to myriad factors. Beyond the short-term financial impact, he also had to consider how a PL business would affect his own MS brand. Finally, Shaps had the opportunity to package wine in a box at significant savings over bottles and had to decide whether or how to introduce MS or PL wine in a box.

Teaching Note: 8B13A027 (10 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Expansion strategy; private label production; capacity utilization; distribution strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jane Menzies, Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh

Product Number: 9B12A036
Publication Date: 2/26/2013
Revision Date: 2/20/2013
Length: 18 pages

Marks and Spencer (M&S) had first ventured into international markets 70 years ago. By 2012, M&S had 337 stores in 41 countries. Although M&S saw itself as a U.K. retailer that exported its products, the company had been attempting to reduce its dependency on the U.K. economic cycle. Its goal was to increase international sales from £800 million to £1.0 billion by 2013/14. By 2020, M&S wanted to be an international, multi-channel retailer.

When the company entered the Chinese market in 2008, it faced many difficulties. It had failed to conduct proper market research to understand the Chinese consumer, which had led to many issues. The company had neglected to address the cultural gaps between the United Kingdom and China. It had also taken an approach of standardizing its products, instead of adapting products to the new market. Students must consider the marketing mix policies of product, price, placement and promotion to recommend changes to M&S’s entry into China.

Teaching Note: 8B12A036 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China market entry; culture; emerging markets; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Thomas Funk

Product Number: 9B04A022
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 3 pages

The general manager of Ontario Machinery Ring - a cooperative developed to match farmers with someone to do custom work - must develop a marketing research proposal and design a questionnaire to determine the demand of machinery ring concept. This is a supplement to Ontario Machinery Ring (A) - Problem Definition, product 9B04A021.

Teaching Note: 8B04A21 (7 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Marketing Research; Data Analysis; Sales Forecasting; Marketing Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data

Mary Conway Dato-on

Product Number: 9B14A005
Publication Date: 5/13/2014
Revision Date: 5/7/2014
Length: 18 pages

The director of the Fundación Bringas Haghenback (FBH), a non-profit community service organization in Mexico City, was preparing to present alternative market strategies to the board of directors for the three senior citizen homes run by the foundation. She hired a consulting team to research the services and marketing of each home as well as the external environment. She knew the demographic shifts in the Mexican population projected a drastic need for senior living facilities but had not yet decided how to meet the need. She faced the challenge of compiling the information into a convincing recommendation.

Teaching Note: 8B14A005 (18 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Nonprofit; health care; strategy; Mexico
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

June Cotte, Jesse Silvertown

Product Number: 9B11A036
Publication Date: 1/30/2012
Revision Date: 12/5/2012
Length: 17 pages

Canada Goose was a Canadian maker of high-end winter outdoor clothing that was available in 40 countries. The company’s CEO was considering entering the South Korean market, which would entail resolving several problems. There were distributor complications, and it was unclear which style of jacket to sell to the new customer groups. Finally, deciding how to position Canada Goose in order to reach the two target groups for Canada Goose in South Korea was something that had bothered the CEO ever since he had first received the market research. Those issues aside, the firm also had to consider how the current state of the company, both in North America and Western Europe, would impact the success of a full-scale entry into South Korea. The CEO was excited for the opportunity for Canada Goose in South Korea, yet he was unsure how to maximize growth while positioning the brand as strongly as possible.

Teaching Note: 8B11A036 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: New Market Entry; Winter Outdoor Clothing; Canada; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Christopher A. Ross

Product Number: 9B10A018
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Length: 14 pages

Canada is becoming increasingly multi-ethnic and many members of these groups start small retail businesses. This case is an example of one such situation. Princessa sold beauty products to the English speaking black community in Montreal. In 2005 and 2006, sales were flat and, in 2007, sales fell by about 16 per cent. The owner was concerned and wondered what action, if any, he should take. While the issues were clearly marketing oriented, recommendations and their implementation were constrained by limited human and financial resources.

Demographic information and maps for Montreal are provided. The case is designed to familiarize students with issues related to marketing to ethnic groups, dealing with secondary data, defining a retail market and developing a strategic plan for a small business operating under severe resource constrictions.

Teaching Note: 8B10A18 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Market Analysis; Marketing Planning; Marketing Defense Strategies; Retail Marketing; Small Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 5:
Exploratory Research Design: Syndicated Sources of Secondary Data

S. Ramesh Kumar, Venkata Seshagiri Rao, Narayana Trinadh Kotturu

Product Number: 9B13A048
Publication Date: 4/11/2014
Revision Date: 6/11/2014
Length: 8 pages

In an initiative to develop its herbal soap offering and create a repositioning strategy for its soap products, one of the front-runners in the Indian skincare market explored the perception of the brand image, using survey data to compare its own image with those of two of its strongest competitors. The challenge for this brand was to reposition itself and build its equity after taking into consideration the perceptual results of the study and the existing positioning of soap brands.

Teaching Note: 8B13A048 (6 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Brand positioning; herbal brand; brand repositioning; consumer behaviour; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

S. Ramesh Kumar, Akshat Kumar

Product Number: 9B12A049
Publication Date: 10/24/2012
Revision Date: 9/8/2014
Length: 9 pages

HDFC Life Insurance (HDFC Life) was competing in a changing environment as established banks began entering the insurance business. Even though several brands in the category advertised with different positioning strategies, consumers were not receptive. HDFC Life commissioned a survey that seemed to lead the senior manager of digital marketing to a dead end. The challenge was to introduce a differentiation that could be associated with the HDFC brand despite the limitations of the category and the unreceptive mindset of the target segment. The case also takes into consideration the changing lifestyles of potential insurance buyers in India, their new interest in purchasing insurance online and the complexities of developing a services brand in an emerging market.

Teaching Note: 8B12A049 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Brand positioning; service brand; emerging markets; brand perception; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Ralph W. Adler, Jing Song

Product Number: 9B10B007
Publication Date: 7/29/2010
Length: 12 pages

In existence since 1868, the non-profit Otago Museum in New Zealand had undergone several changes and expansions during its history and was regarded as curator of a broad-based collection of Maori and South Pacific artifacts. In January 2010, the Otago Museum's chief financial officer (CFO) was instructed by the museum's chief executive officer (CEO) to create a balanced scorecard (BSC) for the museum. The current CEO had brought a sense of customer orientation and financial acumen to the general running of the museum, evidenced through examination of customer satisfaction via surveys and focus groups, and various efforts to diversify income streams. The development of a BSC was seen as a practical way to reinforce and further motivate employee behaviour congruent with the focus on customer service and financial acumen. The resulting BSC needed to clearly articulate the museum's objectives, and the cause-and-effect relationships linking BSC dimensions with the museum's strategic vision and mission.

Teaching Note: 8B10B07 (6 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategy; Balanced Scorecard; Organizational Culture; Strategic Planning; Non-Profit Organization; Management Accounting; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:
Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

Jaydeep Mukherjee, Sanket Kawde

Product Number: 9B14A016
Publication Date: 5/30/2014
Revision Date: 5/22/2014
Length: 17 pages

The target market of Citibank cards in India was aligned with the profitability objectives of the company. However, if it continued with its current strategy, it faced the risk of being a niche player in a growing market and losing the profit potential from other segments and geographies in the near future. The CEO needed to reconsider the target market and finalize a marketing strategy in the face of the changing composition of the marketplace, the competition and the commercial imperatives of the credit card business. This was a critical decision that would have a long-term impact on resource deployment and budgeting.

Teaching Note: 8B14A016 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Target market selection; strategy; credit card marketing; customer lifetime value; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B14M006
Publication Date: 5/5/2014
Revision Date: 2/23/2015
Length: 21 pages

In 2012, Golan Heights Wines wanted to take advantage of the Chinese market. In recent years, China had demonstrated incredible growth in the wine market. Consumers’ growing interest in wine products had made wineries and vineyards like Golan Heights hungry for entry. The CEO of Golan Heights Winery had gone to China with her products in 2009. She had chosen distributorships as the mode of entry because of their expertise and experience in the Chinese market, something she did not possess. Since she had entered the market, however, she had learned of the seemingly disappointing demand for Israeli wines. Sales were rather limited given the size of the market. Most Chinese consumers who sought imported wines wanted them from Europe, particularly France. Additionally, vendors and distributors did a poor job of pushing Israel products. The CEO needed to devise and execute a series of strategies to better take advantage of the impressive Chinese market, establish a brand for Golan Heights Wines and create a platform for future growth.

Teaching Note: 8B14M006 (11 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Export strategy; market entry; market selection; Israel; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B12M058
Publication Date: 5/23/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

Founded in Trieste, Italy, Illy marketed a unique blend of coffee drinks in over 140 countries and in more than 50,000 of the world’s best restaurants and coffeehouses. The company wanted to expand the reach of its own franchised coffee bar, Espressamente, through international expansion. Potential markets included Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 2012, the managing director of Espressamente knew that global expansion meant prioritizing markets, but where did the greatest potential lie? In addition to market selection, mode of entry was vital and included options such as exporting, franchising, and joint ventures. This case provides a practical example of the challenges faced in international business.

Teaching Note: 8B12M058 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: International Market Selection; Modes of Entry; Franchising; Retailing; International Business; Coffee; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:
Descriptive Research Design: Survey and Observation

S. Ramesh Kumar, Eric Minj

Product Number: 9B12A059
Publication Date: 12/12/2012
Revision Date: 3/2/2016
Length: 8 pages

The Himalaya Drug Company is interested in obtaining insights into how the lifestyle of consumers is associated with the use of face washes, especially of its own brand. As the population of India, which is primarily under the age of 35, becomes more affluent and self-conscious, personal grooming has become more important. Several brands have positioned themselves in the market according to various attributes and benefits. Himalaya wants to understand the impact of values and lifestyles both on the category of face washes and on the brands in this category. The case makes use of a consumer survey conducted in December 2011 that investigated the lifestyle of consumers and connected it to various face wash brands through the concept of laddering. Were the attributes and benefits of the brands associated with the lifestyles of the consumers? How were values associated with brand association? Himalaya hopes to obtain insights through these questions to discover how it can effectively compete with its competitors through branding association.

Teaching Note: 8B12A059 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer behaviour; brand positioning; branding; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

S. Ramesh Kumar, Shamit Bagchi

Product Number: 9B11A019
Publication Date: 6/8/2011
Length: 18 pages

Shamit Bagchi, owner of the online art company Dhonuk, recognized that art was a niche market in India. He wanted to utilize psychographics in order to better understand art buyers and properly position his company, so he undertook a survey of art consumers’ behaviour. He believed that through selecting the appropriate demographic segments, analyzing his competition, and using the behavioural insights of the survey, he could create the proper platform for his art company.

Teaching Note: 8B11A019 (12 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Segmentation; Consumer Behaviour; Lifestyle Analysis; Market Strategy; Positioning; Art Market; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Youngchan Kim, Changjo Yoo

Product Number: 9B08A012
Publication Date: 8/28/2008
Revision Date: 5/12/2010
Length: 18 pages

This case presents points of contention and issues in the brand launch of a new telecommunication service of KTF, one of Korea's mobile telecommunication companies. As the second-place player in the 2G service market, which offered voice and text-messaging services, KTF decided to be the number one player in the new 3G service market, which offered stable video communication and high-speed data transmission as well as voice and text-messaging services. To do so, KTF developed a new brand, called SHOW, and implemented various integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategies to attract customers. After only four months since its launch, KTF had successfully attracted more than one million members. Several critical points for successfully launching a new brand in the mobile telecommunication service can be determined from this case. The introduction highlights the success of KTF's new brand launch strategy. Then the mobile telecommunication service market situation in South Korea is summarized. The next section provides a brief explanation of KTF and its new brand launch strategy in the 3G service market, covering topics from the market survey for 3G service to the brand-building processes. This is followed by an examination of how KTF used marketing-integrated communication for its new SHOW 3G service brand. Finally, the competitor's reaction to KTF's successful brand launch is summarized.

Teaching Note: 8B08A12 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Mobile Communication Industry; Brands; New Brand Launching Strategy; Integrated Marketing Strategy; Ivey/Yonsei
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 8:
Casual Research Design: Experimentation

Mark B. Vandenbosch, Alina Nastasoiu

Product Number: 9B14A010
Publication Date: 5/7/2014
Revision Date: 5/14/2014
Length: 12 pages

After the successful launch of their virtual grocery stores in South Korean metro stations, Tesco UK is trying to determine whether the virtual grocery store concept should be launched in their home market. In order to make this decision, Tesco needs to determine the role of the virtual store(s), the location(s) of the store(s) and the product range. At the same time, Tesco needs to compare the Korean and U.K. markets in order to determine whether the virtual store concept is viable.

Teaching Note: 8B14A010 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Online retailing; marketing strategy; Internet marketing; United Kingdom
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chetan Joshi, Hari Bapuji, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13C044
Publication Date: 12/10/2013
Revision Date: 12/9/2013
Length: 7 pages

In the hotel industry, the reuse of towels is considered a main step toward reducing hotels’ high carbon footprint. Windermere Manor, a private, high-end hotel, has established a routine to encourage its guests to reuse towels; however, the hotel’s towel-replacement rate exceeds its towel-reuse rate. The intended routine for identifying towels for reuse is not being followed, even by the hotels’ own housekeeping staff. The hotel's general manager examines the reasons for the breakdown of routine and considers ways of correcting the situation.

Teaching Note: 8B13C044 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Organization design; communication to stakeholders; sustainability; research methods; operations; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Michael Sider, Daniel Samosh

Product Number: 9B12A002
Publication Date: 4/13/2012
Revision Date: 4/13/2012
Length: 8 pages

The director of new business development and strategy at Redmas Digital, an enterprising start-up, needs to write two sales e-mail templates for Redmas’s newest pet project, YouPostIt! One of the e-mails is for leads that the company has not done business with before (cold leads) and the other is for leads that the company has done business with before (warm leads). The director has to write concise e-mails with high “skim value.” He must distill a large amount of information regarding the company value proposition and company history in an engaging way.

YouPostIt! is an experimental marketing company owned by Redmas Digital. The concept is simple: consumers get a chance to send physical postcards for free. Consumers log in at YouPostIt.com, upload a photo and write a short note, and then choose a border to go around the picture on the postcard (the border is a corporate logo). The business that occupies the border of the postcard assumes the cost of the postcard. Businesses have the opportunity to include coupons on the physical postcard and via an e-mail notification message after sending. How can the director write these sales e-mails to businesses he believes will want to pay for consumers’ postcards?

Teaching Note: 8B12A002 (3 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Sales Pitch; E-mail; Technology; Advertising; Tourism; Entrepreneurship; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate

Chapter 9:
Measurement and Scaling: Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling

Renuka Kamath, K.K. Kishore, Sagar Sharma

Product Number: 9B13A015
Publication Date: 8/12/2013
Revision Date: 8/9/2013
Length: 14 pages

In June 2012, an area sales manager at NutriPack India, a multinational company dealing with fast-moving consumer goods, had to find a way to match the success of his predecessor in increasing retail outlet coverage in central Maharashtra. He studied the territory data and identified the Jalgaon region as having the potential for high growth. However, the single distributor for Jalgaon was upset because he had already increased his operations the previous year and was unconvinced that this had been profitable. The area sales manager needed to convince this distributor of the benefits of his past investments, and also convince him to make further investments (e.g., hire more salespersons).

This case illustrates the challenges that young area sales managers face when they have to deal with experienced distributors in the Indian retail trade, especially in smaller towns where relationships can greatly affect business. Students will gain an understanding of the key performance indicators required to focus on developmental issues in a territory. They will appreciate financial considerations as a major tool in dealing with intermediaries, such as distributors, and will gain practical knowledge in how to convince a distributor of his past investments and profitability, and pave the way for further investment for retail expansion.

Teaching Note: 8B13A015 (22 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Distributor management; channel management; profitability; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Andrew Karl Delios, Jia Wei Teo, Donna Jimenez

Product Number: 9B11M124
Publication Date: 1/24/2012
Revision Date: 10/31/2018
Length: 15 pages

The beer industry comprises elements of sub-national, national and global competition. To expand, the industry players use various strategic approaches as illustrated by five major beer companies: Anheuser-Busch InBev, Groupo Modelo (9B11M125), Tsingtao Brewery (9B11M126), San Miguel (9B09M074) and Thai Bev (9B13M065). Observations about the beer industry — a fairly easy product and industry to understand — can be extrapolated to other industries. Lessons can be drawn regarding the influence of industry pressures on the four key components of an international expansion strategy: product choice for expansion, market choice for geographic expansion, timing of entry and mode of entry.

Teaching Note: 8B11M124 (16 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Industry Analysis; Strategic Acquisitions; Global Strategy; Industry Globalization; Strategic Alliances; Beer Industry; Ivey/NUS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Roberto Galang, Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B09M074
Publication Date: 12/8/2009
Revision Date: 9/27/2012
Length: 20 pages

San Miguel Corporation is one of the oldest and largest companies in the Philippines. In its 100 year history, it has established a clear leadership position in the Philippine beer industry, as well as having made successful forays into other related and unrelated product areas. In the late 2000s, Eduardo Cojuangco, the CEO of San Miguel Corporation, which was South Asia's largest food and beverage company, found himself in a quandary. Cojuanco wanted to move San Miguel into industries that had scale and good future growth possibilities, to build leadership positions in key industries that would drive growth not just for San Miguel but also for the Philippines. At the same time, San Miguel Corporation would reverse its international expansion plans. The case involves discussion of this strategy, tracing issues of internationalization versus a domestic product focused growth in non-allied businesses in the Philippines, such as energy, mining, infrastructure and other utilities.

The case is part of the Beer Cases series: Anheuser-Busch InBev (9B11M124), Groupo Modelo (9B11M125), Tsingtao Brewery (9B11M126), San Miguel and Thai Bev (9B13M065).

Teaching Note: 8B09M74 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; International Strategy; Strategy; Diversification
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 10:
Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling

Neil Bendle, Dan Horne

Product Number: 9B14A018
Publication Date: 5/29/2014
Revision Date: 5/29/2014
Length: 8 pages

A manager, preparing for an interview with Visa Inc., seeks to understand the nature of the global payments industry and Visa Inc.'s position within it. The case outlines the industry's history and current practice through extensive use of publicly reported information. The public information allows answers to some important questions. What does Visa Inc. do? How competitive is the industry? And what is the source of Visa Inc.'s competitive advantage? Student spreadsheet is available, see 7B14A018.

Teaching Note: 8B14A018 (11 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Industry analysis; strategy; credit card; market share; North America
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

June Cotte, Marilyn Fertile, David Fisher, Derek Howe, John Hunt, Paola Marignani

Product Number: 9B13A002
Publication Date: 2/25/2013
Revision Date: 2/25/2013
Length: 12 pages

The SickKids Foundation, the fundraising arm of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, works with Dairy Queen and the Children's Miracle Network on an annual event called Miracle Treat Day. On that day, proceeds from Dairy Queen Blizzard sales are donated to children’s hospitals across North America. But the cause-related marketing program has had unequal success: the amount raised in Toronto is less than what is raised in many other Canadian municipalities. The associate director of the Children's Miracle Network at the SickKids Foundation has challenged her team to figure out why this is happening and what they can do to improve the performance of the initiative.

Teaching Note: 8B13A002 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Cause-related ; Non-profit; Social Marketing; Charity; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 11:
Questionnaire and Form Design

Satyendra Singh, Martine Morin

Product Number: 9B07A007
Publication Date: 2/26/2007
Length: 6 pages

The director of La Liberte, a French not-for-profit weekly newspaper, needed to revitalize the newspaper as sales had been declining consistently for the past 15 years. The newspaper's mission was to serve the French community in Manitoba, Canada. Survival of a French newspaper was essential for the French culture in the community. To reverse the negative sales trend, the director conducted a survey. Based on the findings of the survey, the director had to balance his desire to serve the French community with the need to be financially viable.

Teaching Note: 8B07A07 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Feasibility Analysis; Break-Even Analysis; Not-For-Profit Marketing; Cross Cultural Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Elizabeth M.A. Grasby, Ken R. Bowlby, Sonja M. Head

Product Number: 9A95K006
Publication Date: 2/11/1997
Revision Date: 2/18/2010
Length: 13 pages

After early sales gains with a five-minute oil change offering, Delta Oils witnesses a slump in business. The owner decides to research the oil change consumer. The case introduces students to the design of a consumer study; specifically, the design, sequencing, formulation, administration and interpretation of a survey on consumer behaviours surrounding oil changes in passenger vehicles. A follow-up case Delta Oil Outlets (B) is available.

Teaching Note: 8A95K06 (26 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Marketing Research; Statistical Analysis; Consumer Analysis; Market Segmentation
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Chapter 12:
Sampling: Design and Procedures

Niraj Dawar, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9A98A029
Publication Date: 6/16/1999
Revision Date: 1/22/2010
Length: 13 pages

DayQuil Brand Sampling is part of a three-case series about the execution of a sampling project for the DayQuil brand of cold medication made by Procter & Gamble. The Brand Sampling case focuses primarily on brand management issues. The case serves to introduce students to the implementation aspects involved in a sampling program as well as to some tricky decisions regarding use of samples from a different country. In particular, the use of samples from the United States in the Canadian market requires over-stickering the expiry date and using one which is one year longer. While the use of the extended expiry date was perfectly legal and safe, the potential for consumer confusion was significant. (The other cases in this Procter & Gamble series are Managing DayQuil Sampling, case 9A98C015, and DayQuil Sampling Operations, case 9A98D020.)

Teaching Note: 8A98A29 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Crisis Management; Promotion Policy; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Lyn Purdy, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9A98D020
Publication Date: 10/27/1999
Revision Date: 1/27/2010
Length: 10 pages

The assistant brand manager for DayQuil cold medication is under the gun to meet the deadline for a sampling experiment designed to increase DayQuil's market share. The case discusses managing timelines, identifying bottlenecks, and developing project management skills. DayQuil Sampling Operations serves to introduce students to project management issues and the decisions that have to be made, including crashing timelines and identifying parallel processes. This case can also serve as an excellent introduction to the use of Microsoft Project. DayQuil Sampling Operations is part of a three-case series about the DayQuil brand of cold medication made by Procter & Gamble. The other cases are Procter & Gamble Canada: DayQuil Brand Sampling (9A98A029) and Procter & Gamble Canada: Managing DayQuil Sampling (9A98C015).

Teaching Note: 8A98D20 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Brands; Critical Path; Project Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 13:
Sampling: Final and Initial Sample-Size Determination

Ken R. Bowlby, Elizabeth M.A. Grasby, Sonja M. Head

Product Number: 9A96K001
Publication Date: 2/19/1997
Revision Date: 2/10/2010
Length: 28 pages

A survey of the oil change consumer has been completed for Delta Oil. The student must analyze the results and report conclusions and recommendations to Delta Oil management. The case presents the actual results of an extensive consumer survey. Delta Oil (B) introduces basic analytical techniques for market research: stratified and segmented sampling, analysis of frequency distributions and cross-tabulations. The importance of sampling methods and sample size can also be addressed. A Note on Reading a Crosstab Table (9A97K002) is also available. Delta Oil Outlets (A), which challenges students to design a research study for the company, should be taught, or at least reviewed, before addressing Delta Oil (B).

Teaching Note: 8A96K01 (25 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Statistical Analysis; Consumer Research; Data Analysis; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Chapter 14:
Fieldwork: Data Collection

Miranda R. Goode, Daniel Samosh

Product Number: 9B12A015
Publication Date: 5/17/2012
Revision Date: 5/18/2012
Length: 10 pages

In August 2011, the digital strategist at Online Advertisers, a small digital media company (web development, affiliate marketing, and social media management), was faced with finalizing a value proposition for a new social media marketing division, Online Advertisers Social. Online Advertisers was a creativity-driven company. Data and analytic capabilities were generally not the reason why clients worked with Online Advertisers. Online Advertisers attracted clients by being young, in touch with trends, energetic, and creative. However, clients (especially larger clients) wanted analytics — metrics that could be used to objectively quantify returns on social media investment. The digital strategist saw an opportunity to position Online Advertisers Social as a social media company that offered smaller businesses insights into their target markets that they would not otherwise have access to due to budget constraints.

The digital strategist needed to create a value proposition that balanced an analytics focus with Online Advertisers’ creative marketing and design. The company was too small to offer a large-scale competitive analytical package, and had relied too heavily on intuition in the past to create a competitive data-based social media package. The digital strategist went through the nuances of social media management, including campaign management and community management, and the issue of offering services related to the measurement of social media ROI in a rapidly growing and maturing industry.

Teaching Note: 8B12A015 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Web Development; Social Media; Metrics; Analytics; Value Proposition Development; Business to Business; Consumer Insights; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Mary Conway Dato-on, Eileen Weisenbach Keller

Product Number: 9B10M070
Publication Date: 10/13/2010
Length: 13 pages

In late 2009, the principal of the Lake Eola Charter School (LECS) in downtown Orlando, Florida completed a course on nonprofit branding at the Philanthropy & Nonprofit Leadership Center at a local college. She was energized and ready to apply the information she had learned to evaluate the school's competitive position and to determine its level of mission fulfillment and progress toward goals. Well-suited for running a school, with a doctorate in education administration, the principal had taken the class to shore up her understanding of planning for and managing a nonprofit organization (NPO). In her mind, the key lesson was the need for an environmental analysis to better understand the school's internal environment and external competitors in order to improve the position of the school vis-a-vis the community's educational needs. She employed an MBA intern to help her develop tools for an internal and external environmental scan. The intern had just wrapped up the data collection and analysis. The principal was ready to use the summer down time to make changes for the 2010 academic year, if only she knew how to proceed.

This case is suitable for marketing strategy courses. The detailed treatment of environmental analysis could also make the case useful in business policy and strategy courses. Instructors will find the case particularly well-suited for classes on marketing, strategy and management in the area of public administration and nonprofit organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B10M70 (12 pages)
Industry: Educational Services, Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Non-Profit Management; Stakeholder Feedback; Environmental Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 15:
Data Preparation and Analysis Strategy

Matthew Thomson, Ian Meagher

Product Number: 9B13A028
Publication Date: 9/10/2013
Revision Date: 9/10/2013
Length: 7 pages

In 2010, the commissioner of the Ontario Hockey League was generally satisfied with its operations but knew that certain markets were not reaching their potential. Management needed to use data to make some potentially difficult decisions, including possibly closing several teams down. The data included proximity of competition from other hockey leagues and other sports teams; how long a team had been in its city; how many points the team earned each season and how many of its players graduated to the National Hockey League; the make-up of the city in terms of its size, median income, median house price and its immigrant and visible minority populations; and, finally, the price of tickets. There were a few teams that were significant outliers at each end of the spectrum. What was the league going to do with the teams at the bottom that were dragging down average attendance figures? Student spreadsheet 7B13A028 with data is available.

Teaching Note: 8B13A028 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Statistics; sports marketing; strategy; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05A024
Publication Date: 9/26/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The Global Media manager for adidas International is responsible for developing and championing a new marketing strategy at adidas called brand in the hand that is based on the convergence of cell phones and wireless Internet. The case presents company background information, data on the penetration of mobile devices such as cell phones, the growth of global mobile marketing practices, and several mobile marketing communications campaigns that adidas launched in 2004, such as a mobile newsticker for the 2004 European soccer championship. The case then introduces a specific campaign - Respect M.E. - featuring Missy Elliott, a popular female hip-hop artist, and discusses the company's mobile marketing strategy to support MissyElliott's new line of sportswear. This case can be used to highlight the role of new technology in overall marketing strategy and integrated marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B05A24 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Marketing Communication; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 16:
Data Analysis: Frequency Distribution, Hypothesis Testing, and Cross-Tabulation

Subhash Jha, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B11A047
Publication Date: 3/16/2012
Length: 19 pages

Bihar State Milk Cooperative Federation (COMPFED) had been marketing its milk and milk-related products under the Sudha brand name in the Bihar and Jharkhand regions of India for three decades. It operated through six unions and two dairies to process the milk collected from nearly 4,000 village-level cooperatives. COMPFED appeared to have a competitive advantage for its supply of milk, since it maintained the largest network for milk procurement, which spanned a large area and was unmatched by its competitors. However, due to various environmental forces, the ability to procure an adequate supply had declined in the last two years, which negatively affected the profitability of the organization.

The marketing manager of COMPFED had been facing difficulty in serving the growing demand and maintaining profitability. Since he operated in an industry with high fixed costs, the declining supply of milk procurement meant lower sales. As a result, there was no opportunity to significantly lower operating costs to match the limited supply.

The marketing manager thought of two reasons in the external environment that contributed to this situation. First, a series of floods had caused damage to grazing land and livestock operations. Additionally, private players were disrupting the supply chain by offering short-term higher payments to some suppliers/farmers. These players did not face the same regulatory and hygiene guidelines that COMPFED did. The marketing manager’s options included two very different alternatives: trying to work with these agents or securing a process to minimize or eradicate their activities.

Teaching Note: 8B11A047 (8 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Agribusiness; Distribution System; Cooperatives; Distribution Channel; Dairy Farming; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Thomas Funk

Product Number: 9B04A023
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 15 pages

The general manager of Ontario Machinery Ring is looking at expansion opportunities but limited funding requires him to obtain financial assistance from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The ministry requires an assessment of the demand for this marketing concept before they will provide any funding. He had developed a questionnaire and now must analyze the data that has been collected to prepare the marketing research proposal. This is a supplement to Ontario Machinery Ring (A) - Problem Definition, product 9B04A021. Data file is available, product 7B04A023.

Teaching Note: 8B04A21 (7 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Marketing Planning; Marketing Research; Data Analysis; Sales Forecasting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Mark B. Vandenbosch, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A017
Publication Date: 8/5/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 12 pages

The manager of business development for Carvel Asia Limited is trying to determine how best to increase ice cream cake sales in Beijing. In doing so, he needs to develop a complete marketing program which includes decisions about product offerings, pricing, placement (distribution) and promotion - the 4 Ps. Carvel Asia was a 50-50 joint venture between Carvel (USA) and China's Ministry of Agriculture.

Teaching Note: 8A99A17 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Pricing Strategy; Product Concept; Marketing Communication; Distribution
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 17:
Data Analysis: Hypothesis Testing Related to Differences

Tridib Mazumdar, Mohua Banerjee

Product Number: 9B14A001
Publication Date: 3/26/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 20 pages

To target the expanding segment of upwardly mobile and upper-income Indians, a pre-eminent organized retailer in India decided to introduce Western-style hyperstores with high-end merchandising. The initial reactions of shoppers were positive, but soon the novelty wore off and store traffic declined. To counter the negative consumer responses, the retailer undertook a year-long test of a new repositioning strategy in its signature hyperstore in a large urban centre. The key challenge was to increase the store’s traffic and profitability without jeopardizing its distinctive and high-quality upscale image. The case provides the test results, which include consumer reactions as well as impacts on store traffic and profit margins.

Teaching Note: 8B14A001 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail management; emerging market; store positioning; store profitability; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jitendra R. Sharma

Product Number: 9B11D011
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Length: 5 pages

The case describes the situation faced by the vice president of A-CAT Corp. The company was a mid-sized manufacturer and distributor of domestic electrical appliances, largely catering to the price-sensitive rural population. The firm operated two medium-sized facilities in a remote district in Vidarbha, India. A-CAT manufactured a wide range of electrical appliances including TV signal boosters, transformers, FM radio kits, electronic ballasts, battery chargers, and voltage regulators. The focus was on its flagship product, the VR500 voltage regulator. The team planned to identify potential suppliers/vendors with their attendant strengths and weaknesses and to do so in a well-documented and structured manner. Analytical hierarchy process was a technique that could be used to meet this challenge.

Teaching Note: 8B11D011 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Cost-benefit Analysis; Decision Making; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 18:
Data Analysis: Correlation and Regression

Chris A. Higgins, Jodie Whelan

Product Number: 9B10E023
Publication Date: 2/1/2011
Length: 3 pages

A market research company has collected a large dataset on brand equity for the fast food and travel sectors. It has come up with a way of measuring brand equity. Various statistical techniques are used to assess the concept of brand equity. These include descriptive statistics, crosstabs, ANOVA, and MANOVA.

Teaching Note: 8B10E023 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation, Manufacturing
Issues: ANOVA/MANOVA; Brand Equity; Measuring Intangible Constructs
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 19:
Report Preparation and Presentation

Michael Taylor, Maggie Hao

Product Number: 9B12A020
Publication Date: 6/8/2012
Revision Date: 6/8/2012
Length: 8 pages

Datavast Inc., a product designer and manufacturer based in China, had just launched its new private cloud storage product, the Data Security Box. The general manager of Datavast was faced with the dilemma of who to sell this product to. He determined that segmenting by size was the most effective method, as customers in different industries and regions did not have very different needs or buying characteristics. However, SMEs (companies with 200-500 computers) and large companies (companies with 1,000+ computers) exhibited vastly different needs and purchasing behaviour. The general manager had limited resources, so he faced the decision of focusing on either SMEs or large companies. Although Datavast did not have any direct competitors at the time, its decision was complicated by the company’s current state and capabilities, as well as the data storage industry in China. Also, the general manager was hoping to retire within five years and was unwilling to make additional capital investments in the company. Datavast was operating at a loss and his goal was to bring the company into profitability within the next year. A net loss also meant that the company could not afford to be burdened with large additional expenses. Lastly, private cloud storage was a new technology in China and the market needed to be familiarized with the concept.

Teaching Note: 8B12A020 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Market and Segmentation Analysis; Target Segment Selection; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Ilan Alon, David M. Currie

Product Number: 9B11A026
Publication Date: 6/23/2011
Length: 10 pages

An executive must estimate the demand for Kodak Express outlets in various developing countries based on socioeconomic and demographic data about the countries. The case requires students to think about how to transform data on a national scale (GDP per capita, population, income distribution) into a form that is meaningful for a managerial decision — here, the number of outlets that could be supported by a country’s market demographics. In this instance, doing so can be accomplished effectively through modeling on a spreadsheet.

Teaching Note: 8B11A026 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Demand Analysis; Retailing; Franchising; Market Selection; Market Assessment; Microsoft Excel
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Robert J. Fisher, Christina A. Cavanagh, Stephen R. Foerster, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B04A008
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 16 pages

The vice-president of regulation at the Investment Funds Institute of Canada is reviewing the monthly statistics. It shows the continuance of three trends, prevalent during the last 12 months in the Canadian mutual funds industry. Net sales of mutual funds were declining, fund redemptions were rising and the rate of growth in mutual fund assets had been marginal. The vice-president must determine how the Investment Funds Institute, as the industry trade association for mutual funds, can influence these trends. He must decide on the message, who he should target with the message and the media through which he should reach his target audience, and present his plan at the next executive committee meeting.

Teaching Note: 8B04A08 (5 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Services; Marketing Management; Market Segmentation; Investment Funds
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA