Ivey Publishing

International Business – A Course on the Essentials

Ajami, R.A.; Goddard, G.J.,3e (United States, M.E. Sharpe, 2014)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
An Introduction to International Business and Multinational Corporations

BEER FOR ALL: SABMILLER IN MOZAMBIQUE
Margaret Sutherland, Tashmia Ismail

Product Number: 9B14M026
Publication Date: 5/12/2014
Revision Date: 5/12/2014
Length: 11 pages

SABMiller, the world’s second largest brewer, has developed a business model in Mozambique that represents a radical departure from the firm’s traditional approach to beer production. Despite this multinational’s well-developed global supply chains and heavily centralized processes, it has disrupted both established processes and products and has, instead, innovated to produce a cassava-based beer in an effort to serve the low-income consumers who comprise the bulk of the African economic pyramid. In a marked departure from corporate best practices, the manufacturing process begins outside of the brewery and in the vicinity of the scattered and rural cassava farming plots.

Teaching Note: 8B14M026 (23 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Innovation; low income markets; bottom of pyramid; Mozambique
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA'S GLOBAL REACH
Paul W. Beamish, Vanessa Hasse

Product Number: 9B13M016
Publication Date: 2/11/2013
Revision Date: 3/4/2013
Length: 15 pages

In 2012, two years after a major restructuring project had begun at German skin care producer Beiersdorf, the process was still ongoing. The new chief executive officer (CEO) inherited several challenges from his predecessor, including the difficult implementation of the new transnational strategy, opposition from employees and the work council, and ineffective market-entry strategies (especially in China). Strong competitors and a slow rate of economic recovery in Beiersdorf’s main markets provided additional complexity. Questions remained about how the new CEO should address the ongoing challenges facing the company.

Teaching Note: 8B13M016 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Reorganization; Transnational; Restructuring; Multinational; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOUIS VUITTON IN JAPAN
Justin Paul, Charlotte Feroul

Product Number: 9B10M067
Publication Date: 10/19/2010
Revision Date: 2/22/2017
Length: 20 pages

This case deals with the opportunities and challenges of Louis Vuitton, the leading European luxury-sector multinational firm, in Japan, taking into account the unique features of brand management and integrating culture and consumer behaviour in Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been Louis Vuitton’s most profitable market, but the global economic crisis has presented challenges.

Facing a weak economy and a shift in consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has been adapting its unique strategy in the Japanese market. The days of relying on a logo and a high price seem to be gone, as there is more interest in craftsmanship and value for money. To promote sales, the company has had to launch less expensive collections made with cheaper materials. The brand has also been opening stores in smaller cities, where the lure of the logo still works.

Over the years, Japanese consumers have demonstrated fascination with and passion for the iconic brand. What have been the keys to Louis Vuitton’s successful business model in the Japanese market?


Teaching Note: 8B10M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Marketing; Strategic Management; Brand Management; Luxury Goods; Financial Crisis; Japan; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
The Nature of International Business

VICE MEDIA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND GLOBAL EXPANSION
Farzad H. Alvi

Product Number: 9B14M039
Publication Date: 3/17/2014
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 13 pages

Vice Media has gone from a startup in Canada to landing in New York City and assiduously building a global youth brand through unique and seemingly inimitable competitive advantages. While globalizing its operations, Vice Media appears to have developed expertise in standardizing certain aspects of its business, adapting others to local context and, increasingly, building a global chain. Given Vice Media’s explosive growth, how can its global value chain be structured to maintain the carefully cultivated emotional connection the company has created with its audience?

Teaching Note: 8B14M039 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Competitive advantage; growth; Canada; United States; Global
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SOBEY'S INC: A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD SUPPLY
Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B13M118
Publication Date: 2/21/2014
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 11 pages

By 2013, Sobey’s Inc., one of Canada`s largest food retailers, had initiated a number of programs in order to reduce its environmental footprint and to try to meet the public’s expectations that business would address such sustainability issues as waste management, genetically modified products and food safety. At the top of Sobey’s agenda was to develop a sustainable seafood strategy. While data collection, metric selection, employee incentives and customer education were important parts of this emerging strategy, a central decision was what products to choose to sell or not to sell. Certain major competitors had announced that they would sell only “certified sustainable” seafood, an approach strongly advocated by well-known environmental organizations. Sobey’s, on the other hand, decided that to abandon uncertified seafood would not only hamper its bottom line but also would eliminate its ability to push the very fisheries that needed more guidance towards better practices. Yet, to continue to sell “red zone” seafood was very controversial and could jeopardize Sobey’s standing as a leader in sustainable practices — an outcome that could have serious negative consequences in the marketplace. In this context, the vice-president of sustainability had to implement a sustainable seafood strategy by year’s end.

Teaching Note: 8B13M118 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Sustainability; supply chain; retailing; corporate social responsibility; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE ESPRESSO LANE TO GLOBAL MARKETS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B12M058
Publication Date: 5/23/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

Founded in Trieste, Italy, Illy marketed a unique blend of coffee drinks in over 140 countries and in more than 50,000 of the world’s best restaurants and coffeehouses. The company wanted to expand the reach of its own franchised coffee bar, Espressamente, through international expansion. Potential markets included Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The managing director of Espressamente knew that global expansion meant prioritizing markets, but where did the greatest potential lie? In addition to market selection, mode of entry was vital and included options such as exporting, franchising, and joint ventures. This case provides a practical example of the challenges faced in international business.

Teaching Note: 8B12M058 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: International Market Selection; Modes of Entry; Franchising; Retailing; International Business; Coffee; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHINESE FIREWORKS INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Theories of Trade and Economic Development

PHILIPS-INDAL: THE DEAL FROM HEAVEN? (A)
Koen H. Heimeriks, Ruud Geenen

Product Number: 9B14M018
Publication Date: 4/16/2014
Revision Date: 7/14/2015
Length: 18 pages

Philips’ new venture integration (NVI) department is aware of the fact that many acquisitions turn into “deals from hell” instead of “deals from heaven.” Its post-merger integration specialists have learned that cost synergies are far easier to realize than sales (or growth) synergies. Stimulated by the urge to grow, the NVI department has developed a new methodology called the “sales integration approach” to realize sales (or growth) synergies. It tries to implement this approach during the acquisition integration of Indal, a Spanish lighting company.

The main challenge is presented by the shift in acquisition-integration capability following Philips’ evolved corporate strategy. While historically Philips had a substantive acquisition program, Philip’s new CEO has stressed the need for organic growth and set the stage for a series of medium and small acquisitions. Philips needs to become more customer-centric to increase corporate growth. This has required a focus not just on cost synergies (e.g., economies of scale and increased efficiency), but also on capturing sales (or growth) synergies. Philips-Indal must choose to defend regions in which it has a strong position or target regions where it has a weaker position. Furthermore, Philips’ post-merger integration leader must choose an organizational structure for Philips-Indal and convince Indal’s executive team to adopt the NVI department’s sales integration approach. This case can be used with Lighting Up Philips' Asian Entertainment Activities (B) 9B14M019.


Teaching Note: 8B14M018 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Post-acquisition growth; post-merger integration; growth synergy; new venture integration; Europe; The Netherlands; Spain
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LIGHTING UP PHILIPS' ASIAN ENTERTAINMENT ACTIVITIES (B)
Koen H. Heimeriks, Mark Gunther, Margrit Lelieveld

Product Number: 9B14M019
Publication Date: 4/16/2014
Revision Date: 4/15/2014
Length: 8 pages

The case illustrates how Philips’ new venture integration team applies a new capability, captured in the “sales integration approach” (SIA), to organically grow its Asian Professional Lighting Entertainment activities. The capability, designed for acquisition integration, has previously helped realize substantial growth (or sales) synergies in a recent acquisition. The main challenge is to understand how to apply the SIA to realize organic (instead of acquisitive) growth (i.e., internal development). This case can be used with Philips-Indal: The Deal from Heaven? (A) 9B14M018.

Teaching Note: 8B14M019 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Post-acquisition growth; organic growth; new venture integration; Europe; Asia; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



EMIRATES AIRLINE: A BILLION-DOLLAR SUKUK-BOND ISSUE
Emir Hrnjić, Harun Kapetanović, David Reeb

Product Number: 9B14N002
Publication Date: 4/8/2014
Revision Date: 4/4/2014
Length: 19 pages

Emirates Airline (EA) needs to fund the purchase of 30 new A380 aircraft. On March 11, 2013, EA announced plans to issue US$1 billion of Islamic bonds (sukuk) and $750 million of regular bonds. These bonds arguably share similar risks and seniority even though the sukuk bonds sold with a lower implied yield. This difference in pricing for securities with similar default risks seems at odds with conventional finance thinking. Against this backdrop, the EA treasury department must decide on the appropriate funding for this next batch of A380 airplanes.

Teaching Note: 8B14N002 (8 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Financial securities; bonds; financial innovation; Islamic finance; Dubai; United Arab Emirates; Asia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TRADE AND INVESTMENT SANCTIONS: SHERRITT INTERNATIONAL, THE UNITED STATES AND CUBA
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M073
Publication Date: 8/22/2006
Revision Date: 8/4/2006
Length: 15 pages

This case presents a summary of U.S. trade and investment sanctions in effect as of 2006. The case examines in detail the U.S. sanctions against Cuba, and it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these sanctions have created for Cuba's largest foreign investor, Sherritt International. The discussion concerning Sherritt presents the wide array of forces that impact a business that is contemplating trade or investment with a country against which sanctions have been imposed. In spite of U.S. sanctions, Sherritt International, based in Canada, developed profitable businesses in Cuba, in mining, oil and gas, hotels and food processing. The U.S. policies, while imposing costs, also reduced the competition that Sherritt would otherwise have faced. The ability to work with the Communist government gave Sherritt a strong competitive advantage and a protected market. Sherritt had positioned itself with a first mover advantage if sanctions were lifted.

Teaching Note: 8B06M73 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 4:
International Monetary System and the Balance of Payments

ICELAND'S LANDSBANKI ISLANDS HF: WHERE TO FROM HERE?
Murray J. Bryant, Gerard Seijts, Michael R. King

Product Number: 9B14C015
Publication Date: 3/5/2014
Revision Date: 4/3/2017
Length: 14 pages

The CEO of a failed bank in Iceland must address what went wrong and how he should go about restoring trust in the bank by customers, debt holders, fellow Icelanders, politicians and regulators. Crippled by the global financial crisis, not only did Iceland’s banks default but the country itself was in danger of dissolution. This case examines the myriad reasons for the bank failure and subsequent nationalization, and provides an understanding of the complexity of a large bankruptcy.

Teaching Note: 8B14C015 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Trust; bad behaviour; growth; leadership; Iceland
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



CRISIS IN CYPRUS: WAS IT DIFFERENT THIS TIME?
Nandita Yadav, Pratap Chandra Biswal

Product Number: 9B13N016
Publication Date: 9/10/2013
Revision Date: 9/13/2013
Length: 11 pages

Cyprus is a small island member of the European Union, constituting 0.2 per cent of the eurozone gross domestic product. During its growth phase, the Cypriot banking system developed vulnerabilities after suffering heavy losses during the Greek sovereign debt crisis. The European Central Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the European Union offered a bailout of US$16.9 billion if the Cypriot government could raise US$7.54 billion from within. The government had a few options on the table — a “one-off” stability levy on all bank deposits (a solution loathed by both native and foreign depositors), a bank restructuring plan, seeking help from Russia (which expected access to the island’s oil and gas reserves) and a complete banking system bailout (which would come with oversight and control from those offering the bailout). The economy was fast approaching a standstill and Cyprus had only two days to strike a deal to avoid the collapse of its banking system.

Teaching Note: 8B13N016 (14 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial crisis; eurozone; bailout; Cyprus
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



THAILAND, 1997
David M. Currie

Product Number: 9B01M024
Publication Date: 9/27/2001
Revision Date: 12/21/2009
Length: 20 pages

For most of the 1990's, Thailand's economy was one of the fastest growing in the world. Thailand was popular with foreign investors, and the country's currency was stable due to the central bank's currency peg. However, overspeculation, high interest rates, lower than expected exports and job losses were causing speculation that the central bank would abandon the currency peg. The Bank of Thailand must decide whether to continue or to abandon the peg of the baht to the U.S. dollar. Was the country through the worst of the economic problems or was there more to come? The supplementary cases enable role plays designed to provide an understanding of the forces influencing a decision about appropriate monetary policy as importer (9B01M022 - Exclusive Autos of Bangkok), exporter (9B01M023 - Thai Shoes PCL), investor (9B01M027 - International Assets Investment Company), lender (9B01M026 - Hokkaido Bank), currency speculator (9B01M029 - Quantile Investment Fund), the IMF (9B01M028 - International Monetary Fund), and the Bank of Thailand (9B01M025 - Bank of Thailand in June 1997).

Teaching Note: 8B01M24 (20 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Economic Conditions; Developing Countries; Government and Business; Exchange Rates
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 5:
Foreign Exchange Markets

VALJIBHAI STONES
Debashis Sanyal, Smita Mazumdar

Product Number: 9B14N009
Publication Date: 4/17/2014
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

Valjibhai Stones, a supplier of quality stone chips in India, has been approached by a multinational company that needs a reliable supplier of quality stone chips for the next eight years. Accepting the order would require a capacity expansion to produce high-quality aggregate solely for the multinational company and at the cost of foregoing all of its existing business. If the offer is accepted, the company would earn substantial revenue for eight years, but would then need to seek fresh business in a highly competitive market.

Teaching Note: 8B14N009 (14 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Strategic cost management; cost of capital; investment decision; return on investment; economic value added; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



POTATO BONDS: REGULATING SPURIOUS DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS
Srinivasan Sunderasan

Product Number: 9B13N024
Publication Date: 2/19/2014
Revision Date: 10/6/2015
Length: 13 pages

Potatoes are grown across 130 countries and form the largest non-cereal food crop consumed in large per-capita measures in some of the Eastern European and South American countries. India is the world’s third-largest producer of the crop and is estimated to consume about 25 million tonnes each year. Calcutta-based Sumangal Industries Limited launched a high yield investment program under the banner of the Flexi-Potato Purchase Scheme. Market regulator, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), took exception to the company’s collecting uncollateralized deposits from the members of the public without due registration, and issued prohibitive orders.

This case puts the facts underlying the offering in perspective and conducts a micro-economic analysis to assess the strengths of the business proposition. The statistical analyses reveal that the volatility and predictability of seasonal pricing patterns that the company seeks to exploit may not continue beyond the short-term. Further, the early success of the scheme is likely to attract entry into the segment, thereby squeezing arbitrage margins and enhancing business process costs. This case also lays out facts relating to exogenous influences on the local potato market and encourages policy makers to adequately inform potential investors as a means to empower them to make sound resource allocation decisions. The conclusions of the case could be applied beyond West Bengal, and beyond India, to other agricultural produce and pyramidal investment schemes, qualified by local conditions.


Teaching Note: 8B13N024 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Economic regulation; pyramidal investments; ponzi scheme; microeconomic equilibrium; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HARMONIZING DEMAND FORECASTING AND SUPPLY AT MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.
Alok Yadav, Sunil Ashra

Product Number: 9B13D019
Publication Date: 1/13/2014
Revision Date: 1/10/2014
Length: 6 pages

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., a US$15.4 billion company in 2012, has been the number one tractor manufacturer in India for the last 30 years. The agriculture tractor sale market in India is seasonal in nature and growing. To meet demand, the company has four manufacturing plants and 26 sales offices across the country; their main job is to coordinate supplies between its 800 dealers and the company. The sales offices provide a rolling tractor demand forecast for the current month plus two months in the future; it is used to determine the number and models of tractors to manufacture and to enable placing parts supply orders in advance. The deputy general manager of sales in the company’s Farm Division has been receiving an increasing number of complaints from irate dealers about the irregular and short supply of tractors from the company’s stockyards. This has created stress and low dealer satisfaction. The deputy general manager has decided to improve the demand forecasting of agriculture tractor sales and hence supply management.

Student spreadsheet 7B13D019 with data is available.


Teaching Note: 8B13D019 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sales forecasting; tractor sales; excel spreadsheet; time series; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Supranational Organizations and International Institutions

GREENPEACE'S UNFRIEND COAL CAMPAIGN AND FACEBOOK
Michael Sider, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12M011
Publication Date: 2/10/2012
Revision Date: 10/28/2013
Length: 10 pages

Facebook’s director of policy communications was faced with a situation caused by a YouTube video posted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) Greenpeace. This video publicly critiqued the environmental sustainability of Facebook’s decision to build a new data centre, its main objection being that the new facility would be connected to a local utility provider that supplied electricity mainly from the burning of coal, one of the largest sources of global warming. This video was only the latest of a series of actions, commenced by Greenpeace eight months earlier, immediately following Facebook’s decision to build the new facility. Greenpeace had dubbed these actions the “Unfriend Coal Campaign,” which now had 500,000 followers and had generated numerous media stories. Greenpeace’s goal was to pressure Facebook into adopting cleaner energy policies by leveraging Facebook’s own social media against the company. As Facebook had no plans to stop building the facility, its director needed to figure out the best course of action to take in response to the mounting pressure from Greenpeace, in order to alleviate the increasingly negative attention from media and consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B12M011 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Ethical Issues; Social Media; Facilities Planning; Non-governmental Organizations; Communications; Corporate Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ING AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL INTEGRATION (B)
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B08M027
Publication Date: 4/1/2008
Length: 3 pages

Global financial markets had changed dramatically in the decade following the ING (A) case, product # 9A99M022. This (B) case points to the nature of these changes, creating an opportunity for students to discuss them. Meanwhile, ING had also altered its global strategy, eliminating its attempts to create a global investment bank, and focusing its activities on specific financial sectors, each of which reported directly to head office. This new structure enabled ING head office to maintain closer control over its numerous local institutions. Students can analyze alternative potential strategies for ING in the context of the major financial changes. The (B) case presents summaries of: the 2007-08 global financial crisis; the attempts, like Basel II, to establish global reserve requirements; the economic prospects of the European Union and emerging markets; and ING Direct's success in e-banking.

Teaching Note: 8B08M27 (2 pages)
Issues: Financial Institutions; Globalization; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CITIGROUP IN POST-WTO CHINA (A)
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B02M012
Publication Date: 6/21/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 18 pages

China's entry into the World Trade Organization at the end of 2001 brought promises that foreign financial institutions would be permitted to operate through China. In 1998, Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc. had merged to create the new Citigroup Inc. Travelers brought a vast array of financial services that added to Citibank's existing portfolio of consumer and commercial lending. Travelers had developed a very extensive business in investment banking, asset management, life insurance, property casualty insurance, as well as consumer lending. Citigroup now had to determine the business prospects for each of its activities in the growing China market. Fears of social and economic dislocation might lead China to impose regulatory restrictions limiting the pace of foreign expansion. Economic growth might be impeded by the existing political structure, and reforms might not occur in the near term. A myriad of other challenges included human resources difficulties, e-commerce limitations and regional disparities. The pace of privatization of state-owned enterprises and the societal preferences in regard to alternative insurance and investment products added to uncertainties. Citibank had a record of success in less developed countries, and had developed certain competitive advantages that might be the basis for success in China, but whether and how these could be extended to other Citigroup financial activities remained an important question.

Teaching Note: 8B02M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; Globalization; International Business; Business Policy; Financial Institutions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Analyzing National Economies

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M099
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 14 pages

This is the third case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M098 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. This case describes some of the first steps of doing business internationally in the West. Lacking international experience, the entrepreneur seeks to minimize risk by entering into a strategic alliance with renowned fashion designers. They systematically help her to introduce her brand to the international market, albeit on a limited scale. After the initial success, she begins to plan a more structured approach towards internationalization. She decides to commission a thorough study of France, Spain and Turkey, as they are historically familiar with Arabic jewellery designs. Accordingly, the case identifies specific information about the three countries so that students can compare them in order to reach the best decision about structured international expansion.


Teaching Note: 8B13M099 (23 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization;global strategy; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ISRAELI WINES IN CHINA: REACHING FOR NEW HEIGHTS
Ilan Alon, Jennifer Dugosh, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B14M006
Publication Date: 5/5/2014
Revision Date: 2/23/2015
Length: 21 pages

In 2012, Golan Heights Wines wanted to take advantage of the Chinese market. In recent years, China had demonstrated incredible growth in the wine market. Consumers’ growing interest in wine products had made wineries and vineyards like Golan Heights hungry for entry. The CEO of Golan Heights Winery had gone to China with her products in 2009. She had chosen distributorships as the mode of entry because of their expertise and experience in the Chinese market, something she did not possess. Since she had entered the market, however, she had learned of the seemingly disappointing demand for Israeli wines. Sales were rather limited given the size of the market. Most Chinese consumers who sought imported wines wanted them from Europe, particularly France. Additionally, vendors and distributors did a poor job of pushing Israel products. The CEO needed to devise and execute a series of strategies to better take advantage of the impressive Chinese market, establish a brand for Golan Heights Wines and create a platform for future growth.

Teaching Note: 8B14M006 (11 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Export strategy; market entry; market selection; Israel; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RUTH'S CHRIS: THE HIGH STAKES OF INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Ilan Alon, Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B06A034
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 8 pages

In 2006, Ruth's Chris Steak House was fresh off of a sizzling initial public offering and was now interested in growing their business internationally. With restaurants in just four countries outside the United States, a model to identify and rank new international markets was needed. This case provides a practical example for students to take quantitative and non-quantitative variables to create a short list of potential new markets.

Teaching Note: 8B06A34 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Strategy; International Business; International Strategy; Market Entry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
International Law and Global Orientations

LENHAGE AG: ETHICAL DILEMMA
Daniel Galindau, Won-Yong Oh

Product Number: 9B14M037
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 8 pages

The general manager at the Seoul location of a European manufacturing company faces an ethical dilemma involving bribery and “facilitation” payments. A key decision maker in a local construction company’s purchasing department has asked for a “facilitation” payment as a necessary condition for securing an order. If the expatriate manager decides to pay the money, he will secure an order that will lift his company to a new level of success for years to come. If he decides not to pay, the order and all the company has worked for over the last year will be lost. The expatriate manager must decide whether or not the payment would violate laws internationally, locally and in his home country. What are the real risks? Who can help him answer the many questions he has regarding this local practice?

Teaching Note: 8B14M037 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Ethics; decision making; bribery; facilitation payment; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAYER IN INDIA: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPROPRIATION?
Peter M. Bican, Quynh Nhu Truong

Product Number: 9B13M134
Publication Date: 3/28/2014
Revision Date: 3/28/2014
Length: 16 pages

Bayer Group needed to reassess its strategies regarding intellectual property, as well as its emphasis on research and development. The Indian government had ruled against Bayer by granting a compulsory licence to a local generic drug manufacturer that allowed them to distribute a copy of Bayer’s blockbuster cancer drug at a fraction of the original price. This ruling demonstrated that pharmaceutical innovation could not be effectively protected by conventional intellectual property rights in emerging markets. As a result, the core of the pharmaceutical industry’s business model was called into question: If ideas and inventions could not be protected, was the there any incentive for firms to innovate? Would this victory for generic drug manufacturers trigger similar rulings elsewhere? Would the prevailing patent-centric IP strategies need to be adapted to emerging markets? Or would innovator companies finally have to withdraw from markets with weak IP protection?

Teaching Note: 8B13M134 (13 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Intellectual property; innovation; patent strategy; emerging markets; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



APPLE V. SAMSUNG: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND THE SMARTPHONE PATENT WARS
Gloria Barczak, Susan Montgomery, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B13A009
Publication Date: 4/23/2013
Revision Date: 4/30/2013
Length: 20 pages

In 2012, Apple, Inc. won the largest patent infringement case in history against Samsung Electronics for Samsung’s willful copying of Apple’s iPhone and iPad. Samsung, which recently overtook Apple as the leading smartphone maker, must now devise a strategy to address the court verdict and its potential impact on new product development.

Teaching Note: 8B13A009 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intellectual Property; Legal System; Innovation; Patents; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Sociocultural Factors

RECRUITMENT AT CHINA SUNWAH BANK: GUANXI VERSUS TALENT
Stephen Grainger

Product Number: 9B14C010
Publication Date: 5/23/2014
Revision Date: 5/21/2014
Length: 5 pages

The human resources department at China Sunwah Bank had to decide on 22 new appointments — only 12 of which were officially advertised — to Sunwah Bank’s 28 branches. More than 4,000 applications had been received and the final list of candidates based on merit had been reduced to 48. The department members had spent many hours reading applications and conducting interviews; however, some members had been coping with specific endorsements for certain applicants from government officials, friends, former teachers and bank managers in a system known as “guanxi,” which was based on a reciprocal exchange of favours that bound individuals together. The challenge was how to choose the most qualified and talented recruits for the new positions at Sunwah Bank, keeping in mind the guanxi-based requests for favours from important stakeholders and friends — including some who had granted significant favours to Sunwah Bank executives in the past. The choice would require sensitivity and cultural awareness. Who would the department hire and why?

Teaching Note: 8B14C010 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Guanxi versus merit; recruitment; Chinese banking; human resource management; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BONAZZI INDO JOINT VENTURE: CULTURE CLASH OR PURE ECONOMICS?
Naresh Warrier, Gita Bajaj

Product Number: 9B13M105
Publication Date: 12/16/2013
Revision Date: 12/11/2013
Length: 8 pages

Owing to the rapidly growing automotive market, international joint venture activity in the auto-components sector has been increasing in India, both in terms of frequency and strategic importance.

Bonazzi Indo Fasteners Limited, a joint venture between the Turin-based Bonazzi Group and the Mumbai-based Indo Group, was set up to manufacture automotive fasteners, primarily for global original equipment manufacturers. There is a confrontational relationship between the two joint venture partners, and the chief executive officer has been unable to broker peace between them.


Teaching Note: 8B13M105 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural negotiation; joint ventures; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SARAH JAMES IN MEXICO: OFTEN WRONG BUT NEVER IN DOUBT?
William A. Andrews

Product Number: 9B09C006
Publication Date: 1/27/2009
Length: 4 pages

A college student, Sarah James, attends a Mexican university (INI) for the summer to develop her language and cross-cultural capabilities. At the end of a successful semester, she e-mails the director of international recruitment for the Mexican University - with a copy to her major professor back in the United States - complaining about the treatment she received from her host family. She appears to have alienated all parties involved as she makes her exodus. The reader must decide how Professor McGill should respond. McGill had been attempting to build a relationship with the administration at INI in hopes of sending more students there for cross-cultural and language training. The reader must also evaluate Sarah's complaints to determine if they are a result of her own inflexibility or whether the host family was inappropriately screened or prepared. Will the remedy be found in having better policies governing host families or in having more culturally-attuned students?

Teaching Note: 8B09C06 (5 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Partnership; Cultural Customs; Conflict Resolution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Foreign Investment: Researching Risk

ETHIOPIAN AIRLINES: BRINGING AFRICA TOGETHER
Paul W. Beamish, Yamlaksira Getachew

Product Number: 9B14M005
Publication Date: 2/14/2014
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 14 pages

Ethiopian Airlines plans to expand its African market base to become a leading airline in the continent. As part of the airline’s multi-hub strategy, the vice-president of alliances and corporate strategy and his team must identify a suitable hub location and decide on the appropriate mode and level of ownership. Success in the first hub is essential as it will both validate the viability of the multi-hub strategy and set the tone for the establishment of subsequent hubs throughout the continent. The vice-president and his team need to resolve three issues: location of the first hub, entry mode and ownership level.

Teaching Note: 8B14M005 (13 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; location decision; market entry strategies; Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EIKON DEVICE INC.: CREATING AN INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY
Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B13M089
Publication Date: 2/14/2014
Revision Date: 2/13/2014
Length: 15 pages

Eikon Device Ltd, a tattoo equipment and supplies firm, has to choose between several alternatives. Their core business is the production of tattoo needles and the power supply that makes tattoo machines operate, selling primarily into the United States and Canada. With increasing international demand however, should they consider establishing a distribution facility abroad? Alternatively, since much of their success is derived from catering to the specific needs of tattoo artists, should Eikon expand its product line for the North American market? At the same time, competition from China has emerged to push Eikon out of its core markets. Eikon management has to prioritize their initiatives.

Teaching Note: 8B13M089 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Foreign competition; tattoo industry; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHABROS INTERNATIONAL GROUP: A WORLD OF WOOD
Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Ethical Concerns: Multinationals and Sustainability

FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
The Pathway Forward and Future Concerns

DRIVING INNOVATION AT PAR SPRINGER-MILLER (A)
Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C022
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 12 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future. See B Case 9B14C023.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SODASTREAM TAKES ON COKE AND PEPSI
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B14M038
Publication Date: 4/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/24/2014
Length: 11 pages

SodaStream International Limited is an Israel-based company that pioneered the home carbonation market. It sells soda makers that enable the consumer to prepare at home sparkling water or a variety of flavoured carbonated beverages. After its initial public offering in 2010, its chief executive officer sought to aggressively grow the company and set a $1 billion revenue target (from 2012 revenues of $436.32 million) by principally focusing on the U.S. market, the largest in the world for non-carbonated beverages. In addition to going up against global beverage behemoths, Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo — whose advertising budgets alone are five to eight times SodaStream’s revenues — SodaStream faces new competitors in Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Primo Water Corporation, who pose a direct challenge to its ambitious goal.

Teaching Note: 8B14M038 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: business model; disruptive innovation; beverages; Israel; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SOGETI TEAMPARK - DESIGNING INTELLIGENT ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE FUTURE
Veena Vohra, Manjari Srivastava, Sharon Pande

Product Number: 9B13C047
Publication Date: 3/26/2014
Revision Date: 3/25/2014
Length: 17 pages

Sogeti, a global leader in providing technological services chooses to invest in a social collaboration platform for its employees with a view towards bringing about business transformation. Partnering with IBM, the company launched “TeamPark.” After the implementation, the company’s central challenge was to encourage employee engagement levels and how to increase utilization of the platform. A further issue: Should the platform be opened up to clients and other stakeholders? There was a lot of deliberation around the way the community should be created – should it be restricted or open? If the company decided to open its information-sharing platform with its clients, how should it manage the issues of security and trust?

Teaching Note: 8B13C047 (11 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Social collaboration; intelligent organization; innovation; global
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate