Ivey Publishing

International Marketing

Czinkota, M.R.; Ronkainen. I.A.,10e (United States, South-Western/Cengage, 2013)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Global Environmental Drivers

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEGO GROUP: AN OUTSOURCING JOURNEY
Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen, Dmitrij Slepniov

Product Number: 9B10M094
Publication Date: 12/1/2010
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

The last year's rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would phase out the entire sourcing collaboration with Flextronics. This sudden change in its sourcing strategy posed LEGO management with a number of caveats. Despite the bright forecasts, the collaboration did not fulfill the initial expectations, and the company needed to understand why this had happened. Secondly, what could LEGO management have done differently?

Teaching Note: 8B10M94 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Outsourcing; Management Control; Global Strategy; Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
International Trade Frameworks and Policy

INFIBEAM INTERNET RETAILING
Piyush Kumar Sinha, Barbara L. Marcolin, Varsha Verma, Nupur Gupta

Product Number: 9B12M094
Publication Date: 3/14/2013
Revision Date: 2/25/2013
Length: 19 pages

This case focuses on Infibeam, a small, new e-commerce company in India, as an illustration of innovative B2B contractual agreements that enabled it to acquire a significant customer base at a very low cost. However, it must now develop innovative strategies for marketing communication, customer value proposition and a new IT e-commerce rural platform in order to achieve its required growth estimates and raise capital for a new project in cooperation with a state government. Internet retailing is rapidly growing in India, but it does contain challenges: the cost of acquiring customers is high; per person spending amount is smaller; and customers are spread all over the country, often 2,000 kilometres away from supply centres.

Teaching Note: 8B12M094 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: India Internet Retailing; e-commerce; Customer Acquisition; Lifetime Value; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TRADE AND INVESTMENT SANCTIONS: SHERRITT INTERNATIONAL, THE UNITED STATES AND CUBA
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M073
Publication Date: 8/22/2006
Revision Date: 8/4/2006
Length: 15 pages

This case presents a summary of U.S. trade and investment sanctions in effect as of 2006. The case examines in detail the U.S. sanctions against Cuba, and it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these sanctions have created for Cuba's largest foreign investor, Sherritt International. The discussion concerning Sherritt presents the wide array of forces that impact a business that is contemplating trade or investment with a country against which sanctions have been imposed. In spite of U.S. sanctions, Sherritt International, based in Canada, developed profitable businesses in Cuba, in mining, oil and gas, hotels and food processing. The U.S. policies, while imposing costs, also reduced the competition that Sherritt would otherwise have faced. The ability to work with the Communist government gave Sherritt a strong competitive advantage and a protected market. Sherritt had positioned itself with a first mover advantage if sanctions were lifted.

Teaching Note: 8B06M73 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CITIGROUP IN POST-WTO CHINA (A)
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B02M012
Publication Date: 6/21/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 18 pages

China's entry into the World Trade Organization at the end of 2001 brought promises that foreign financial institutions would be permitted to operate through China. In 1998, Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc. had merged to create the new Citigroup Inc. Travelers brought a vast array of financial services that added to Citibank's existing portfolio of consumer and commercial lending. Travelers had developed a very extensive business in investment banking, asset management, life insurance, property casualty insurance, as well as consumer lending. Citigroup now had to determine the business prospects for each of its activities in the growing China market. Fears of social and economic dislocation might lead China to impose regulatory restrictions limiting the pace of foreign expansion. Economic growth might be impeded by the existing political structure, and reforms might not occur in the near term. A myriad of other challenges included human resources difficulties, e-commerce limitations and regional disparities. The pace of privatization of state-owned enterprises and the societal preferences in regard to alternative insurance and investment products added to uncertainties. Citibank had a record of success in less developed countries, and had developed certain competitive advantages that might be the basis for success in China, but whether and how these could be extended to other Citigroup financial activities remained an important question.

Teaching Note: 8B02M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; Globalization; International Business; Business Policy; Financial Institutions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
The Role of Culture

SPENCER'S RETAIL LIMITED: REPOSITIONING IN A CHANGING RETAIL ENVIRONMENT
Tridib Mazumdar, Mohua Banerjee

Product Number: 9B14A001
Publication Date: 3/26/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 20 pages

To target the expanding segment of upwardly mobile and upper-income Indians, a pre-eminent organized retailer in India decided to introduce Western-style hyperstores with high-end merchandising. The initial reactions of shoppers were positive, but soon the novelty wore off and store traffic declined. To counter the negative consumer responses, the retailer undertook a year-long test of a new repositioning strategy in its signature hyperstore in a large urban centre. The key challenge was to increase the store’s traffic and profitability without jeopardizing its distinctive and high-quality upscale image. The case provides the test results, which include consumer reactions as well as impacts on store traffic and profit margins.

Teaching Note: 8B14A001 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail management; emerging market; store positioning; store profitability; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SHANKABOOT: EXTENDING THE WEB SERIES FROM LEBANON TO OTHER ARAB COUNTRIES
Lina Daouk-Oyry, Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B13M106
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 11/29/2016
Length: 10 pages

Shankaboot, the world’s first Arabic-language web series, was created in Lebanon as a social development project carrying forward the following message: “to defy traditions and explore taboos. The overarching vision was to use the web to create a forum for raising awareness, sharing alternative viewpoints and generating constructive discussions about the social issues that were often experienced by Arab youth, but which no one dared to speak up about. The project was a resounding success and received a 2011 International Digital Emmy Award. In July 2011, the producer of the web drama was approached by potential funders to scale up the Shankaboot project to the rest of the Arab world. She had to decide where Shankaboot could expand to, given censorship laws and Internet connectivity levels in the region.

Teaching Note: 8B13M106 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Social development; Internet; social media; Lebanon
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BONAZZI INDO JOINT VENTURE: CULTURE CLASH OR PURE ECONOMICS?
Naresh Warrier, Gita Bajaj

Product Number: 9B13M105
Publication Date: 12/16/2013
Revision Date: 12/11/2013
Length: 8 pages

Owing to the rapidly growing automotive market, international joint venture activity in the auto-components sector has been increasing in India, both in terms of frequency and strategic importance.

Bonazzi Indo Fasteners Limited, a joint venture between the Turin-based Bonazzi Group and the Mumbai-based Indo Group, was set up to manufacture automotive fasteners, primarily for global original equipment manufacturers. There is a confrontational relationship between the two joint venture partners, and the chief executive officer has been unable to broker peace between them.


Teaching Note: 8B13M105 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural negotiation; joint ventures; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 4:
The Economic Environment

BEER FOR ALL: SABMILLER IN MOZAMBIQUE
Margaret Sutherland, Tashmia Ismail

Product Number: 9B14M026
Publication Date: 5/12/2014
Revision Date: 5/12/2014
Length: 11 pages

SABMiller, the world’s second largest brewer, has developed a business model in Mozambique that represents a radical departure from the firm’s traditional approach to beer production. Despite this multinational’s well-developed global supply chains and heavily centralized processes, it has disrupted both established processes and products and has, instead, innovated to produce a cassava-based beer in an effort to serve the low-income consumers who comprise the bulk of the African economic pyramid. In a marked departure from corporate best practices, the manufacturing process begins outside of the brewery and in the vicinity of the scattered and rural cassava farming plots.

Teaching Note: 8B14M026 (23 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Innovation; low income markets; bottom of pyramid; Mozambique
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



EADS/AIRBUS: VISION 2020
Rosi Ji, Thorsten Knauer, Momo Schäfer, Friedrich Sommer, Jil Wehlmann

Product Number: 9B14M028
Publication Date: 5/6/2014
Revision Date: 5/2/2014
Length: 19 pages

EADS N.V. (EADS), Europe’s leading aerospace and defence company, is reviewing its strategic positioning. EADS had planned to merge with a British company to form the world’s largest aerospace company, but the merger failed mainly due to resistance from government shareholders. As a result, the firm cannot achieve its major strategic goals that were tied to the merger. In the highly competitive aerospace industry and despite also facing production issues and a corruption investigation, the firm’s management must revise both its short-term goals and future action plan.

Teaching Note: 8B14M028 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Aerospace; defence; portfolio decisions; product-market decisions; corruption; Europe
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOUIS VUITTON IN JAPAN
Justin Paul, Charlotte Feroul

Product Number: 9B10M067
Publication Date: 10/19/2010
Revision Date: 2/22/2017
Length: 20 pages

This case deals with the opportunities and challenges of Louis Vuitton, the leading European luxury-sector multinational firm, in Japan, taking into account the unique features of brand management and integrating culture and consumer behaviour in Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been Louis Vuitton’s most profitable market, but the global economic crisis has presented challenges.

Facing a weak economy and a shift in consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has been adapting its unique strategy in the Japanese market. The days of relying on a logo and a high price seem to be gone, as there is more interest in craftsmanship and value for money. To promote sales, the company has had to launch less expensive collections made with cheaper materials. The brand has also been opening stores in smaller cities, where the lure of the logo still works.

Over the years, Japanese consumers have demonstrated fascination with and passion for the iconic brand. What have been the keys to Louis Vuitton’s successful business model in the Japanese market?


Teaching Note: 8B10M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Marketing; Strategic Management; Brand Management; Luxury Goods; Financial Crisis; Japan; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
The Political and Legal Environment

LENHAGE AG: ETHICAL DILEMMA
Daniel Galindau, Won-Yong Oh

Product Number: 9B14M037
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 8 pages

The general manager at the Seoul location of a European manufacturing company faces an ethical dilemma involving bribery and “facilitation” payments. A key decision maker in a local construction company’s purchasing department has asked for a “facilitation” payment as a necessary condition for securing an order. If the expatriate manager decides to pay the money, he will secure an order that will lift his company to a new level of success for years to come. If he decides not to pay, the order and all the company has worked for over the last year will be lost. The expatriate manager must decide whether or not the payment would violate laws internationally, locally and in his home country. What are the real risks? Who can help him answer the many questions he has regarding this local practice?

Teaching Note: 8B14M037 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Ethics; decision making; bribery; facilitation payment; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAYER IN INDIA: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPROPRIATION?
Peter M. Bican, Quynh Nhu Truong

Product Number: 9B13M134
Publication Date: 3/28/2014
Revision Date: 3/28/2014
Length: 16 pages

Bayer Group needed to reassess its strategies regarding intellectual property, as well as its emphasis on research and development. The Indian government had ruled against Bayer by granting a compulsory licence to a local generic drug manufacturer that allowed them to distribute a copy of Bayer’s blockbuster cancer drug at a fraction of the original price. This ruling demonstrated that pharmaceutical innovation could not be effectively protected by conventional intellectual property rights in emerging markets. As a result, the core of the pharmaceutical industry’s business model was called into question: If ideas and inventions could not be protected, was the there any incentive for firms to innovate? Would this victory for generic drug manufacturers trigger similar rulings elsewhere? Would the prevailing patent-centric IP strategies need to be adapted to emerging markets? Or would innovator companies finally have to withdraw from markets with weak IP protection?

Teaching Note: 8B13M134 (13 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Intellectual property; innovation; patent strategy; emerging markets; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



APPLE V. SAMSUNG: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND THE SMARTPHONE PATENT WARS
Gloria Barczak, Susan Montgomery, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B13A009
Publication Date: 4/23/2013
Revision Date: 4/30/2013
Length: 20 pages

In 2012, Apple, Inc. won the largest patent infringement case in history against Samsung Electronics for Samsung’s willful copying of Apple’s iPhone and iPad. Samsung, which recently overtook Apple as the leading smartphone maker, must now devise a strategy to address the court verdict and its potential impact on new product development.

Teaching Note: 8B13A009 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intellectual Property; Legal System; Innovation; Patents; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA
Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Consumer, Industrial and Government Markets

CANADA GOOSE: THE SOUTH KOREA OPPORTUNITY
June Cotte, Jesse Silvertown

Product Number: 9B11A036
Publication Date: 1/30/2012
Revision Date: 12/5/2012
Length: 17 pages

Canada Goose was a Canadian maker of high-end winter outdoor clothing that was available in 40 countries. The company’s CEO was considering entering the South Korean market, which would entail resolving several problems. There were distributor complications, and it was unclear which style of jacket to sell to the new customer groups. Finally, deciding how to position Canada Goose in order to reach the two target groups for Canada Goose in South Korea was something that had bothered the CEO ever since he had first received the market research. Those issues aside, the firm also had to consider how the current state of the company, both in North America and Western Europe, would impact the success of a full-scale entry into South Korea. The CEO was excited for the opportunity for Canada Goose in South Korea, yet he was unsure how to maximize growth while positioning the brand as strongly as possible.

Teaching Note: 8B11A036 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: New Market Entry; Winter Outdoor Clothing; Canada; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HOST EUROPE: ADVANCING CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN A MEDIUM-SIZED IT COMPANY
Rüdiger Hahn

Product Number: 9B10M042
Publication Date: 6/10/2010
Length: 17 pages

The case deals with issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the specific setting of a medium-sized enterprise (Host Europe) in the IT industry. Host Europe is the third largest webhosting company in German-speaking Europe. In recent years, the company has put substantial efforts into living up to its CSR and improving sustainability. The case presents the IT sector in Europe and Germany and highlights several industry-related issues such as green IT (especially in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and e-waste) and the digital divide. Host Europe has already implemented a couple of measures, such as building a new energy-efficient green data centre, switching to renewable energy, promoting virtualization, introducing several workplace measures, pursuing efforts to improve family friendliness, and publishing a sustainability report. However, there are still some challenges ahead and students are asked to think about further efforts of Host Europe to complete its path to becoming a responsible and sustainable medium-sized IT company.The case can either be used as an introductory case for CSR in medium-sized businesses and sustainability in the IT industry, or in advanced-level CSR and sustainability courses. As an introductory case it provides in-depth insights into a company that has already put substantial efforts into becoming a responsible and sustainable IT company. Students learn about various sustainability and CSR issues and measures in the specific context of a medium-sized enterprise. As an advanced case for CSR and sustainability, it can be used to build upon the existing knowledge of students and to ask them to come up with other ideas and a sophisticated strategy to pursue further CSR and sustainability. For example, since Host Europe is not certified according to environmental or social standards yet, students could come up with a detailed and customized plan on how to implement such a management system for the company.

Teaching Note: 8B10M42 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Communications; Sustainable Development; Information Technology; Computer Industry; Corporate Social Responsibility; Green IT; Organizational Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Strategic Planning

SODASTREAM TAKES ON COKE AND PEPSI
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B14M038
Publication Date: 4/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/24/2014
Length: 11 pages

SodaStream International Limited is an Israel-based company that pioneered the home carbonation market. It sells soda makers that enable the consumer to prepare at home sparkling water or a variety of flavoured carbonated beverages. After its initial public offering in 2010, its chief executive officer sought to aggressively grow the company and set a $1 billion revenue target (from 2012 revenues of $436.32 million) by principally focusing on the U.S. market, the largest in the world for non-carbonated beverages. In addition to going up against global beverage behemoths, Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo — whose advertising budgets alone are five to eight times SodaStream’s revenues — SodaStream faces new competitors in Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Primo Water Corporation, who pose a direct challenge to its ambitious goal.

Teaching Note: 8B14M038 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: business model; disruptive innovation; beverages; Israel; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



JOG SPORTS: SPORTS APPAREL AND ICE HOCKEY IN THAILAND
Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B13M138
Publication Date: 3/24/2014
Revision Date: 3/21/2014
Length: 14 pages

JOG Sports, a sports apparel and sports marketing business, has crossed the psychologically important threshold of $1 million in annual sales. Although the company was started as a hobby and side interest of the chief executive officer (CEO) and main founder, management of the company soon became his only occupation. The scale of the company increased quickly, with the sports apparel business growing in product lines, geographic scope of sales and diversity within products. Meanwhile, the sports marketing arm also grew as the CEO organized new and larger ice hockey tournaments. The CEO needs to make some important decisions regarding the future growth of the company, including issues of strategy formulation and strategy implementation, an explicit process within the rapidly growing company.

Teaching Note: 8B13M138 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Growth; strategy formulation; implementation; Thailand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ABERCROMBIE AND FITCH
Cameron Mahi, David Anderson, Gracie Boelsems, John Garrison

Product Number: 9B12A033
Publication Date: 11/28/2012
Revision Date: 11/6/2012
Length: 15 pages

With roots in sporting and excursion goods, Abercrombie and Fitch Co. (A&F Co.) has grown into one of the most well-known men and women’s retail clothing brands by 2012. From the beginning, A&F has "stuck to (its) knitting by not trying to be all things to all people” and adopted the philosophy of creating a unique brand experience throughout each of its subsidiary brands. The company’s CEO was faced with the decision to focus attention on expanding direct-to-consumer operations and international brick and mortar stores, while closing stores domestically. The brand saw growth in sales in recent years but, in 2011, saw a drop in shares after missing Wall Street’s projected estimates. A&F Co. was in an interesting position — the company had to decide where to focus its brand and which market segment it would cater toward.

You might also like: Abercrombie & #Fitchthehomeless, Mountain Dew: The Most Racist Soft-drink Commercial in History?, Domino’s Pizza

Teaching Note: 8B12A033 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail marketing; distribution channel; strategic management; international expansion; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Analyzing People and Markets

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M099
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 14 pages

This is the third case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M098 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. This case describes some of the first steps of doing business internationally in the West. Lacking international experience, the entrepreneur seeks to minimize risk by entering into a strategic alliance with renowned fashion designers. They systematically help her to introduce her brand to the international market, albeit on a limited scale. After the initial success, she begins to plan a more structured approach towards internationalization. She decides to commission a thorough study of France, Spain and Turkey, as they are historically familiar with Arabic jewellery designs. Accordingly, the case identifies specific information about the three countries so that students can compare them in order to reach the best decision about structured international expansion.


Teaching Note: 8B13M099 (23 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization;global strategy; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ORLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT: LANDING INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE BUSINESS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser, Jennifer Dugosh

Product Number: 9B13M070
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
Revision Date: 2/5/2014
Length: 12 pages

Each year, Orlando International Airport serviced more than 35 million passengers. Many were attracted to Orlando, Florida, for tourism, vacations and fun, as the area was home to some of the most popular theme parks in the United States. Others travelled to Orlando on business, as the area had attracted international companies, and domestic companies had a growing presence in other countries. The airport needed to continue to attract new airlines and to expand its services to new regions and countries. Local business people collected information on the growth of travel between Orlando and other regions, underserved markets, and time and cost savings. The challenge includes how to use the data to decide on which countries and industries to focus on to attract new business.

Teaching Note: 8B13M070 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Market selection; international marketing; operational strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHABROS INTERNATIONAL GROUP: A WORLD OF WOOD
Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Market Entry and Expansion

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MABE: LEARNING TO BE A MULTINATIONAL (A)
José Luis Rivas, Luis Arciniega

Product Number: 9B13M042
Publication Date: 4/5/2013
Revision Date: 3/3/2016
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Latin American Business Cases Award, 2013 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. A Mexican appliance manufacturer, MABE, has evolved quickly after selling nearly half its stake to a large multinational company in the early 1990s. The manufacturer was then able to dominate the Mexican appliances market and venture into other Latin American countries. Just before the 2008 financial crisis, the manufacturer formed a joint venture with a Spanish company and entered the Russian market, but it was not successful. The manufacturer faced a dilemma: Should it leave the Russian joint venture with its Spanish partner and refocus on other emerging markets? Should it acquire a local manufacturer? Should it remain as it was?

This case can be taught on its own, or in combination with "Mabe: Learning to Be a Multinational (B)" 9B15M121.


Teaching Note: 8B13M042 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint ventures; Internationalization; Latin America; Russia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Marketing Organization, Implementation, and Control

RANDOM HOUSE: SHIFTING TO E-BOOKS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD
Sarah Bickert, Volker Diestegge, Thorsten Knauer, Katja Möslang, Andrea Schroer, Friedrich Sommer

Product Number: 9B13M083
Publication Date: 9/25/2013
Revision Date: 9/24/2013
Length: 15 pages

The publisher Random House, a fully owned subsidiary of the German family company Bertelsmann SE & Co. KgaA, faces significant changes in its markets and internal structure. While printed books have been the company’s core competence from its earliest years, with the advent of the Internet, customers, especially in the West, are beginning to prefer electronic books. Will printed books be completely replaced by digital ones, or will e-books remain a niche market? How will this development affect production, distribution and marketing? Will Random House be able to compete for authors and sales with such online e-book giants as Amazon? The imminent merger with the U.K. publishing house Penguin also provides an opportunity and incentive to expand Random House’s operations into China as part of the internationalization strategy of the parent company. A post-merger integration plan must be established since the two publishers’ regional presences and product offerings are in part complementary. How can the new Penguin Random House strengthen its position as the world’s biggest and most successful publisher?

Teaching Note: 8B13M083 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Publishing; e-books; internationalization; strategic positioning; Germany; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HELLO HEALTHCARE: TAKING A COOPERATIVE BUSINESS INTO AFRICA
Albert Wöcke

Product Number: 9B13M076
Publication Date: 8/7/2013
Revision Date: 8/6/2013
Length: 13 pages

A retired Swiss banker has decided to bring primary healthcare to Africa by using a cooperative business model that brings together complementary firms. The model has proven successful in the United Arab Emirates, Zambia and Ghana. He now faces the decision of whether to expand into new African countries, and if so, which countries to enter, how to select partners and how to recruit country managers. The case also illustrates the challenges and misconceptions of doing business in Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B13M076 (9 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Start-up; cooperative; Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LAUNCH OF THE SONY PLAYSTATION 3
Gloria Barczak, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A014
Publication Date: 8/3/2007
Revision Date: 6/28/2012
Length: 18 pages

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) was the successor of the acclaimed PlayStation 2 (PS2), recognized as the world's best-selling video game console with more than 100 million units sold. The unprecedented display of enthusiasm for the PS3 suggested that Sony had another winner on its hands. The company projected sales of six million PS3 consoles worldwide between November 2006 and March 2007, a level that the PS2 took almost a year to reach. Sony's initial euphoria was short-lived. By February 2007, more than a third of PS3 consoles remained unsold, while some retailers reported a higher number of returns than sales. Consumers said they felt let down by Sony. The PS3 looked no better than Microsoft's Xbox 360, they complained, even though the Xbox 360 had already been on the market for more than a year, and sold for $200 less than the PS3. Customers also lamented the PS3's lack of interesting games, spotty support for PlayStation 2 games, and uninspiring online capabilities. Meanwhile, Nintendo's inexpensive and quirky Wii console had become all the rage, despite its underpowered processor and comparatively basic graphics. The case examines the characteristics of a successful new product launch, particularly product features, brand loyalty, content availability, third-party support, and adherence to industry standards. The case also considers how radical innovations can be used to win market share from technically superior products focused on incremental innovations. Finally, we use a 4P marketing analysis to compare video game systems offered by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo.

Teaching Note: 8B07A14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Product Design/Development; New Products; Generating Profit from New Technology; Market Strategy; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Product Management and Global Brands

ABERCROMBIE & FITCH: IS IT UNETHICAL TO BE EXCLUSIVE?
Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, June Cotte, Danae Blanchard

Product Number: 9B14A009
Publication Date: 4/9/2014
Revision Date: 4/9/2014
Length: 5 pages

The CEO of clothing manufacturer and retailer Abercrombie and Fitch defends his decision that the company will not offer plus sizes for women, although extra large sizes are available for men, because average- to large-sized female consumers do not fit the company’s target market. This insistence on a standard of female beauty as young, svelte and tall has enraged consumers who have criticized the company, and the CEO in particular, in both the traditional and social media for exacerbating problems of body image and gender stereotypes, especially among teens. Increasing sizes, however, presents not only logistical and manufacturing challenges but may lead to charges that the company is encouraging obesity and unhealthy lifestyles as happened when a competitor, H&M, introduced large-size models and mannequins in its stores. Abercrombie and Fitch’s popularity with its target teen market depends on its promulgation of exclusivity, which in turn depends on its vision of what is “cool.” Yet, in the face of mounting criticism and declining sales, does sticking to the segmentation strategy make sense?

Teaching Note: 8B14A009 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Marketing ethics; social media; targeting/segmentation; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



MARKS AND SPENCER ENTERS CHINA
Jane Menzies, Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh

Product Number: 9B12A036
Publication Date: 2/26/2013
Revision Date: 2/20/2013
Length: 18 pages

Marks and Spencer (M&S) had first ventured into international markets 70 years ago. By 2012, M&S had 337 stores in 41 countries. Although M&S saw itself as a U.K. retailer that exported its products, the company had been attempting to reduce its dependency on the U.K. economic cycle. Its goal was to increase international sales from £800 million to £1.0 billion by 2013/14. By 2020, M&S wanted to be an international, multi-channel retailer. When the company entered the Chinese market in 2008, it faced many difficulties. It had failed to conduct proper market research to understand the Chinese consumer, which had led to many issues. The company had neglected to address the cultural gaps between the United Kingdom and China. It had also taken an approach of standardizing its products, instead of adapting products to the new market. Students must consider the marketing mix policies of product, price, placement and promotion to recommend changes to M&S’s entry into China.

Teaching Note: 8B12A036 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China market entry; culture; emerging markets; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOUIS VUITTON
Mary M. Crossan, Manu Mahbubani

Product Number: 9B13M022
Publication Date: 2/4/2013
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 19 pages

Louis Vuitton, the flagship group within Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH), had contributed to the stellar growth of the group in 2010 and 2011. But, there were clouds on the horizon. Was the recent growth sustainable? What steps should Louis Vuitton take to address upcoming challenges? This case takes the student through the challenges a global company faces as it tries to grow a business that is based on one of the most valued high-end brands in the world. The case reveals the fundamental strategic tension between what a firm needs to do, given the competitive environment, what it can do, given its resources and organization, and what leaders want to do, given their fundamental motivations and beliefs, which shape the way they see the issues.

Teaching Note: 8B13M022 (22 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Strategic Management; Managing Global Business, Luxury Industry; Dynamic Capabilities; Global
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Global Marketing of Services

DRIVING INNOVATION AT PAR SPRINGER-MILLER (A)
Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C022
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 12 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future. See B Case 9B14C023.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ICELAND'S LANDSBANKI ISLANDS HF: WHERE TO FROM HERE?
Murray J. Bryant, Gerard Seijts, Michael R. King

Product Number: 9B14C015
Publication Date: 3/5/2014
Revision Date: 4/3/2017
Length: 14 pages

The CEO of a failed bank in Iceland must address what went wrong and how he should go about restoring trust in the bank by customers, debt holders, fellow Icelanders, politicians and regulators. Crippled by the global financial crisis, not only did Iceland’s banks default but the country itself was in danger of dissolution. This case examines the myriad reasons for the bank failure and subsequent nationalization, and provides an understanding of the complexity of a large bankruptcy.

Teaching Note: 8B14C015 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Trust; bad behaviour; growth; leadership; Iceland
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



SOGETI TEAMPARK - DESIGNING INTELLIGENT ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE FUTURE
Veena Vohra, Manjari Srivastava, Sharon Pande

Product Number: 9B13C047
Publication Date: 3/26/2014
Revision Date: 3/25/2014
Length: 17 pages

Sogeti, a global leader in providing technological services chooses to invest in a social collaboration platform for its employees with a view towards bringing about business transformation. Partnering with IBM, the company launched “TeamPark.” After the implementation, the company’s central challenge was to encourage employee engagement levels and how to increase utilization of the platform. A further issue: Should the platform be opened up to clients and other stakeholders? There was a lot of deliberation around the way the community should be created – should it be restricted or open? If the company decided to open its information-sharing platform with its clients, how should it manage the issues of security and trust?

Teaching Note: 8B13C047 (11 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Social collaboration; intelligent organization; innovation; global
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 13:
Advertising, Promotion, and Sales

INTEL ASIA-PACIFIC: THE CATCH & WIN CAMPAIGN
Peter C. Bell, John Lyons, Peter Dingle, Ash Supersad

Product Number: 9B13E023
Publication Date: 8/12/2013
Revision Date: 10/28/2014
Length: 9 pages

The head of Data Marketing Analytics and Mobile for Intel Asia-Pacific was reviewing the proposed media plan for the Catch & Win 2.0 campaign. The media purchase needed to be finalized quickly in order to be included in the current quarter’s budget, but he could not help feeling that the proposed spend across the markets and advertising types could be used more effectively. He thought that the key was to use the company’s own experience and data regarding social media engagement within their markets rather than to rely on the generalized industry metrics provided by the contracted media agency, and now he must improve the proposed media plan.

Teaching Note: 8B13E023 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Media Planning; Social Media; Optimization; Budget Allocation; Asia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMERICAN APPAREL: UNWRAPPING ETHICS
June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Brittany Schuette

Product Number: 9B12A032
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
Revision Date: 8/13/2012
Length: 5 pages

American Apparel, a popular clothing manufacturer, has socially progressive labour policies and uses significant environmental advances in its manufacturing process. In addition, it has a well-established philanthropic arm. Set against these socially responsible policies is the highly sexualized nature of the company’s advertising. This element of the marketing mix seems, at least to some consumers, very much at odds with the other aims and policies of the company. The question facing students is whether this disconnect can be maintained or whether the brand’s advertising should change.

Teaching Note: 8B12A032 (2 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility; Advertising Strategy; Controversial Advertising, United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



PEPSI CANADA: THE PEPSI REFRESH PROJECT
Matthew Thomson, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11A039
Publication Date: 9/22/2011
Revision Date: 6/7/2012
Length: 12 pages

Pepsi Canada has developed and launched the Refresh Project, a campaign to fund socially beneficial ideas developed by individuals, businesses, and non-profit organizations. Each cycle — approximately two months in duration — will see interested parties submit ideas. Pepsi Canada relies on visitors to its website, www.refreshingeverything.ca, to vote on the best ideas. During every cycle, approximately $1 million is available for distribution. While Pepsi Canada’s management has been very supportive of the initial cycle, an analyst is wondering how this corporate social responsibility initiative will have an effect on the bottom line.

Teaching Note: 8B11A039 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Advertising Strategy; Advertising Media; Marketing Management; Corporate Social Responsibility; Soft Drinks; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Pricing Strategies and Tactics

SOLARCITY CORPORATION: CHALLENGES IN THE SOLAR ENERGY VALUE CHAIN
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B14M059
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 5/5/2014
Length: 13 pages

SolarCity Corporation competed in the downstream segment of the U.S. solar energy industry. The company installed solar panels for residential and commercial customers, using a decentralized (off-the-grid) power generation and transmission model to compete with utility companies that used a centralized (grid-based) model. Solar energy was a renewable source (unlike fossil-based energy sources) and therefore scored highly on both environmental and sustainability factors. To overcome the high switching costs to customers, SolarCity marketed solar energy using a financing model in which the company owned the assets and the customer merely paid a monthly fee for the energy used. As a new player in a nascent industry, SolarCity had never been profitable. SolarCity’s co-founder and chief executive officer had to develop a plan to make the company profitable despite the fact that utility companies were fighting back politically and the government was set to reduce tax subsidies for solar assets in the near future.

Teaching Note: 8B14M059 (10 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Solar energy; business model; disruptive innovation; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAPITAL BUDGETING MANAGEMENT OF BHARTI AIRTEL - THE PROFITABILITY IMPACT
Sandeep Goel

Product Number: 9B14N006
Publication Date: 4/11/2014
Revision Date: 4/7/2014
Length: 5 pages

Sound financial management is the most important element in the viability of any business undertaking, and capital investment decisions are the foundation stone of this process. A company can pursue either an internal, organic approach to its financing options or an external, inorganic approach that uses borrowed funds to make acquisitions it hopes will increase its business. This is the route taken by Bharti Airtel Limited, India’s leading telecommunications giant. Beginning in 2010, it has borrowed heavily on the international market to invest in acquisitions of a 3G licence in India, in Zain Africa and in the broadband wireless access branch of Qualcomm Inc. However, due to many causes — including the effects of the global recession on the industry; the highly competitive Indian telecommunications market; restructuring and disorganization in the firm’s top management; and lack of innovation in offering and delivering new services in India — the company has experienced not the growth it expected from its expansion strategy, but a steady decline in profits. How can the management turn this situation around and regain the company’s position as a leader in the telecommunications market in India and globally?

Teaching Note: 8B14N006 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Capital budgeting; profitability; telecom; financial viability; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



DIVERSEY IN INDIA: THE GROWTH CHALLENGES AND OPTIONS
Sandeep Goyal, Amit Kapoor

Product Number: 9B13M115
Publication Date: 1/10/2014
Revision Date: 1/8/2014
Length: 12 pages

Diversey, a leading global brand in the business-to-business cleaning industry, had entered the Indian market positioned as a total cleaning solution provider to institutional customers. It differentiated itself from the competition with its end-to-end solutions, superior products and service levels, research and development capabilities and value-based pricing. While it had some success in India, it felt that there was a huge untapped opportunity for growth. However, a developing country like India posed several challenges due to its social and cultural differences (e.g., local unorganized competition, customer price sensitivity, complex distribution channels, etc.) versus developed countries. The case provides an opportunity for students to apply a number of conceptual tools (i.e. Porter’s 5 forces analysis, 4C analysis, SWOT analysis, value- chain analysis and the stakeholder power/interest matrix) to analyze the current strategy and identify the best alternatives for Diversey to move forward with its growth objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B13M115 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Business models; industry transformation; cleaning industry; market building strategy; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PRICING TELECOM LICENCES IN INDIA
Srabanti Mukherjee, Debdatta Pal

Product Number: 9B12A065
Publication Date: 2/20/2013
Revision Date: 2/20/2013
Length: 15 pages

On February 2, 2012, the Supreme Court of India cancelled all 122 second-generation (2G) telecom licences issued on or after January 10, 2008 by the Department of Telecommunication (DoT). This judgment, along with the announcement of the National Telecom Policy-2012, forced the DoT to rethink the issue of pricing spectrum, which was earlier bundled with 2G licences. First, was re-auctioning required? If so, what should be the minimum reserve price? Should DoT follow a uniform pricing strategy for all the incumbents, including those whose licences were cancelled? How could it strike a balance between investor apathy and the government’s objective of increasing rural tele-density, given the possibility of a tariff hike after the refarming of spectrum?

Teaching Note: 8B12A065 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Auctions; natural resource pricing; oligopoly pricing; spectrum allocation; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 15:
Global Distribution and Logistics

TESCO'S VIRTUAL STORE: FROM SOUTH KOREA TO THE UNITED KINGDOM
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Alina Nastasoiu

Product Number: 9B14A010
Publication Date: 5/7/2014
Revision Date: 5/14/2014
Length: 12 pages

After the successful launch of their virtual grocery stores in South Korean metro stations, Tesco UK is trying to determine whether the virtual grocery store concept should be launched in their home market. In order to make this decision, Tesco needs to determine the role of the virtual store(s), the location(s) of the store(s) and the product range. At the same time, Tesco needs to compare the Korean and U.K. markets in order to determine whether the virtual store concept is viable.

Teaching Note: 8B14A010 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Online retailing; marketing strategy; Internet marketing; United Kingdom
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BURBERRY
June Cotte, Marta Jarosinski

Product Number: 9B14A014
Publication Date: 4/28/2014
Revision Date: 4/28/2014
Length: 16 pages

In 2006, Burberry appointed a new chief executive officer (CEO) with many years of experience in senior positions in the fashion and luxury industries. Though Burberry had enjoyed continued year over year growth, the sales growth was not on par with the growth seen within the personal luxury industry. Big changes within Burberry were expected to come as the new CEO took the reins in July 2006. What were the transformations and changes that Burberry would need to make in order to successfully adapt to the dynamic and innovative global business environment of the luxury industry?

Teaching Note: 8B14A014 (11 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Luxury; fashion; strategy; United Kingdom; global
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ADANI AGRI LOGISTICS LIMITED: BLOCKING THE GRAIN DRAIN
Mohita Gangwar Sharma, K.N. Singh, Sachinder Mohan Sharma, Puneet Mehndiratta

Product Number: 9B14D001
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 11 pages

Adani Agri Logistics Limited (AALL) was established to execute a national project for the bulk handling of food grains through a public-private partnership with the Food Corporation of India. This project involved financing, planning, designing, constructing, operating and maintaining modern infrastructure for the bulk handling, storage and transportation of grains required for the public distribution system. Although a technology-driven supply chain solution was implemented, the benefits of this innovative supply system did not come into full fruition even after four years of operation. AALL soon realized that farmers were reluctant to accept the new storage system because it was a departure from the relationship-based transactions they were used to undertaking with traditional intermediaries. In this way, the company learned that there are cultural subtleties and traditions that must be appreciated and given consideration, along with the economic justifications. How could these traditions be respected and upheld while making way for improvement and progress?

Teaching Note: 8B14D001 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Supply chain strategy; collaboration; national culture; trust; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



INDIGO BOOKS AND MUSIC INC.
Dante Pirouz, Kelly Huang (Arman)

Product Number: 9B14A008
Publication Date: 3/13/2014
Revision Date: 3/13/2014
Length: 8 pages

Since 1996, Indigo Books and Music had grown to become essentially a book retail monopoly in Canada. But the global recession had hit the company hard, and the chief executive officer (CEO) was focused on creating innovation at every level of the national operation. The hope was that Indigo would eventually be able to compete internationally with giants such as Amazon.com and Barnes & Nobles. How to stabilize the company's financials while at the same time creating and promoting creative product lines that customers would crave was the critical question that the CEO had to answer if her company was to thrive in the future.

Teaching Note: 8B14A008 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retailing; finance; books; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
Social Networks and Communication

GROWING TENTREE: SOCIAL ENTERPRISE, SOCIAL MEDIA AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Peter W. Moroz, Simon Parker, Edward Gamble

Product Number: 9B14M030
Publication Date: 3/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/2/2014
Length: 12 pages

Two friends have launched tentree (TT), a Canadian entrepreneurial venture that sells an environmentally sustainable and trendy brand of apparel. For every product sold, TT plants 10 trees in locations around the world. Although TT is still in its infancy, it is already experiencing huge growth. The entrepreneurial founders now face several challenges: how to keep pace with the growing demand; how to plant as many trees as they can while staying true to their sustainable, environmental philosophy; how to break into the U.S. and other markets; and where to source their product.

Teaching Note: 8B14M030 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Social enterprise; media; sustainability; growth; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SHANKABOOT: EXTENDING THE WEB SERIES FROM LEBANON TO OTHER ARAB COUNTRIES
Lina Daouk-Oyry, Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B13M106
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 11/29/2016
Length: 10 pages

Shankaboot, the world’s first Arabic-language web series, was created in Lebanon as a social development project carrying forward the following message: “to defy traditions and explore taboos. The overarching vision was to use the web to create a forum for raising awareness, sharing alternative viewpoints and generating constructive discussions about the social issues that were often experienced by Arab youth, but which no one dared to speak up about. The project was a resounding success and received a 2011 International Digital Emmy Award. In July 2011, the producer of the web drama was approached by potential funders to scale up the Shankaboot project to the rest of the Arab world. She had to decide where Shankaboot could expand to, given censorship laws and Internet connectivity levels in the region.

Teaching Note: 8B13M106 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Social development; Internet; social media; Lebanon
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GREENPEACE'S UNFRIEND COAL CAMPAIGN AND FACEBOOK
Michael Sider, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12M011
Publication Date: 2/10/2012
Revision Date: 10/28/2013
Length: 10 pages

Facebook’s director of policy communications was faced with a situation caused by a YouTube video posted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) Greenpeace. This video publicly critiqued the environmental sustainability of Facebook’s decision to build a new data centre, its main objection being that the new facility would be connected to a local utility provider that supplied electricity mainly from the burning of coal, one of the largest sources of global warming. This video was only the latest of a series of actions, commenced by Greenpeace eight months earlier, immediately following Facebook’s decision to build the new facility. Greenpeace had dubbed these actions the “Unfriend Coal Campaign,” which now had 500,000 followers and had generated numerous media stories. Greenpeace’s goal was to pressure Facebook into adopting cleaner energy policies by leveraging Facebook’s own social media against the company. As Facebook had no plans to stop building the facility, its director needed to figure out the best course of action to take in response to the mounting pressure from Greenpeace, in order to alleviate the increasingly negative attention from media and consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B12M011 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Ethical Issues; Social Media; Facilities Planning; Non-governmental Organizations; Communications; Corporate Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SELLING GREEN DOTS IN SECOND LIFE
Wade Halvorson, Michael Parent, Leyland Pitt

Product Number: 9B09A033
Publication Date: 12/8/2009
Length: 10 pages

An Irish Air Lines pilot has re-created his home city of Dublin on Second Life. His Second Life alter ego, Ham Rambler, is busy running the site, and selling office space and advertisement on the property. The property includes a popular bar, a venue for live music performances, as well as a realistic rendering of Dublin's core. Second Life residents flock to the site for its entertainment and to experience Dublin. Mahon/Rambler needs to decide if the innovative business model he has developed is sustainable, or whether he should sell the business to other developers. The case is useful to introduce the concept of immersive Internet-based environments, and Internet advertising and selling.

Teaching Note: 8B09A33 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Advertising Effectiveness; Internet Culture; Internet; Sales Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
Leadership, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability

IBM INDIA: LOCALIZING A GLOBAL MODEL OF CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP
Vidhi Chaudhri, Asha Kaul

Product Number: 9B14C020
Publication Date: 5/22/2014
Revision Date: 5/15/2014
Length: 10 pages

In 1999, IBM India became a wholly owned subsidiary of IBM Corporation and established a presence in 14 cities across the country. True to its integrated philosophy of corporate citizenship, as the parent company expanded business operations to growth markets around the world, it rolled out citizenship initiatives in those markets. In 2011, IBM International Foundation awarded a grant of US$100,000 to IBM India for Smarter Villages, an India-specific project whose goal was to bring rural Indian villages to technological parity with cities by setting up supply chains and introducing micro financing and other services to create opportunities for an increase in farmer incomes. IBM India management hoped that, if successful, the project could be embedded in the organizational fabric of the global company and thus would reflect its own responsible leadership. The question was whether it would be possible to inculcate a spirit of stakeholder engagement and inspire volunteerism among the company’s young workforce.

Teaching Note: 8B14C020 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: corporate citizenship; corporate culture; employee engagement; responsible leadership; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CHIPOTLE: MEXICAN GRILL, INC.: FOOD WITH INTEGRITY
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B13M068
Publication Date: 6/11/2013
Revision Date: 5/4/2016
Length: 14 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case won the 2013 Oikos Sustainability Case Writing Competition. Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. competes in the fast casual segment of the restaurant industry. Its founder and current co-CEO has always emphasized not only good tasting food but also a commitment to sustainability through the mission statement: “Food with Integrity.” The company has positioned itself as a differentiator, using both food quality and a commitment to sustainability as factors that isolate it from its competitors. However, in 2012, the company faces a number of challenges from increased competition and rising food costs. As a result, a hedge fund investor has recently called for shorting the company’s stock. The co-CEOs must decide on the best course to confront these challenges as the company’s stock price is in a free fall.

Teaching Note: 8B13M068 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Sustainability; Differentiation; Positioning; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MSPL LIMITED: CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN MINING
Amit Gupta, Amita Joseph

Product Number: 9B12C023
Publication Date: 5/22/2012
Revision Date: 5/15/2012
Length: 19 pages

MSPL Limited was an iron ore mining and processing company in India. Owned by the Baldota Group, it also had interests in shipping, pelleting, and wind energy. In January 2012, MSPL’s businesses and operations were headed by Narendrakumar A. Baldota and his two sons. MSPL’s main source of revenue, the Vyasankere Iron Ore Mine (VIOM), was one of the largest iron ore mines in the private sector in India. MSPL had been progressive and proactive in its approach to sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Many of its initiatives predated government legislation related to environmental, employee, and community issues. MSPL’s policies towards environmental issues and local communities had been driven by the beliefs and vision of its founder and chairman, Baldota’s father. Baldota expanded MSPL’s initiatives related to the environment, employees, and communities. The case deals with the choices and decisions that Baldota had made regarding the numerous CSR and sustainability initiatives undertaken by the organization. Were there other initiatives that MSPL should have undertaken? Was it even necessary for the company to carry out CSR activities in the local communities?

Teaching Note: 8B12C023 (16 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Stakeholders; Mining; Natural Resources; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NEW BALANCE: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B10M011
Publication Date: 1/28/2010
Length: 21 pages

This case focuses on New Balance, a privately held company and the fourth largest athletic footwear manufacturer in the world. Founded over 100 years ago, New Balance has a strong social responsibility culture and mission established by its owners. Its commitment to employees, for example, was expressed through maintaining domestic manufacturing in the United States (the only large footwear manufacturer to do so presently) and avoiding layoffs in the deep recession of 2007-2009. In the late 1990s, the company established the Responsible Leadership Steering Committee to address human rights issues in overseas factories. Throughout the years, private ownership had allowed New Balance to take risks and make choices that publicly held companies might not have been able to do; at the same time, private ownership also meant lower pressures to disclose social and environmental performance. The owners were also very humble and hesitant to talk aloud about social responsibility. As a global player, the present challenge for the company has become to move corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the next level from doing what's right to fully integrating CSR into the business strategy. The overall goal of the case is to use the provided information from a comprehensive company assessment to identify a few key areas where New Balance can focus on and demonstrate industry leadership while also supporting the bottom line. A set of key questions is included at the end of the paper to guide student's discussion around critical issues for building an integrated CSR strategy for New Balance, considering its culture, structure and present level of corporate citizenship management.

Teaching Note: 8B10M11 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Strategy Development; Business Sustainability; Performance Assessment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 18:
New Directions and Challenges

BAYER IN INDIA: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPROPRIATION?
Peter M. Bican, Quynh Nhu Truong

Product Number: 9B13M134
Publication Date: 3/28/2014
Revision Date: 3/28/2014
Length: 16 pages

Bayer Group needed to reassess its strategies regarding intellectual property, as well as its emphasis on research and development. The Indian government had ruled against Bayer by granting a compulsory licence to a local generic drug manufacturer that allowed them to distribute a copy of Bayer’s blockbuster cancer drug at a fraction of the original price. This ruling demonstrated that pharmaceutical innovation could not be effectively protected by conventional intellectual property rights in emerging markets. As a result, the core of the pharmaceutical industry’s business model was called into question: If ideas and inventions could not be protected, was the there any incentive for firms to innovate? Would this victory for generic drug manufacturers trigger similar rulings elsewhere? Would the prevailing patent-centric IP strategies need to be adapted to emerging markets? Or would innovator companies finally have to withdraw from markets with weak IP protection?

Teaching Note: 8B13M134 (13 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Intellectual property; innovation; patent strategy; emerging markets; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONLINE PIRACY: JAYWALKING OR THEFT?
Alex Beamish, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B09C018
Publication Date: 9/18/2009
Revision Date: 3/24/2010
Length: 8 pages

In September 2009, Brian Lee purchased a computer game developed by a major company and, like other customers, he was experiencing difficulty running it. The source of the problems was a highly restrictive system of digital rights management (DRM), which, while more or less universally disliked, was causing serious technical problems for a minority of users. Lee began to share his experience on the company's message board and was engaging in a debate about online piracy with a company representative. He was curious about piracy in the file-sharing age and wondered why it would be wrong to download a pirated version of the game with the DRM circumvented. The case deals with an issue which resonates with students. Although the context is simple, the problem is complex, thus giving instructors wide latitude on how to teach the case. It is suitable for modules or courses focused on ethics, service operations, intellectual property rights and information technology.

Teaching Note: 8B09C18 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Service Recovery; Intellectual Property; Internet; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KILLER COKE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST COCA-COLA
Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07C003
Publication Date: 1/31/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 23 pages

The CEO of Coca-Cola is faced with increasing criticism over the company's handling of alleged human rights abuses in Colombia. A grass roots protest movement known as The Campaign to Stop Killer Coke has built international support for a boycott of Coca-Cola products on college campuses. The campaign centers specifically on the intimidation and murder of union leaders at a specific Coca-Cola bottling plant in Colombia. Coca-Cola asserted that it was not responsible for such abuses. Rather, the violence at the Coca-Cola plant was the product of a political situation that was beyond the company's control. The company further argued that it was in compliance with local labor laws, and had been dismissed as the defendant in lawsuits filed in Colombia and U.S. courts. At the time of the case, Coca-Cola is faced with anti-Coke campaigns at more than 100 college campuses worldwide and official boycotts of its products at a number of large well-known campuses in the United States. In response, the company has undertaken an audit of its bottling plants in Colombia. It also launched a public relations campaign aimed at refuting accusations of human rights violations. The case can be used to discuss corporate ethics, extraterritoriality, marketing and public relations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C03 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Trade Unions; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Supplier Selection; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA