Ivey Publishing

Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having and Being

Solomon, M.R.; White, K.; Dahl, D.,6e (Canada, Pearson Education, 2013)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
An Introduction to Consumer Behaviour

HIMALAYA DRUG COMPANY: REPOSITIONING A HERBAL SOAP
S. Ramesh Kumar, Venkata Seshagiri Rao, Narayana Trinadh Kotturu

Product Number: 9B13A048
Publication Date: 4/11/2014
Revision Date: 6/11/2014
Length: 8 pages

In an initiative to develop its herbal soap offering and create a repositioning strategy for its soap products, one of the front-runners in the Indian skincare market explored the perception of the brand image, using survey data to compare its own image with those of two of its strongest competitors. The challenge for this brand was to reposition itself and build its equity after taking into consideration the perceptual results of the study and the existing positioning of soap brands.

Teaching Note: 8B13A048 (6 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Brand positioning; herbal brand; brand repositioning; consumer behaviour; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING AUTHORITY (NPPA): INFLUENCING CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR
K.R. Jayasimha, Srabanti Mukherjee

Product Number: 9B12A016
Publication Date: 5/25/2012
Revision Date: 5/17/2012
Length: 14 pages

Since its inception in 1997, the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) had been trying to control drug prices through various supply-side initiatives, which had yielded limited success. This time around, NPPA had announced a new initiative, which was aimed at educating consumers about the inexpensive alternatives for medicines prescribed by doctors. By giving consumers information about various brands and their prices, NPPA hoped to offer customer self-selection of drugs through short message service (SMS, or “texting”). NPPA appeared to be operating on the premise that customer self-selection could result in self-regulation of consumption, thereby giving greater control of health care expenses to customers. Given the huge penetration of mobile phones in India and the gradual reduction of various mobile service charges, text-based service looked feasible. However, the proposed system had met with strong opposition from other stakeholders, such as doctors and chemists. Besides, the large-scale adoption of the proposed service was being questioned as the decision-making process for medicines was very complex.

Teaching Note: 8B12A016 (10 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Decision-making Process; Decision-making Unit; Moral Hazard; Consumption; Health Care; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TOYOTA: DRIVING THE MAINSTREAM MARKET TO PURCHASE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Jeff Saperstein, Jennifer Nelson

Product Number: 9B04A003
Publication Date: 1/16/2004
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 23 pages

Toyota is a large, international automobile manufacturer headquartered in Japan, with plans to become the largest worldwide automaker, striving for 15 per cent of global sales. Toyota is committing itself to be the leader of the hybrid-electric automotive industry, and is relying on changes in the industry and customer perceptions to bring its plan to fruition. Toyota's challenge is to develop consumer attitude and purchase intent, from an early adopter, niche market model into universal mainstream acceptance.

Teaching Note: 8B04A03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Product Design/Development; Multinational; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Perception

BARILLA PASTA: A COMPANY IN HOT WATER
Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B13A039
Publication Date: 11/8/2013
Revision Date: 11/8/2013
Length: 6 pages

On September 26, 2013, the chief executive officer of the world-leading pasta manufacturer, the Barilla Group, was challenged with a precarious situation. A day earlier, during an interview on an Italian radio show, the company chairman made a series of anti-gay remarks when asked why the company did not feature advertisements with gay families. Social media exploded with negative comments and numerous equality themed pictures creatively featuring pasta. U.S. late night television shows mocked the company, and various equality rights organizations around the world called for a boycott of its products. Competitors also issued statements and ads extolling their respect for diversity. Everyone — customers, news media, competitors and organizations supporting diversity — were looking for an explanation. The company desperately needed to devise a strategy to publicly respond and avoid the negative long-term consequences of a damaged brand name, decreased market share and ultimately lost revenues.

Teaching Note: 8B13A039 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Diversity; brand perception; communications; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TROUBLE BREWS AT STARBUCKS
Lauranne Buchanan, Carolyn J. Simmons

Product Number: 9B09A002
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 14 pages

After going public in 1992, Starbucks' strong balance sheet and double-digit growth made it a hot growth stock. The Starbucks vision was coffee culture as community, the Third Place between work and home, where friends shared the experience and exotic language of gourmet coffee. Its growth was fueled by rapid expansion in the number of stores both in the United States and in foreign markets, the addition of drive-through service, its own music label that promoted and sold CDs in stores and other add-on sales, including pastries and sandwiches. In an amazingly short time, Starbucks became a wildly successful global brand. But in 2007, Starbucks' performance slipped; the company reported its first-ever decline in customer visits to U.S. stores, which led to a 50 per cent drop in its share price. In January 2008, the board ousted CEO Jim Donald and brought back Howard Schultz - Starbucks' visionary leader and CEO from 1987 to 2000 and current chairman and chief global strategist - to re-take the helm. Starbucks' growth strategies have been widely reported and analyzed, but rarely with an eye to their impact on the brand. This case offers a compelling example of how non-brand managerial decisions - such as store locations, licensing arrangements and drive-through service - can make sense on financial criteria at one point in time, yet erode brand positioning and equity in the longer term. Examining the growth decisions made in the United States provides a rich context in which to examine both the promise and drawback of further foreign expansion.

Teaching Note: 8B09A02 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Branding; Retailing; Product Design/Development; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Learning and Memory

PORSCHE CANADA: SELLING WINTER DRIVING
Dante Pirouz, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11A021
Publication Date: 8/31/2011
Length: 22 pages

Porsche Canada wants to encourage its Canadian customers to drive their cars in winter. The goal is increased sales of cars (by consumers unwilling to buy a Porsche only for summer driving) and winter accessories such as snow tires. This is a three-fold challenge because Canadians generally believe that luxury vehicles should not be driven in winter due to ice and salt; that sports cars generally perform poorly in winter conditions; and that it is unwise to drive a luxury car in winter when it could be more easily scratched or damaged.

Teaching Note: 8B11A021 (7 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Market Strategy; Marketing Communication; Consumer Marketing; Luxury Cars
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMPBELL SOUP: GAINING CUSTOMER INSIGHTS THROUGH MARKETING RESEARCH
Dante Pirouz, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B11A029
Publication Date: 10/11/2011
Revision Date: 8/15/2016
Length: 14 pages

In early 2008, Campbell Soup Company, a global food and beverage enterprise, is experimenting with a new way of understanding the mindset of its consumers. This has been prompted by the stagnation in sales of its soup products in the United States, its home market, where the soups category has matured. For decades, the company’s focus in marketing research has been on tracking how the end users, having bought its soup products at stores, consume them at home. But now, it is keen on tracking the shoppers while they are searching the retail aisles. The company is planning to deploy the techniques of consumer neuroscience, a relatively new discipline, for this purpose.

Teaching Note: 8B11A029 (9 pages)
Issues: Consumer Neuroscience; Packaged Goods Marketing; Consumer Insights; Merchandising and Retailing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



POP SHOPPE (A)
Matthew Thomson, Kendra Hart

Product Number: 9B11A024
Publication Date: 7/26/2011
Length: 11 pages

The Pop Shoppe was once a leading player in the Canadian soft drinks market, but changing market conditions and corporate mismanagement drove the company into bankruptcy in the early 1980s. In 2003, an entrepreneur purchased the rights to the brand, and was considering reintroducing it in the market. The entrepreneur suspected that many Canadians would be as fond of the Pop Shoppe as he was. However, he had little experience in the beverage industry and consumer habits had changed in the many years since the brand died. Looking at the market, the entrepreneur wondered if there was an attractive space for Pop Shoppe. His instincts told him that older consumers would embrace the reintroduction of the old brand, but it was difficult to know if they were a sustainable market segment. Would older consumers be able to turn their children onto the brand? With little experience and limited funds, he knew that if he proceeded with the idea, he could not afford to make many mistakes. If he chose to reintroduce the Pop Shoppe, he questioned how true he should stay to the original concept. Could a new Pop Shoppe compete in the current market? Despite the entrepreneur’s love for the old brand, he wondered how he could raise enough consumer and retailer interest to make the brand succeed.

Teaching Note: 8B11A024 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Brand Management; Market Entry; Brand Positioning; Soft Drinks; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Motivation and Affect

DEAR DIARY: MY HEART IS RACING TO BUY A CAR
Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Matthew Thomson

Product Number: 9B12A019
Publication Date: 5/17/2012
Revision Date: 5/17/2012
Length: 2 pages

Jaime has been looking for several weeks to buy his first car. After narrowing his choices down to two, he can’t decide which to purchase. Option A is to buy the Honda CRV, which meets many of Jaime’s functional criteria (e.g. all-wheel drive, large trunk space, plenty of seats). This Honda is quite appealing to Jaime because he could use the car for his work and road trips with his siblings, and could easily handle the Wyoming climate. Option B is to buy the Ford Mustang, a car that he has been in love with ever since he was a teenager. Even though the Mustang does not necessarily meet any of his functional criteria, Jaime loves the idea of driving his dream car. Given these two options, Jaime is struggling to make a decision. Should he go with the car that meets his functional needs or should he go with the car that meets his affective needs? That is, should he go with his mind or his heart? Jaime wants to buy his car tomorrow. Help him.

Teaching Note: 8B12A019 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Utilitarian/Hedonic; Cars; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



FRET AND REGRET: A CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING DILEMMA
June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee

Product Number: 9B12A018
Publication Date: 5/10/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2012
Length: 3 pages

As a birthday present, Mike has just been given a new smartphone by his girlfriend, Molly. However, it is not the phone he wants. Over the course of a few days, Mike struggles with the decision of whether to return the phone and get the one he wants, or keep the one he received as a gift. The case is written from the perspective of the consumer, and deals with consumer behaviour issues such as anticipatory regret. It would be useful in an introductory marketing or undergraduate consumer behaviour course.

Teaching Note: 8B12A018 (3 pages)
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Mobile Telephones; United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



CANADIAN BLOOD SERVICES
Ron Mulholland

Product Number: 9B11A046
Publication Date: 11/25/2011
Length: 13 pages

The marketing manager for Canadian Blood Services (CBS) is concerned about a growing demand for blood — two per cent per year — driven by a number of factors, including the decrease of wait times in local hospitals, new operating procedures, and increased use or requirements of an aging population. Peak demand seasons coincide with low supply seasons, such as summer and winter holidays. Two issues require attention: the first involves increasing the absolute number of donors, currently in the 400,000 range. Indications are that the percentage of Canadians who donate blood (four per cent) is lower than other countries such as Sweden (five per cent). The second need is to retain more donors and increase the number of donations per donor each year. The CBS still faces issues stemming from the tainted blood scandal of the 1980s and the subsequent Krever inquiry. It is working to rebuild the trust of the public. The crux of the issue is understanding consumer behaviour toward blood donation. The manager needs to understand the consumer decision process, examine segments, determine a target segment, and develop communications to increase both the absolute number of donors and the repeat donations of identified donors.

Teaching Note: 8B11A046 (15 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Marketing Strategy; Marketing Communication; Blood Donations; Health Care; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
The Self

ABERCROMBIE & FITCH: IS IT UNETHICAL TO BE EXCLUSIVE?
Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, June Cotte, Danae Blanchard

Product Number: 9B14A009
Publication Date: 4/9/2014
Revision Date: 4/9/2014
Length: 5 pages

The CEO of clothing manufacturer and retailer Abercrombie and Fitch defends his decision that the company will not offer plus sizes for women, although extra large sizes are available for men, because average- to large-sized female consumers do not fit the company’s target market. This insistence on a standard of female beauty as young, svelte and tall has enraged consumers who have criticized the company, and the CEO in particular, in both the traditional and social media for exacerbating problems of body image and gender stereotypes, especially among teens. Increasing sizes, however, presents not only logistical and manufacturing challenges but may lead to charges that the company is encouraging obesity and unhealthy lifestyles as happened when a competitor, H&M, introduced large-size models and mannequins in its stores. Abercrombie and Fitch’s popularity with its target teen market depends on its promulgation of exclusivity, which in turn depends on its vision of what is “cool.” Yet, in the face of mounting criticism and declining sales, does sticking to the segmentation strategy make sense?

Teaching Note: 8B14A009 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Marketing ethics; social media; targeting/segmentation; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



MODIFYING MERIDA: DISNEY'S 11TH PRINCESS
Matthew Thomson, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Nicole Schaad

Product Number: 9B13A042
Publication Date: 11/7/2013
Revision Date: 11/7/2013
Length: 3 pages

When a well-known mass media corporation revises the image of a beloved and non-traditional movie character in a way that conforms to a physical stereotype, the female members of the viewing audience express their disapproval on a widespread scale. In the wake of the backlash, the company has a decision to make: Should it stick with the revised image, which has been deliberately redesigned to support an upcoming media campaign, or should it revert to the original image in order to appease the viewing public? The case presents both sides of the dilemma, revealing the psychological and commercial implications of using one image versus the other.

Teaching Note: 8B13A042 (2 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Brand equity; public relations; ethics; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



HIMALAYA FACE WASH: BRAND ASSOCIATIONS AND LIFESTYLES
S. Ramesh Kumar, Eric Minj

Product Number: 9B12A059
Publication Date: 12/12/2012
Revision Date: 3/2/2016
Length: 8 pages

The Himalaya Drug Company is interested in obtaining insights into how the lifestyle of consumers is associated with the use of face washes, especially of its own brand. As the population of India, which is primarily under the age of 35, becomes more affluent and self-conscious, personal grooming has become more important. Several brands have positioned themselves in the market according to various attributes and benefits. Himalaya wants to understand the impact of values and lifestyles both on the category of face washes and on the brands in this category. The case makes use of a consumer survey conducted in December 2011 that investigated the lifestyle of consumers and connected it to various face wash brands through the concept of laddering. Were the attributes and benefits of the brands associated with the lifestyles of the consumers? How were values associated with brand association? Himalaya hopes to obtain insights through these questions to discover how it can effectively compete with its competitors through branding association.

Teaching Note: 8B12A059 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer behaviour; brand positioning; branding; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



"HIPS FEEL GOOD" - DOVE'S CAMPAIGN FOR REAL BEAUTY
Thomas Gey, Nick Nugent, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A010
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 16 pages

Dove is one of Unilever's better-known personal care brands. It has significant top-of-mind awareness among women in many countries. In an attempt to increase sales volume by 80 per cent, Unilever re-launched Dove in 2004. The campaign asks the question What is real beauty? and attempts to redefine it in ways that challenge commonly portrayed stereotypes. This case examines the re-launch of Dove, Unilever's well-known international personal care brand, and the marketing issues behind its phenomenal success. It also raises questions about how to maintain the brand's momentum as the next phase unfolds. In 2007, Dove products are still well thought of by consumers and the campaign has attracted imitators, including brands outside the cosmetics and beauty care sector.

Teaching Note: 8B07A10 (17 pages)
Issues: Ethical Issues; Marketing Communication; Marketing Channels; International Marketing; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Personality, Lifestyles, and Values

AMERICAN APPAREL: UNWRAPPING ETHICS
June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Brittany Schuette

Product Number: 9B12A032
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
Revision Date: 8/13/2012
Length: 5 pages

American Apparel, a popular clothing manufacturer, has socially progressive labour policies and uses significant environmental advances in its manufacturing process. In addition, it has a well-established philanthropic arm. Set against these socially responsible policies is the highly sexualized nature of the company’s advertising. This element of the marketing mix seems, at least to some consumers, very much at odds with the other aims and policies of the company. The question facing students is whether this disconnect can be maintained or whether the brand’s advertising should change.

Teaching Note: 8B12A032 (2 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility; Advertising Strategy; Controversial Advertising, United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



THE BEAUTY OF SORBET
Margaret Sutherland, Verity Hawarden

Product Number: 9B12A039
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
Revision Date: 8/16/2012
Length: 10 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - African Business Cases Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case chronicles the origins and growth of Sorbet, a chain of beauty salons targeting upper income women in South African metropolitan areas. Owner Ian Fuhr identified an opportunity to redefine the beauty salon experience in South Africa by offering customers a service unlike anything in the industry. He carefully managed human resources to motivate employees and grow the client base. To complement this, the company started an external beauty therapy school to improve staff and train potential employees. In addition, Fuhr stressed the importance of growing brand awareness and carefully adjusted the company’s sales mix to maximize all potential profit margins, all while developing a customer-centric culture. By 2011, two new businesses had been launched under the Sorbet brand (wellness services; event management). Such expansion plus regional diversification options all had to be considered while keeping service quality levels high.

Teaching Note: 8B12A039 (12 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Brand Positioning; Brand Personality; Brand Awareness; Brand Management; Human Resources Management; Marketing Strategy; Employee Branding; Employee Participation; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



VERTU: NOKIA’S LUXURY MOBILE PHONE FOR THE URBAN RICH
Ken Kwong-Kay Wong

Product Number: 9B11A040
Publication Date: 9/28/2011
Revision Date: 12/1/2011
Length: 22 pages

Nokia, headquartered in Finland, was a global telecommunications equipment manufacturer. It operated Vertu, a luxury mobile phone brand that had pioneered the luxury mobile phone market in the late 1990s by using precious materials such as diamonds, sapphires, titanium, and exotic leather for phone production. The company had enjoyed impressive growth in almost 70 countries and had sold hundreds of thousands of phones in the eight years since its launch. On February 11, 2011, Stephen Elop, the new CEO of Nokia, announced a new mobile strategy to adopt Microsoft’s new but unproven Windows Phone as its primary smartphone operating system. The market reacted poorly, and the company’s share price took a 14 per cent dive on the day of announcement. How should Vertu respond to this new Nokia mobile strategy? Was Vertu well positioned to take the brand forward under the new Nokia? Should this U.K.-based wholly owned subsidiary be left alone and continue to be managed at arm’s length from Nokia? Changes to Vertu were inevitable — it was not a matter of if, but when.

Teaching Note: 8B11A040 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Brand Positioning; Market Segmentation; Product Design; Telecommunications; Luxury Goods; United Kingdom; Finland
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WWW.DHONUK.COM - MARKETING ART IN AN EMERGING MARKET
S. Ramesh Kumar, Shamit Bagchi

Product Number: 9B11A019
Publication Date: 6/8/2011
Length: 18 pages

Shamit Bagchi, owner of the online art company Dhonuk, recognized that art was a niche market in India. He wanted to utilize psychographics in order to better understand art buyers and properly position his company, so he undertook a survey of art consumers’ behaviour. He believed that through selecting the appropriate demographic segments, analyzing his competition, and using the behavioural insights of the survey, he could create the proper platform for his art company.

Teaching Note: 8B11A019 (12 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Segmentation; Consumer Behaviour; Lifestyle Analysis; Market Strategy; Positioning; Art Market; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 7:
Attitudes

EVOE SPRING SPA: A POSITIONING DILEMMA
Ashita Aggarwal, Renuka Kamath, Sunil Rao

Product Number: 9B13A051
Publication Date: 1/13/2014
Revision Date: 2/27/2014
Length: 16 pages

The co-founders of Evoe Spring Spa need to decide on the positioning of their business in the nascent Indian spa market. Indian consumers perceive spas as an expensive indulgence for the rich, and some spa services are seen as socially and culturally unacceptable. As a result, the co-founders need to build this category by changing consumer attitudes toward spa services. To identify the target segment and the best positioning for Evoe, the co-founders study the market and their competitors and conduct qualitative consumer research. In the end, they must choose from three viable positioning concepts.

Teaching Note: 8B13A051 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Positioning; segmentation; targeting; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PARAMOUNT PICTURES: THE TRANSFORMERS DILEMMA
Neil Bendle, Matt Boswick

Product Number: 9B12A024
Publication Date: 7/5/2012
Revision Date: 9/26/2012
Length: 10 pages

This and the Warner Bros. Pictures: The Harry Potter Dilemma case are set in December 2010 and show industry consultants thinking about how to market the final installments of very successful movie franchises. Both Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. Pictures want to market their movies to gain the greatest gross revenue (i.e. box office ticket revenue). Each company must take into account the scheduling of the other players in the market. The cases also deal with changes in the movie industry. These include the expansion of the number of 3D movies and the importance of franchise movies.

Teaching Note: 8B12A024 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Competition; Game Theory; Entertainment Marketing; Movie Scheduling; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WARNER BROS. PICTURES: THE HARRY POTTER DILEMMA
Neil Bendle, Matt Boswick

Product Number: 9B12A025
Publication Date: 7/5/2012
Revision Date: 9/26/2012
Length: 10 pages

This and the Paramount Pictures: The Transformers Dilemma case are set in December 2010 and show industry consultants thinking about how to market the final installments of very successful movie franchises. Both Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. Pictures want to market their movies to gain the greatest gross revenue (i.e. box office ticket revenue). Each company must take into account the scheduling of the other players in the market. The cases also deal with changes in the movie industry. These include the expansion of the number of 3D movies and the importance of franchise movies.

Teaching Note: 8B12A024 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Competition; Game Theory; Entertainment Marketing; Movie Scheduling; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PILLSBURY COOKIE CHALLENGE
Allison Johnson, Natalie Mauro

Product Number: 9B11A001
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 14 pages

The Canadian Pillsbury ready-baked goods cookie line is experiencing disappointing performance, and the marketing manager at General Mills Canada Corporation is under pressure to make strategic decisions that will help turn around the segment. The marketing manager has engaged the help of the consumer insight team to conduct market research studies that will shed light on consumers and their attitudes, behaviours, and preferences towards the product. The results from the market research studies have arrived, and the students, assuming the role of the marketing manager, must filter through them to determine how this information can be used to improve the performance of the cookie segment. More specifically, students will need to determine where the greatest opportunities lie, who the team should target, what brand messaging is the most relevant, and what type of communication plan would be most effective.

Teaching Note: 8B11A001 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Differences; Customer Segmentation; Brand Positioning; Value Proposition; Market Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Attitude Change and Interactive Communications

ISRAELI WINES IN CHINA: REACHING FOR NEW HEIGHTS
Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B14M006
Publication Date: 5/5/2014
Revision Date: 2/23/2015
Length: 21 pages

In 2012, Golan Heights Wines wanted to take advantage of the Chinese market. In recent years, China had demonstrated incredible growth in the wine market. Consumers’ growing interest in wine products had made wineries and vineyards like Golan Heights hungry for entry. The CEO of Golan Heights Winery had gone to China with her products in 2009. She had chosen distributorships as the mode of entry because of their expertise and experience in the Chinese market, something she did not possess. Since she had entered the market, however, she had learned of the seemingly disappointing demand for Israeli wines. Sales were rather limited given the size of the market. Most Chinese consumers who sought imported wines wanted them from Europe, particularly France. Additionally, vendors and distributors did a poor job of pushing Israel products. The CEO needed to devise and execute a series of strategies to better take advantage of the impressive Chinese market, establish a brand for Golan Heights Wines and create a platform for future growth.

Teaching Note: 8B14M006 (11 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Export strategy; market entry; market selection; Israel; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



"OUR BEER PRINT": BREWING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY AT MOLSON COORS
Mary Weil, Chitra P. Reddin

Product Number: 9B13A026
Publication Date: 11/19/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 14 pages

Molson Coors’ chief corporate responsibility officer has been tasked to use the company’s efforts toward global corporate responsibility to drive its global competitiveness. He must roll out new corporate responsibility initiatives to engage employees across the company’s range of geographic locations.

Teaching Note: 8B13A026 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Corporate responsibility; sustainability; communications; responsible sourcing; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



CARDSWAP: CONVERTING UNWANTED GIFT CARDS INTO CASH
Neil Bendle, Michael Taylor

Product Number: 9B11A034
Publication Date: 9/22/2011
Length: 12 pages

CardSwap was an online service that provided consumers with the opportunity to convert unwanted gift cards into hard cash. The co-founder felt convinced that his small Canadian company created great value for its customers. After all, there were around a billion dollars of unwanted gift cards entering circulation every year. People who owned these unwanted gift cards would surely want to use the CardSwap service. CardSwap could offer a strong value proposition to consumers while ensuring a healthy return through commissions on every transaction. Problems remained, however, as CardSwap was a relatively small company and had no access to the multi-million-dollar advertising budgets that might be needed to get a message out to consumers through an extensive multi-media strategy. How much should the company be willing to spend to acquire a customer? How best could this new company use its limited resources to communicate to customers the benefits of CardSwap?

Teaching Note: 8B11A034 (12 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Customer Value; Creating Value; Gift Cards; Marketing Communications
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate


Chapter 9:
Individual Decision Making

THE 2012 REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES
Neil Bendle

Product Number: 9B13A003
Publication Date: 2/26/2013
Revision Date: 2/26/2013
Length: 16 pages

The U.S. presidential primary elections represent an especially challenging decision context. The four candidates in the 2012 Florida Republican primary, Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, Ron Paul and Mitt Romney, all have strengths and weakness in the eyes of a Republican primary voter. In this case, these qualities are illustrated by the candidates’ statements and their reported actions during the campaign. The Republican primary voter must use the information given to decide which candidate to support. Furthermore, in a typical business or political decision, a person chooses on the basis of his or her personal preference. In a primary election, however, voters are advised to take into account the candidate they think can win the later presidential election, which greatly complicates the decision-making process.

Teaching Note: 8B13A003 (16 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Politics; Primary Election; Decision-making; Competition; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MILE HIGH MAGIC: MAXIMIZING THE BRONCOS EXPERIENCE
Matthew Thomson, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Bonnie Cleveland

Product Number: 9B12A064
Publication Date: 12/12/2012
Revision Date: 12/12/2012
Length: 3 pages

This case considers the hedonic goals that motivate consumers to make choices among various options that offer them unique experiences. As a birthday gift to his girlfriend Danielle, Jack presented two game-day options to watch the Denver Broncos. Option 1 offered seats with excellent views close to the action while Option 2 offered a more diverse experience including tailgating, souvenirs and concessions, but with seats more removed from the action. As a passionate Broncos fan, Danielle struggled to choose an option that would maximize her “Broncos experience.” Through class discussion from the point of view of both consumers and management, students will be encouraged to think more about what hedonic elements are important when making buying choices.

Teaching Note: 8B12A064 (3 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Hedonic Experiences; Consumer Behaviour; Decision Making; United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



BOISE AUTOMATION CANADA LTD.: THE LOST ORDER AT NORTHERN PAPER (A) (REVISED)
Michael Taylor

Product Number: 9B12A008
Publication Date: 3/9/2012
Revision Date: 6/11/2015
Length: 13 pages

A senior account manager at Boise Automation Canada Ltd. was disappointed with the news that he had just lost the $1.2 million order with Northern Paper Inc. (Northern), a paper mill. The opportunity was to design, supply, and install an automated control system for Northern’s wood-chip handling system. He had over 20 years’ experience selling automation systems in heavy industry, and had he won the order it would have easily put him over his target quota for 2011 and significantly boosted his incentive payout. Now, with less than three months before the end of the year, he was unlikely to meet his target for the year. The senior account manager wanted to understand what had gone wrong, and to learn from the experience in order to avoid repeating it. What should he have done differently? See supplement 9B15A029.

Teaching Note: 8B12A008 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Selling process; sales force resource management; organizational buying behaviour; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DECISION-MAKING AT A-CAT CORP.
Jitendra R. Sharma

Product Number: 9B11D011
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Length: 5 pages

The case describes the situation faced by the vice president of A-CAT Corp. The company was a mid-sized manufacturer and distributor of domestic electrical appliances, largely catering to the price-sensitive rural population. The firm operated two medium-sized facilities in a remote district in Vidarbha, India. A-CAT manufactured a wide range of electrical appliances including TV signal boosters, transformers, FM radio kits, electronic ballasts, battery chargers, and voltage regulators. The focus was on its flagship product, the VR500 voltage regulator. The team planned to identify potential suppliers/vendors with their attendant strengths and weaknesses and to do so in a well-documented and structured manner. Analytical hierarchy process was a technique that could be used to meet this challenge.

Teaching Note: 8B11D011 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Cost-benefit Analysis; Decision Making; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Buying and Disposing

SODASTREAM TAKES ON COKE AND PEPSI
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B14M038
Publication Date: 4/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/24/2014
Length: 11 pages

SodaStream International Limited is an Israel-based company that pioneered the home carbonation market. It sells soda makers that enable the consumer to prepare at home sparkling water or a variety of flavoured carbonated beverages. After its initial public offering in 2010, its chief executive officer sought to aggressively grow the company and set a $1 billion revenue target (from 2012 revenues of $436.32 million) by principally focusing on the U.S. market, the largest in the world for non-carbonated beverages. In addition to going up against global beverage behemoths, Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo — whose advertising budgets alone are five to eight times SodaStream’s revenues — SodaStream faces new competitors in Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Primo Water Corporation, who pose a direct challenge to its ambitious goal.

Teaching Note: 8B14M038 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: business model; disruptive innovation; beverages; Israel; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



JILL'S TABLE: DIGITIZING A RETAIL LEGACY
Raymond Pirouz, Janice Zolf

Product Number: 9B14A002
Publication Date: 3/20/2014
Revision Date: 3/20/2014
Length: 12 pages

The founder of a bricks-and-mortar kitchen accessories retail store, Jill's Table, is considering the expansion of her existing information-based website to an e-commerce presence, but wonders whether the factors that have led to her current success can be replicated in the virtual world. Students are asked to make decisions related to translating brand values from the real world to the virtual world; overcoming technological hurdles; addressing design issues in terms of the user experience; developing a content marketing and digital promotions strategy, including social media and email marketing; determining a pricing strategy; planning for fulfillment and returns; handling customer service and measuring performance.

Teaching Note: 8B14A002 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Online retailing; etailing; ecommerce; Internet marketing; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ETHNIC CONSUMERS CONSULTING
S. Ramesh Kumar, Nitya Guruvayurappan, Madhurjya Banerjee

Product Number: 9B10A030
Publication Date: 2/10/2011
Length: 18 pages

Nitya was preparing for a meeting with an Indian company that manufactured hair oil and fairness cream. She wanted to make use of past research in order to offer her client insights on consumer values. Were emerging markets significantly different from developed markets in terms of consumer values? Were existing brands connecting with Indian consumers? Could values become associated with different socio-economic classes of consumers? With radical changes in the lifestyles of consumers and the proliferation of categories and brands, the Indian context offers unique marketing challenges to marketers.

Teaching Note: 8B10A030 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer Values; Product Categories; Advertisements; Consumer Behaviour; Cosmetics; India; IIM-Bangalore/Ivey
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



STRUGGLING TO MAKE THE BEST BUY (A)
June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee

Product Number: 9B10A010
Publication Date: 5/11/2010
Revision Date: 11/6/2012
Length: 3 pages

As her boyfriend's birthday was fast approaching, Ashley struggled to make a decision on what mp3 player to buy him (Kade) as a gift. After failing to acquire her first desired choice, Ashley narrowed her selection down to two different mp3 models. Option A was to buy the Creative Zen Stone Plus, which was recommended by her boyfriend's best friend; a friend who knew Kade's personality and character very well. Ashley believed Kade's friend would be a good source to ask for recommendations, as he would have a better knowledge over Kade's interests and preferences. Option B was to buy the Rio Carbon 5, which was recommended by the salesman, who claimed to be an expert in mp3 players. She felt somewhat relieved hearing from an expert, as she did not know much about mp3 players. Given these two options, Ashley struggled to make a decision. Should she go with the suggestion offered by the friend? Or should she go with the suggestion offered by the expert? Should she go with her interpersonal advisor or the expert advisor? Ashley had to make the decision today, and she was running out of time.

Teaching Note: 8B10A10 (4 pages)
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Consumer Relations; Interpersonal Relations; Decision Analysis
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate


Chapter 11:
Group Influence and Social Media

UNHAGGLE: PUTTING CUSTOMERS IN THE DRIVER'S SEAT
Neil Bendle, Sarah Chiu, Justin Leung

Product Number: 9B12A014
Publication Date: 4/30/2012
Revision Date: 4/30/2012
Length: 12 pages

Unhaggle is a business model that uses a website to link up consumers with automobile dealers. The consumer describes the sort of vehicle they are looking for and the dealers compete to serve the consumer at the lowest possible price. The case illustrates how power in a negotiation comes from supply and demand. By bringing dealers to the consumer, Unhaggle helps drive down the cost of the vehicle to the consumer while reducing the dealer’s marketing costs. The case thus illustrates how technology changes a business, and specifically what players hold the power in a market. This case can also be used to illustrate a multi-player prisoner’s dilemma (game theory). Doing so involves arguing that dealers collectively would be better off if they refused to join Unhaggle’s dealer network (all would gain higher margins), but any individual dealer has an incentive to defect and join, in order to gain access to Unhaggle’s consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B12A014 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Supply and Demand; Prisoner's Dilemma; Game Theory; Zero Sum Game; Online Business; Auto Industry; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SOCIAL MEDIA CONTENT STRATEGY AT AYOJAK
Anandan Pillai, Arvind Sahay

Product Number: 9B12A007
Publication Date: 3/28/2012
Revision Date: 3/28/2012
Length: 13 pages

Ayojak was an online event management product solution offered by Signure Technologies Limited, a firm established in 2007 in India and the United Kingdom that had product development and business development centres in Pune and Bangalore, India. As of May 2011, Ayojak had two operational products and two more products in the development stage. Ayojak provided an end-to-end solution to any event organizer, including such activities as the creation of an event web page, ticket sales, collation of attendee information, event promotion on social media, and customer support for booking tickets online.

To promote its clients’ events, Ayojak made extensive use of such social media platforms as Facebook, Twitter, and blogs. It engaged in few offline marketing activities and hence depended solely on word-of-mouth through its social media presence. However, in April 2011, the chief executive officer (CEO) of Signure realized that Ayojak’s social media content strategy had been focusing on promoting its clients’ events. Now, with two more products soon to be launched, the CEO needed to rethink Ayojak’s content strategy. He wanted to build Ayojak’s brand among its stakeholders by leveraging its social media presence, instead of using this presence merely as a promotion platform for its clients’ events.


Teaching Note: 8B12A007 (15 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Social Media Marketing; Event Management; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SUSHILICIOUS: STANDING OUT IN A CROWDED FIELD
Dante Pirouz, Raymond Pirouz, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11A035
Publication Date: 10/17/2011
Length: 19 pages

The founder of Sushilicious, a new sushi restaurant in California, is wondering how to make his second year in the business even more successful. His objective is to grow the current base for his restaurant with a limited marketing budget. The founder has had success building his first restaurant using a combination of social media tools and now wonders how he can build upon his current marketing strategy. Furthermore, should he franchise the Sushilicious concept, open a second restaurant, or focus entirely on the first location?

Teaching Note: 8B11A035 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Segmentation; Market Planning; Marketing Without Advertising; Social Media; California, United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATCHSTICK INC.: WORD-OF-MOUTH MARKETING (A)
Allison Johnson, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10A019
Publication Date: 9/24/2010
Revision Date: 6/13/2017
Length: 9 pages

Matchstick Inc. (A) case introduces students to how brands are starting to put in place non-traditional advertising, such as word-of-mouth campaigns. The founder of Toronto-based Matchstick Inc. is working on a campaign for the Ketel One vodka brand. Ketel One, managed by Diageo, a global beverage firm, is trying to increase its awareness and sales in the Canadian market. Ketel One's brand manager has turned to Matchstick to generate awareness among its elusive target audience.

Teaching Note: 8B10A019 (11 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Marketing Communication; Marketing Research; Market Segmentation; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MOLSON CANADA: SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING
Deborah Compeau, Israr Qureshi

Product Number: 9B08A014
Publication Date: 10/23/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

This case describes Molson’s experiment with social media for creating brand awareness. In November 2007, Molson, part of the Molson Coors Brewing Company, ended a social media promotion after facing criticism that it promoted binge drinking. Molson was faced with the difficulty of how quickly the contents of social media could spread to various audiences. The case encourages readers to ponder whether Molson’s action was the only option available and to consider what its next steps might be.

Teaching Note: 8B08A14 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Privacy Issues; Internet Culture; Management Information Systems; Social Media; Facebook; Breweries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Income, Social Class, and Family Structure

SPENCER'S RETAIL LIMITED: REPOSITIONING IN A CHANGING RETAIL ENVIRONMENT
Tridib Mazumdar, Mohua Banerjee

Product Number: 9B14A001
Publication Date: 3/26/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 20 pages

To target the expanding segment of upwardly mobile and upper-income Indians, a pre-eminent organized retailer in India decided to introduce Western-style hyperstores with high-end merchandising. The initial reactions of shoppers were positive, but soon the novelty wore off and store traffic declined. To counter the negative consumer responses, the retailer undertook a year-long test of a new repositioning strategy in its signature hyperstore in a large urban centre. The key challenge was to increase the store’s traffic and profitability without jeopardizing its distinctive and high-quality upscale image. The case provides the test results, which include consumer reactions as well as impacts on store traffic and profit margins.

Teaching Note: 8B14A001 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail management; emerging market; store positioning; store profitability; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ESTIMATING DEMAND IN EMERGING MARKETS FOR KODAK EXPRESS
Ilan Alon, David M. Currie

Product Number: 9B11A026
Publication Date: 6/23/2011
Length: 10 pages

An executive must estimate the demand for Kodak Express outlets in various developing countries based on socioeconomic and demographic data about the countries. The case requires students to think about how to transform data on a national scale (GDP per capita, population, income distribution) into a form that is meaningful for a managerial decision — here, the number of outlets that could be supported by a country’s market demographics. In this instance, doing so can be accomplished effectively through modeling on a spreadsheet.

Teaching Note: 8B11A026 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Demand Analysis; Retailing; Franchising; Market Selection; Market Assessment; Microsoft Excel
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOUIS VUITTON IN JAPAN
Justin Paul, Charlotte Feroul

Product Number: 9B10M067
Publication Date: 10/19/2010
Revision Date: 2/22/2017
Length: 20 pages

This case deals with the opportunities and challenges of Louis Vuitton, the leading European luxury-sector multinational firm, in Japan, taking into account the unique features of brand management and integrating culture and consumer behaviour in Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been Louis Vuitton’s most profitable market, but the global economic crisis has presented challenges.

Facing a weak economy and a shift in consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has been adapting its unique strategy in the Japanese market. The days of relying on a logo and a high price seem to be gone, as there is more interest in craftsmanship and value for money. To promote sales, the company has had to launch less expensive collections made with cheaper materials. The brand has also been opening stores in smaller cities, where the lure of the logo still works.

Over the years, Japanese consumers have demonstrated fascination with and passion for the iconic brand. What have been the keys to Louis Vuitton’s successful business model in the Japanese market?


Teaching Note: 8B10M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Marketing; Strategic Management; Brand Management; Luxury Goods; Financial Crisis; Japan; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Subcultures

HCL BEANSTALK: ALL-IN-ONE DESKTOP RE-LAUNCH
Jaydeep Mukherjee, Rahul Seth

Product Number: 9B13A012
Publication Date: 7/11/2013
Revision Date: 9/20/2016
Length: 15 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Best case in the Marketing category, 2012 ISB-Ivey Global Case Competition. HCL Infosystems Ltd. is a reputable computer hardware firm and a major player in the Indian desktop market. Due to changes in consumer behaviour, the desktop market is shrinking and demand is shifting towards laptops, where HCL has a miniscule presence. At the same time, the desktop market is witnessing the emergence of a new form of devices called all-in-ones (AIOs). HCL needs a significant presence in AIOs to retain its position in the Indian PC market. The company was an early entrant in the Indian AIO market in 2007 and sought to capture a niche market for its premium range, but did not succeed and withdrew its product line. The category has, in the last four years, grown in the mass market segment and HCL needs a successful relaunch of the HCL Beanstalk AIO in the face of intense competition from multinational competitors who have a head start. The problem is compounded by the fact that the HCL brand is losing market share and that the company lacks the financial resources to invest heavily in brand building. HCL’s management believes that the Beanstalk needs to capture eight per cent of the retail segment of the Indian AIO market in order to be able to gain the same share in the business-to-business market, which is slower to adopt new technologies.

Teaching Note: 8B13A012 (14 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: New product launch; product relaunch; marketing plan; computer market; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



DEVELOPING A NEW SMARTPHONE APPLICATION: URBANBABY
Andrew Perkins

Product Number: 9B12A054
Publication Date: 11/6/2012
Revision Date: 11/6/2012
Length: 8 pages

UrbanBaby is a newly developed smartphone application (app) that allows users to address the difficult task of finding activities, restaurants and other forms of entertainment for newborns to young teens. A number of issues must be addressed if it is going to be profitable. First, the app’s creators, Alex and Pavel, are unsure how to characterize the large potential target market, parents, or if there are other target markets that might be interested. This is critical, as the success of the app depends on the cultivation of a strong online community that will contribute content. Second, they have to find a reliable source of data to populate the app. Third, they must decide whether to focus on Apple's operating system, which is popular in North America, or put more of their energy into competing operating systems that are much more popular in the rest of the world. Finally, they have a number of strategic marketing choices to make and to prioritize, including whether to keep the UrbanBaby brand name and risk the ire of similarly named competitors, how to price the app, how to position and promote the app and how to time the rollout. How these initial choices will affect subsequent strategic and tactical decisions is also a matter of concern.

Teaching Note: 8B12A054 (4 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Product Development; Branding; smartphone; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENERAL DE LA REY AND THE BLUE BULLS
Michael Goldman

Product Number: 9B08A010
Publication Date: 8/18/2008
Revision Date: 1/29/2009
Length: 10 pages

The Blue Bulls rugby team enjoyed a fanatical fan base and had been performing well in local and international competitions recently. As a leading South African rugby franchise, the Blue Bulls faced a social and political environment that emphasized racial transformation. An up-and-coming Afrikaans musician had become best-seller with his De La Rey song, which was about a Boer soldier who calls on General De La Rey to lead the Afrikaner people to victory in the second South Africa War between the Boer Republic and colonial Britain. Given the emotive theme of the song and the response by some to view it as a reassertion of Afrikaner nationalism, the song had attracted significant media coverage and controversy. As part of the entertainment at the Vodacom Super 14 rugby game between Western Force and the Vodacom Blue Bulls, De La Rey was played over the stadium loudspeakers. This delighted most of the mainly White Afrikaans spectators. As the evening progressed, the acting head of the Blue Bulls Company, the organization that managed the Blue Bulls rugby team and the Loftus Versveld stadium, received a number of complaints from supporters about the playing of the De La Rey song and thus decided to remove the song from the official stadium playlist. By Monday morning, a media frenzy had erupted about this decision and the acting head was faced with a number of options of how to respond. The case is written for a first-year MBA module and is designed to explore the following themes: 1) race, identity and language as consumer behaviour variables 2) spectator, supporter and consumer processes within sports marketing 3) sports brand development and sponsorship relationships.

Teaching Note: 8B08A10 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Sports Marketing; Brand Positioning; Political Environment; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 14:
Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour

MARKS AND SPENCER ENTERS CHINA
Jane Menzies, Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh

Product Number: 9B12A036
Publication Date: 2/26/2013
Revision Date: 2/20/2013
Length: 18 pages

Marks and Spencer (M&S) had first ventured into international markets 70 years ago. By 2012, M&S had 337 stores in 41 countries. Although M&S saw itself as a U.K. retailer that exported its products, the company had been attempting to reduce its dependency on the U.K. economic cycle. Its goal was to increase international sales from £800 million to £1.0 billion by 2013/14. By 2020, M&S wanted to be an international, multi-channel retailer. When the company entered the Chinese market in 2008, it faced many difficulties. It had failed to conduct proper market research to understand the Chinese consumer, which had led to many issues. The company had neglected to address the cultural gaps between the United Kingdom and China. It had also taken an approach of standardizing its products, instead of adapting products to the new market. Students must consider the marketing mix policies of product, price, placement and promotion to recommend changes to M&S’s entry into China.

Teaching Note: 8B12A036 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China market entry; culture; emerging markets; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMAR CHITRA KATHA: CHANGING THE BRAND WITH CHANGING TIMES
Subhadip Roy, YLR Moorthi

Product Number: 9B12A062
Publication Date: 12/19/2012
Revision Date: 12/19/2012
Length: 14 pages

This case concerns the branding and marketing of a comic book series that started in the 1960s as an educational tool to make Indian children aware of Indian mythology, history and culture. By 2010, Amar Chitra Katha had around 500 titles covering a vast range of topics, but it was facing competition not only from international and indigenous comic book companies but from electronic media such as children’s games and shows on cable TV and the Internet. In November 2007, all the Amar Chitra Katha titles and Tinkle magazine were bought by Mumbai-based entrepreneur Samir Patil, who created ACK Media as an umbrella brand. The company tried to reach its audience through the launch of an online portal, the creation of DVDs/VCDs, sponsoring movies based on Amar Chitra Katha and placing comics on mobile phone platforms, etc. However, such actions were shifting the focus of the brand from books to electronic media. The shift was inevitable to maintain a stable position in the marketplace and to achieve growth, but the management wondered how it could and whether it should maintain its print presence in the marketplace.

Teaching Note: 8B12A062 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Brand management; communication; strategy; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GROWING THE MAMAS & PAPAS BRAND
Michael Goldman, Jennifer Lindsey-Renton

Product Number: 9B11A044
Publication Date: 2/2/2012
Revision Date: 10/16/2012
Length: 17 pages

Nawaal Motlekar is the managing director of Kwenta Media and founding editor of Mamas & Papas, a recently launched parenting magazine in South Africa. From her early entrepreneurial experiences, Motlekar developed a personal and professional interest in parenting magazines. As a Black South African woman married to an Indian man in an increasingly multi-racial and multi-cultural society, Motlekar recognized a gap for a parenting magazine that would appeal to a wider and more racially and culturally inclusive target market. After extensive research and development, she launched the Mamas & Papas magazine in early 2009. The case charts Motlekar’s journey as an entrepreneur, as well as her efforts between 2006 and 2009 to bring the magazine to life. The case explores the quantitative and qualitative research approaches employed by Motlekar, as well as her marketing and branding initiatives towards building a Mamas & Papas brand beyond just the physical magazine. With the magazine having been on shelves for 12 months, Motlekar and her board faced a number of decisions. These included options to increase advertising revenues and circulation, as well as choosing how to extend the Mamas & Papas brand into related categories.

Teaching Note: 8B11A044 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Brand Extension; Brand Management; Brand Positioning; Consumer Research; Marketing Research; Magazines; South Africa; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 15:
Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour

BIO-VERT: GREEN TO WHAT LIMIT?
Raymond L. Paquin, Catherine Bedard, Genevieve Grainger

Product Number: 9B12A035
Publication Date: 12/18/2012
Revision Date: 12/18/2012
Length: 18 pages

Bio-Vert is a leading Canadian brand of eco-cleaning products manufactured by Quebec-based Savons Prolav. Run by a brother and sister team, Savons Prolav bases its products on their vision, which includes eco-friendliness, affordability and effectiveness. Demand for Bio-Vert’s phosphate-free detergents has increased dramatically since the 2007 blue-green algae bloom outbreaks in Quebec’s waterways and subsequent legislation restricting phosphate use in cleaning products. However, now that “green” cleaning products have become more mainstream, Savons Prolav faces the issue of how to adapt and grow in an increasingly crowded marketplace. This discussion considers how Savons Prolav can remain competitive in this difficult industry segment while maintaining its environmental focus.

This case highlights the pressures that an SME with strong environmental values faces in a competitive market. It includes a portrait of the cleaning products industry, consumer patterns with regards to eco-friendly products, and a background of the provincial socio-environmental event that triggered increased demand for green cleaning products in Quebec. Savons Prolav’s history, business model and core values are discussed along with potential growth options. Details on related industry, societal and marketing perspectives are provided to guide the reader through the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each opportunity.


Teaching Note: 8B12A035 (9 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Sustainability; SME; product strategy; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



ABERCROMBIE AND FITCH
Cameron Mahi, David Anderson, Gracie Boelsems, John Garrison

Product Number: 9B12A033
Publication Date: 11/28/2012
Revision Date: 11/6/2012
Length: 15 pages

With roots in sporting and excursion goods, Abercrombie and Fitch Co. (A&F Co.) has grown into one of the most well-known men and women’s retail clothing brands by 2012. From the beginning, A&F has "stuck to (its) knitting by not trying to be all things to all people” and adopted the philosophy of creating a unique brand experience throughout each of its subsidiary brands. The company’s CEO was faced with the decision to focus attention on expanding direct-to-consumer operations and international brick and mortar stores, while closing stores domestically. The brand saw growth in sales in recent years but, in 2011, saw a drop in shares after missing Wall Street’s projected estimates. A&F Co. was in an interesting position — the company had to decide where to focus its brand and which market segment it would cater toward.

You might also like: Abercrombie & #Fitchthehomeless, Mountain Dew: The Most Racist Soft-drink Commercial in History?, Domino’s Pizza

Teaching Note: 8B12A033 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail marketing; distribution channel; strategic management; international expansion; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARVEL ICE CREAM - DEVELOPING THE BEIJING MARKET
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A017
Publication Date: 8/5/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 12 pages

The manager of business development for Carvel Asia Limited is trying to determine how best to increase ice cream cake sales in Beijing. In doing so, he needs to develop a complete marketing program which includes decisions about product offerings, pricing, placement (distribution) and promotion - the 4 Ps. Carvel Asia was a 50-50 joint venture between Carvel (USA) and China's Ministry of Agriculture.

Teaching Note: 8A99A17 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Pricing Strategy; Product Concept; Marketing Communication; Distribution
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate