Ivey Publishing

Entrepreneurship: Venture, Initiation, Management, and Development

Vozikis, G.S.; Mescon, T.S.; Feldman, H.D.; Liguori, E.W.,2/e (United States, M.E. Sharpe, 2014)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneur

ECOVATIVE DESIGN LLC: A BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS STARTUP
Chris Laszlo, Abdel Latif Ladki, Abraham Weiner

Product Number: 9B13M125
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 12/20/2013
Length: 8 pages

Ecovative Designs (Ecovative), a start-up company in upstate New York, uses an innovative process to combine agricultural waste and mycelium (mushroom “roots”) to grow forms for use in a wide variety of applications, especially a protective packaging material. Not only does this new product replace the need for the environmentally harmful alternative, extruded polystyrene, but the production process is less energy intensive. It exemplifies the cradle-to-cradle design indicative of a sustainably embedded product and attractive to companies looking to reduce their carbon footprint. In just a few years, Ecovative has expanded from a lab to a large facility funded partly through research grants and partly from contracts with two large corporations. In 2013, the partners are considering whether to sign a contract with Sealed Air, one of the largest distributors of packaging materials in the world, but the deal would mean relinquishing control over the only profitable segment of their company. They are considering alternative growth strategies to find the one that fits best with their goal: to have the largest impact on the planet while remaining profitable.

Teaching Note: 8B13M125 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sustainability; science, biomimicry; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



A NON-TRADITIONAL FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR (A)
W. Glenn Rowe, Yeh-Yun (Carol) Lin

Product Number: 9B11M016
Publication Date: 6/28/2011
Length: 14 pages

In 1985, the president and founder of New Deantronics (ND) launched her sales office in San Francisco, California, and then set up a factory in Taiwan in 1987. With no technical background or prior experience, the president used her system of management strategy and philosophy and built ND’s reputation as a trusted manufacturer and developer of medical devices. All of ND’s products were directly exported to large global health-care companies, including Philips Medical Systems, Johnson & Johnson, and Covidien. With the rapid increase in business, the need for expanding production capacity became increasingly urgent. Sitting in her office in early 2009, the president knew that she could no longer postpone her decision to relocate. Several options were presented to her, and the factors that influenced her decision included considerations about the supply of quality human resources, geographical convenience, the willingness of her current employees to relocate, affordability, and the possibility for future expansion. The president pondered what would be the best bet.

Teaching Note: 8B11M016 (13 pages)
Issues: Leadership; Small and Medium Enterprises, Female Entrepreneur; Growth Plan; Taiwan; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HOLEY SOLES
Jean-Louis Schaan, Huanglin Wang

Product Number: 9B09M057
Publication Date: 12/11/2009
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 19 pages

The president and chief executive officer (CEO) of Holey Soles - a developer, manufacturer and distributor of injected-molded footwear - was optimistic and upbeat. Sales had grown at 300 per cent in each of the past two years, it ranked number four in a leading publication's 2006 Canada's Emerging Growth Companies, and the CEO herself was a finalist for the 2007 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award. Sustaining the momentum that had been building since the company had been bought in 2004 was proving to be a challenge. Fast growth was stretching the capabilities of Holey Soles in all areas: securing financing, sourcing, developing new markets, maintaining high quality, expanding the product portfolio and management talent. The CEO wondered what the available options, priorities and next steps would be to continue to build a strong foundation for growth, and to reach her aggressive target of $40 million in sales by 2009.

Teaching Note: 8B09M57 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy; Planning; Corporate Strategy; Market Strategy; Growth
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Corporate Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurs

LUMINAR: LEVERAGING BIG DATA USING CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Simon Parker, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B14M063
Publication Date: 5/22/2015
Revision Date: 5/22/2015
Length: 13 pages

Entravision, a leading Spanish-language broadcasting company in the United States that targets Hispanic Americans, has just set up a digital analytics division called Luminar, which uses Big Data to focus a company’s marketing to a particular set of consumers. The idea of launching Luminar has been mooted by an outsider who is a friend and protegé of the company’s founding chairman. As the incumbent president of the new division, he is grappling with some major issues. How should he secure the buy-in of line and staff managers at Entravision? How should he find a structural fit between Entravision and Luminar? How should he leverage business opportunities beyond digital analytics? What kind of entry barriers can he build so that Luminar retains its first mover advantage?

Teaching Note: 8B14M063 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Big data; digital analytics; corporate venturing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENERAL MILLS CANADA: BUILDING A CULTURE OF INNOVATION (A)
J. Robert Mitchell, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B14M015
Publication Date: 1/24/2014
Revision Date: 5/1/2015
Length: 6 pages

The president of General Mills Canada wants to build a culture of innovation in his firm. Prior to a senior management meeting in 2010 to review the company’s plans for 2011 and beyond, he met with the vice-president of Human Resources and asked him to provide feedback and suggestions about what the organization could do to change its corporate culture. A conservative organization with a collegial atmosphere where consensus and support were essential to moving projects ahead, General Mills Canada had developed an analysis-based, detail-oriented culture that was not necessarily conducive to innovation. This case provides an opportunity to engage in a discussion about the uncertainty faced by senior management in terms of specifically how to build a culture of innovation. While the senior leaders know they want to build a culture of innovation, the real question is how they should go about doing this. Also available is supplement case 9B14M016.

Teaching Note: 8B14M015 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Culture; innovation; change management; marketing; human resources; Canada
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LE CERF DE TREMBLANT
Thomas Funk, Wendy Lange-Faria

Product Number: 9B13A037
Publication Date: 11/28/2013
Revision Date: 1/9/2014
Length: 8 pages

An owner was concerned about the condo she bought in Mont Tremblant, Quebec in 2006 as an investment property and for occasional use by her family. A beautiful, five-bedroom unit with a panoramic view over the La Bête golf course, it was close to the ski area, the village of Tremblant, shopping, spas, restaurants and a casino. It was fully furnished with many upgrades. However, by 2010, the number of rentals was disappointing, and the unit was operating well below expectations. Something had to be done to increase occupancy or she would have to sell the property. She considered changes in all aspects of marketing: her target, positioning, product features, pricing, distribution and promotion. She needed to assess the situation and determine what could be done to generate more bookings and make the venture profitable.

Teaching Note: 8B13A037 (7 pages)
Industry: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
Issues: Marketing strategy; integrated marketing; hospitality and tourism; Canada
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate


Chapter 3:
Feasibility Analysis and Venture Evaluation – Putting It All Together

JILL'S TABLE: DIGITIZING A RETAIL LEGACY
Raymond Pirouz, Janice Zolf

Product Number: 9B14A002
Publication Date: 3/20/2014
Revision Date: 3/20/2014
Length: 12 pages

The founder of a bricks-and-mortar kitchen accessories retail store, Jill's Table, is considering the expansion of her existing information-based website to an e-commerce presence, but wonders whether the factors that have led to her current success can be replicated in the virtual world. Students are asked to make decisions related to translating brand values from the real world to the virtual world; overcoming technological hurdles; addressing design issues in terms of the user experience; developing a content marketing and digital promotions strategy, including social media and email marketing; determining a pricing strategy; planning for fulfillment and returns; handling customer service and measuring performance.

Teaching Note: 8B14A002 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Online retailing; etailing; ecommerce; Internet marketing; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EMBRACE (A): OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
Mridula Anand, Anand Nandkumar, Charles Dhanaraj

Product Number: 9B13M004
Publication Date: 4/16/2013
Revision Date: 4/16/2013
Length: 7 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Award, 2013 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition.The Embrace case series provides an engaging context to understand social innovation, by taking students through a sequence of critical decisions from opportunity analysis and market feasibility study to formulating a competitive strategy and developing business models for growth. The focus of the case is on an innovative idea to solve the problem of a high number of fatalities in premature births in rural India, and the potential for an affordable product.

The case is structured as a four-part series:
  • Part A: Opportunity Identification. The setting is an MBA classroom where five teams have been given five ideas and the students are asked to match each idea to each team. The focus is on how to identify and evaluate an appropriate opportunity given a unique entrepreneurial team, its composition, and its prior experience. Often, entrepreneurs discount the critical role that team-task fit plays in subsequent success.
  • Part B: Market Feasibility Analysis (9B13M005). The social problem associated with neonatal care in rural India is presented and the economics of providing reasonable care for premature babies is discussed. Is it possible to find an affordable and profitable price point, and make the project sustainable?
  • Part C: Competitive Strategy (9B13M006). The students are taken through an external analysis of the potential competition. This calls for a close analysis of what the competitive advantage of the venture is and whether it is sustainable. It forces the students to consider other available neonatal care options in the market, as well as to think about the IP issues they could face.
  • Part D: Building the Business Model (9B13M007). The team must decide between manufacturing the product in-house or outsourcing to vendors. Also, issues of distribution and sales require consideration.


Teaching Note: 8B13M004 (16 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Emerging markets; affordable innovation; business plan; social entrepreneurship; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 4:
Venture Success Framework: Overall Success Requirements

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: EXPAND LOCALLY OR INTERNATIONALLY?
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M098
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/27/2014
Length: 7 pages

This is the second case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M099 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. In this case, the entrepreneur realizes the importance of having a clear organizational structure with different departments and a clear chain of authority. As a result, she hires her daughter as the managing director to take on the responsibility of developing a mission, vision and explicit organizational structure. This restructuring allows the company to grow further, which leads the entrepreneur to consider her opportunities in the international market.


Teaching Note: 8B13M098 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; institutionalization; alliances; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE ART OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: DAKSHINA CHITRA AND MADRAS CRAFTS FOUNDATION (MFC) IN INDIA
Oana Branzei, Sonia Mehrotra

Product Number: 9B12C005
Publication Date: 4/17/2012
Revision Date: 4/17/2012
Length: 17 pages

The case traces the milestones of a 26-year history of a social entrepreneur creating a social enterprise, Madras Craft Foundation (MCF). The story leads up to a three-decade retrospective on the role social ventures play in our lives. Based on the entrepreneur’s critical reflection, the case shows how the paths of the social entrepreneur and the social enterprise became closely interwoven. After MCF had been self-sufficient for three years, the success of the social venture precipitated a crisis as to who could succeed the founding social entrepreneur, whose love for South India’s arts, crafts, and culture had become inseparable from MCF and its best-known offering, Dakshina Chitra. The case details MCF’s revenue-generation model and shows the interdependence between the social entrepreneur and the social enterprise — their “co-becoming” over almost three decades. The analysis makes apparent links between the founder and her venture, and challenges the divide between social entrepreneur and social enterprise. It also provides an opportunity to discuss what is alike or different in social entrepreneurship and traditional entrepreneurship.

Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Social Entrepreneurship; Poverty Alleviation; Education; Art and Culture; South India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ENTREPRENEURS AT TWITTER: BUILDING A BRAND, A SOCIAL TOOL OR A TECH POWERHOUSE?
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10M028
Publication Date: 3/22/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 10 pages

Twitter has become an incredibly popular micro-blogging service since its launch in 2006. Its founders have ambitious plans for the service, and are backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital funding, which values the company at $3.7 billion in 2011. Twitter seems to attract a diverse audience of users, such as political organizers looking to disseminate information to their followers; businesses looking to reach out, in real time, to potential customers; and social users. The company charges consumers nothing for its service. By 2011, competitors have emerged, some of whom are financially strong. It remains unclear - at least to some observers - whether the company will ever make money from its service.

Teaching Note: 8B10M28 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Social Networking Media; Strategic Positioning; New Venture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Venture Idea Sources and Opportunities – Can We Make a Value Concept Niche for the Consumer? Why Buy?

GROWING TENTREE: SOCIAL ENTERPRISE, SOCIAL MEDIA AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Peter W. Moroz, Simon Parker, Edward Gamble

Product Number: 9B14M030
Publication Date: 3/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/2/2014
Length: 12 pages

Two friends have launched tentree (TT), a Canadian entrepreneurial venture that sells an environmentally sustainable and trendy brand of apparel. For every product sold, TT plants 10 trees in locations around the world. Although TT is still in its infancy, it is already experiencing huge growth. The entrepreneurial founders now face several challenges: how to keep pace with the growing demand; how to plant as many trees as they can while staying true to their sustainable, environmental philosophy; how to break into the U.S. and other markets; and where to source their product.

Teaching Note: 8B14M030 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Social enterprise; media; sustainability; growth; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STAG INTERNATIONAL: STRATEGIC DILEMMAS OF A GROWING FAMILY OWNED INDIAN BUSINESS
Sanjay Goyal, Harsh W. Mishra

Product Number: 9B13M088
Publication Date: 10/8/2013
Revision Date: 10/31/2013
Length: 10 pages

The chairman of Stag International faced a number of challenges. As the number one table tennis brand in India and one of the top five companies globally, Stag could go after market share, diversify into domestic distribution, do both or just sit tight. The chairman also needed to set the business up for the fourth generation to step in and drive the family-owned business forward. The dilemmas he faced were defining the strategic intent, strategic choices and resourcing for the business as it entered its 90th year of existence as a leading manufacturer and exporter of sports goods in India.

Teaching Note: 8B13M088 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategic decision making; strategic planning; family-owned business; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CYBERPRENEUR'S WAKE-UP CALL: CYBER SECURITY AND MILLENNIAL TALENT CRISES
Nakul Gupta, Arjun Bhatnagar, Jyotsna Bhatnagar

Product Number: 9B13E029
Publication Date: 10/17/2013
Revision Date: 5/2/2014
Length: 7 pages

It was summer of 2013, and the news of cyber-attacks and information security breaches was on the rise in India, as it was worldwide. Incidents such as the Axis bank’s cyber-crime incident and the news of the American National Security Agency’s global e-surveillance were creating consternation and dilemmas in the minds of information security consultants. One such consultant owned and operated an information security company, Percept Softech, a Lakshyaa Technology Lab’s Jaipur franchise. The consultant was bogged down by a number of problems and dilemmas. The first was his marketing and business growth strategy, which was not helping him in promotion of his business. Information security solutions, spying, vulnerability checks, key logging and allied propositions were difficult to promote. Managing young millennial talent was another major problem for him. Apart from the woes of business growth, inefficiency in promotion and talent issues, the consultant was now facing another dilemma. Should he start a new business away from the umbrella of the Lakshyaa Technology Lab? Should he partner with a detective agency? Or should he relocate from Jaipur to a more central location (such as New Delhi) where perhaps people would be more aware of the importance of cyber security and students would be more interested in pursuing cyber security training?

Teaching Note: 8B13E029 (15 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Venture Strategic Marketing Targeting, Management, and Planning – Can We Sell in a Demand-Driven Strategic-Opportunity Target Market? Who Buys, How Many, How, Where?

JOG SPORTS: SPORTS APPAREL AND ICE HOCKEY IN THAILAND
Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B13M138
Publication Date: 3/24/2014
Revision Date: 3/21/2014
Length: 14 pages

JOG Sports, a sports apparel and sports marketing business, has crossed the psychologically important threshold of $1 million in annual sales. Although the company was started as a hobby and side interest of the chief executive officer (CEO) and main founder, management of the company soon became his only occupation. The scale of the company increased quickly, with the sports apparel business growing in product lines, geographic scope of sales and diversity within products. Meanwhile, the sports marketing arm also grew as the CEO organized new and larger ice hockey tournaments. The CEO needs to make some important decisions regarding the future growth of the company, including issues of strategy formulation and strategy implementation, an explicit process within the rapidly growing company.

Teaching Note: 8B13M138 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Growth; strategy formulation; implementation; Thailand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Venture Financial Analysis and Return Projections – Can We Profit?

SCUBY'S ENTERPRISES: STARTING A BUSINESS IN GHANA
Francis Ayensu, Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Julianna Faircloth, Helen Fisher, David MacNicol

Product Number: 9B14M041
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 5 pages

In October 2011, a young entrepreneur in Ghana faced a critical moment. Given his degree in marketing from the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration and his past work experience running a retail clothing store, he was confident he could branch out and start his own photocopying service in his hometown of Koforidua, where there was a distinct undersupply of photocopying services. The proposed store would be located near All Nations University, whose students and faculty would provide a stable demand for his offerings. Now he must perform a breakeven analysis and return on investment calculation to assess whether he should go forward with the venture.

Teaching Note: 8B14M041 (8 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Breakeven analysis; return on investment; new venture; emerging markets; Ghana
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SWEET LEAF BATH CO.
Melissa Jean

Product Number: 9B13A044
Publication Date: 2/4/2014
Revision Date: 1/27/2014
Length: 15 pages

Sweet Leaf Bath Co. is a small, family-operated bath and body products company specializing in fairtrade, environmentally conscious products. The company progressed from initially selling its high-quality, unique products at craft shows and exhibitions to limited sales through local retailers. Through these sales channels, Sweet Leaf’s founding partners learned more about the bath and body industry and the international issues surrounding the sourcing of many raw ingredients used in their products. However, after a year of minimal sales growth, the partners realized that they needed to develop and implement a new marketing strategy that would enable them to grow the business. Out of the many options available to expand the company’s distribution plans and promotional efforts, its owners must select those opportunities that will offer maximum benefits on a limited budget.

Teaching Note: 8B13A044 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Planning; channels; breakeven analysis; fairtrade; Canada
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate


Chapter 8:
Venture Financial Needs: Personal Investment and Additional Funding Needs – Can We Commit?

LAUNCHING A BUSINESS ACCELERATOR: VENVELO
Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B14M001
Publication Date: 3/14/2014
Revision Date: 3/13/2014
Length: 7 pages

An early stage investment firm is ready to launch after receiving funding from its first investor. With $400,000 in capital and twice that amount forthcoming, venVelo needs a process so it can be exposed to those seeking funding, evaluate the opportunities, make investments and mentor its portfolio clients. The challenge for venVelo’s management team is to apply the same principles in managing venVelo that it looked for in other companies seeking investment: don’t focus on being perfect; focus on getting better every day.

Teaching Note: 8B14M001 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Venture capital; angel investing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE KINKAJOU BOTTLE CUTTER
Ron Mulholland

Product Number: 9B13A034
Publication Date: 11/14/2013
Revision Date: 11/7/2013
Length: 10 pages

The inventor of the Kinkajou, a portable glass bottle cutter, has successfully completed a crowd-sourced financing campaign. His funding goal of $75,000 was considered to be quite ambitious and the timeframe in which he aimed to secure the funding was only 30 days. He managed the campaign impressively and exceeded his goal on the last day of the campaign. At this point in his business development, this entrepreneur has secured an offshore manufacturer, all backers have received their products and he has resolved a number of technical and operational problems. With so many challenges behind him, he now faces questions of future distribution through multiple wholesalers and is considering the opportunity of joining with a major international retailer.

Teaching Note: 8B13A034 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: New product; start-up; crowd-source financing; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CROWDFUNDING AT THE BROOKLYN WAREHOUSE
Nicola Young, Karen Lightstone

Product Number: 9B13B020
Publication Date: 10/4/2013
Revision Date: 10/3/2013
Length: 8 pages

The Brooklyn Warehouse, a popular restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, is cramped for space because of its popularity within its neighbourhood and as a tourist destination in the city. The restaurant is a private company with two shareholders, one of whom is not involved in operations. Because of the economic downturn, the risky nature of the business and the fact that it has been open only four years, the owners are having trouble securing financing for their expansion plans from their bank and other conventional lenders. However, while negotiating a renewal of their lease in late 2011, their landlord offered to pay for half the cost of building a patio to increase the size of the restaurant. To raise the other half, the owners turn to crowdfunding as a method of raising capital through social media by tapping into their community of friends, family and loyal customers. In return for their donation, which may vary from $100 to $2,500, sponsors are offered various packages, including free meals, a company T-shirt and their name listed on a wall of honour. However, little is known about the appropriate accounting or tax treatment for money raised in this manner. The owners had heard horror stories about businesses that used innovative ideas to raise funds only to have fines and penalties levied by government agencies for income tax and sales tax or even by the Securities Commission for improper accounting. The owners turn to their accountant for advice.

Teaching Note: 8B13B020 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Crowdfunding; innovative financing; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



MEDIAGRIF INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: THE IPO DECISION
James E. Hatch, Louis Gagnon

Product Number: 9B01N007
Publication Date: 1/22/2002
Revision Date: 1/5/2010
Length: 20 pages

Mediagrif Interactive Technologies operates vertical business-to-business e-commerce marketplaces. The chief executive officer must decide whether to go forward with a previously delayed initial public offering. He must consider the effect of changing market conditions and how to value the company in order to determine the price range that would be used.

Teaching Note: 8B01N07 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Initial Public Offerings; Valuation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Venture Infrastructure: Product/Service and Marketing Considerations – Can We Plan the Product and Marketing Infrastructure?

VICE MEDIA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND GLOBAL EXPANSION
Farzad H. Alvi

Product Number: 9B14M039
Publication Date: 3/17/2014
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 13 pages

Vice Media has gone from a startup in Canada to landing in New York City and assiduously building a global youth brand through unique and seemingly inimitable competitive advantages. While globalizing its operations, Vice Media appears to have developed expertise in standardizing certain aspects of its business, adapting others to local context and, increasingly, building a global chain. Given Vice Media’s explosive growth, how can its global value chain be structured to maintain the carefully cultivated emotional connection the company has created with its audience?

Teaching Note: 8B14M039 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Competitive advantage; growth; Canada; United States; Global
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WHOLE FOODS MARKET INC.: EXPANSION IN CANADA
Cara C. Maurer, Valentina Bardorf

Product Number: 9B13M127
Length: 18 pages

In December 2012, the senior management team of Whole Foods Markets, Inc. was contemplating the company’s options for international expansion. Headquartered in Austin, Texas, the company was a natural and organic foods supermarket that was known as, and trademarked as “America’s Healthiest Grocery Store.” Since 1977, the company had grown from a single small store to a multinational chain with a presence in Canada and the United Kingdom. Its goal was to achieve a total of 1,000 stores by 2022 across all markets. Now, counting on the demand for organic products from the growing demographic of well-educated and wealthy professionals concerned about obesity and its related health issues, senior managers were wondering if it was time to expand further into Canada and, if yes, into which provinces. With unions being a clear factor in a Quebec expansion, would it be possible to enter the province without risking cultural inconsistency? Would its current U.S. team facilitate the expansion, or should a Canadian management team be developed? These issues must be resolved before the company can move forward.

Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Organic food industry; international expansion; growth strategy; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Venture Infrastructure: Organizational and Operational Considerations – Can We Plan the Organizational and Operational Infrastructure?

PARKIN LABORATORIES: SALES FORCE EFFECTIVENESS
Sandeep Puri

Product Number: 9B14A015
Publication Date: 5/23/2014
Revision Date: 5/21/2014
Length: 10 pages

The profits of a generic-pharmaceutical company, Parkin Laboratories, are dwindling as a result of recent legislation implemented by the Indian government. To compensate for the loss in value, the company needs to increase its sales volumes. The general manager of sales is exploring the idea of investing in a program of sales force effectiveness to increase the efficacy of the sales team.

Teaching Note: 8B14A015 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sales force effectiveness; sales management; sales performance; pharmaceutical selling; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



DRIVING INNOVATION AT PAR SPRINGER-MILLER (A)
Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C022
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 12 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future. See B Case 9B14C023.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SELKIRK GROUP IN ASIA
Paul W. Beamish, Lambros Karavis

Product Number: 9A99M003
Publication Date: 2/20/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 16 pages

A family-owned brick manufacturer has built an export business to Japan and other Asian markets from zero to 10 per cent of its volume in seven years. The case examines the company's export strategy and organization in light of the recent Asian economic crisis and the reasons for their competitive success both in Australia and Asia. The managing director is raising the question of whether it is time to change their regional export strategy and organizational structure.

Teaching Note: 8A99M03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Structure; International Marketing; International Business; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Venture Infrastucture: Organizational and Operational Considerations – Can We Plan the Legal Infrastructure?

SAWCHYN GUITARS: CAN AN OLD BUSINESS LEARN NEW TRICKS?
Meredith Woodwark, Matthew Wong

Product Number: 9B13M084
Publication Date: 8/23/2013
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 13 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Laurier School of Business and Economics Best Case Award 2013. The owner of Sawchyn Guitars makes fine handmade acoustic guitars and mandolins. After 40 years of operating from a two-storey backyard garage, he contemplates a shift from a solely custom-order business to a storefront location. Although his custom-order business is still strong, the owner sees the opportunity to realize his dream of providing a full-service musical instrument haven for the local music community through a proper storefront. After opening a new retail location, public reception to the new store is overwhelmingly positive, but the success in new business lines restricts the capacity to build new instruments. Despite the enthusiastic response to the store, the business is experiencing unanticipated growing pains related to managing small-business growth.

Teaching Note: 8B13M084 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Small Business Management; Change Management; Opportunity Assessment; Canada
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: RESTRUCTURING A SUCCESSFUL STARTUP
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M097
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/31/2014
Length: 14 pages

This case and the three others in this series (9B13M098, 9B13M099 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. The issues are strategic in nature and typical of a growing business. Following the successful establishment of her company, she faces issues related to rapid growth; she is a “one-woman show” who controls everything in the company including marketing, operations, human resources and finance. Although she enjoyed a successful start, the tremendous growth of her company has culminated in management difficulties. Thus, she is considering how to transform her business from an entrepreneurial firm to a structured organization.


Teaching Note: 8B13M097 (7 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; institutionalization; local strategy; female entrepreneurship; marketing; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Venture Ability to Execute: Organizing, Staffing, and Management Considerations – Can We Execute the Management and Leadership of People?

RECRUITMENT AT CHINA SUNWAH BANK: GUANXI VERSUS TALENT
Stephen Grainger

Product Number: 9B14C010
Publication Date: 5/23/2014
Revision Date: 5/21/2014
Length: 5 pages

The human resources department at China Sunwah Bank had to decide on 22 new appointments — only 12 of which were officially advertised — to Sunwah Bank’s 28 branches. More than 4,000 applications had been received and the final list of candidates based on merit had been reduced to 48. The department members had spent many hours reading applications and conducting interviews; however, some members had been coping with specific endorsements for certain applicants from government officials, friends, former teachers and bank managers in a system known as “guanxi,” which was based on a reciprocal exchange of favours that bound individuals together. The challenge was how to choose the most qualified and talented recruits for the new positions at Sunwah Bank, keeping in mind the guanxi-based requests for favours from important stakeholders and friends — including some who had granted significant favours to Sunwah Bank executives in the past. The choice would require sensitivity and cultural awareness. Who would the department hire and why?

Teaching Note: 8B14C010 (9 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Guanxi versus merit; recruitment; Chinese banking; human resource management; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE INDIAN GREENPRENEUR: MANAGEMENT OF FRENEMY TALENT AND COOPETITION
Jyotsna Bhatnagar, Neha Paliwal Sharma, Nakul Gupta

Product Number: 9B13C028
Publication Date: 9/11/2013
Revision Date: 5/15/2014
Length: 8 pages

During the 2013 Indian festival of colours, a young green entrepreneur and owner of Green Horizon Consulting (GHC) faced a plethora of business growth challenges. His former employee, who had quit GHC a while back to work for a major rival, wanted to return. However, the entrepreneur could not figure it out — would rehiring an ex-employee be a sound business decision? Should he take a risk and give the former employee another chance? If he did, he could look after GHC business in India, and be free to work on his plans to start a new venture in Dubai.

But, his dilemma didn’t end there. Being the eldest son in his family, he realized that besides the aforementioned strategies, there was also the possibility of living and working with his joint family. His father was getting old and his younger brother had joined the family business; merging the two companies (his and his father’s) would allow both brothers to take care of the businesses and family between them. If that happened, he would no longer need his old frenemy. Even so, there was no doubt in his mind that relocating to Dubai would be a very lucrative move, especially as prospective clients in this region understood the language of green loud and clear. But, despite his excitement at the idea, he could not forget that there would still be all the usual (yet critical) business problems of low consumer awareness and the need to swiftly catch up to the existing competition. What other factors and options would he need to consider to keep his budding, eco-friendly company afloat and to successfully navigate the contemporary business world?


Teaching Note: 8B13C028 (11 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Green; talent management; millennial; innovation; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 13:
Venture Ability to Execute: Financial Management Considerations – Can We Execute the Management and Control of Money?

TESLA MOTORS: BURNING UP THE ROAD TO MARKET DOMINATION OR DOOM
Dante Pirouz, Karam Putros

Product Number: 9B13A050
Publication Date: 2/4/2014
Revision Date: 4/16/2014
Length: 10 pages

Ten years after its founding, California-based Tesla Motors is close to becoming one of the world’s premier luxury car manufacturers. Its innovative design — using carbon fibre and aluminum rather than steel to construct body and parts — and technology — lithium ion battery packs rather than gasoline for power and a simple powertrain to provide maximum acceleration — make its models treasured options for eco-friendly and tech-savvy consumers as well as wealthy professionals. Relying almost entirely on word-of-mouth promotion through social media, the company sells its cars through factory stores in upscale malls rather than through dealerships and has built service centres to provide free battery charging. However, just as it is expanding into Europe and Asia and is contemplating buying its own factory to secure its battery supply, three of its cars have burst into flames following collisions, although no one has been injured. In addition, analysts claim that the company has been covering up its lack of cash flow by using non-generally accepted accounting principles for reporting its revenue. The CEO knows that the company has tremendous potential but is struggling with public relations problems arising from the crashes and questions about its financial stability and return on investment to investors.

Teaching Note: 8B13A050 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Electric cars; premium; sales; public relations; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HEALTH NUT
Colleen Sharen, Vanessa M. Strike

Product Number: 9B08M053
Publication Date: 8/25/2008
Revision Date: 8/11/2009
Length: 13 pages

Late in the afternoon on January 20, 2006, one of the owners of The Health Nut hung up the phone. Her account manager had just called to tell her that the bank was not going to extend any further credit to her small retail natural health products (NHP) store located in Grand Bend, Ontario. She and her life and business partner had owned The Health Nut since May 2003. While they had successfully grown sales, the business was not generating enough cash to sustain itself and provide the partners with adequate compensation. As a result, the business relied heavily on borrowing from the bank. Now that the bank was no longer a source of financing, the owners had a major problem on their hands. What should they do now? Something was going to have to change. They had about four weeks left before the business ran out of cash. The students will learn: 1. The role of emotion in decision making. 2. The nature and importance of due diligence. 3. When to let go of the business. 4. The importance of having enough working capital. 5. The dangers of over reliance on debt. 6. The challenges of cash flow management.

Teaching Note: 8B08M53 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Decision Theory; Bankruptcy; Cash Flow; Organizational Behaviour; Human Resources Management; Opportunity Recognition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Venture Growth Management and Development – Can We Grow?

TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IMAX: LARGER THAN LIFE
Anil Nair

Product Number: 9B09M019
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 18 pages

IMAX was involved in several aspects of the large-format film business: production, distribution, theatre operations, system development and leasing. The case illustrates IMAX's use of its unique capabilities to pursue a focused differentiation strategy. IMAX was initially focused on large format films that were educational yet entertaining, and the theatres were located in institutions such as museums, aquariums and national parks. However, IMAX found that its growth and profitability were constrained by its niche strategy. In response, IMAX sought to grow by expanding into multiplexes. Additionally, IMAX expanded its film portfolio by converting Hollywood movies, such as Harry Potter and Superman, into the large film format. This shift in strategy was supported by the development of two technological capabilities - DMR for conversion of standard 35 mm film into large format, and DMX to convert standard multiplexes to IMAX systems. The shift in strategy was partially successful, but carried the risk of IMAX losing its unique reputation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Business Policy; Strategic Positioning; Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KASHIWA TUBING LTD.
David T.A. Wesley, Henry W. Lane

Product Number: 9B02M014
Publication Date: 7/22/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 8 pages

A student at a large Boston-area university would soon be completing a dual degree in Management Information Systems and Business Administration. She is the oldest child and only member of a Japanese family that spoke English and was learning to represent the family business, Kashiwa Tubing, with its international accounts. It was planned that she would eventually assume leadership of the company. During her studies she became a believer in the potential and reach of the Internet. She immediately set up a Web site for the company. Within six months, the Web site generated its first major sale, a $2.5 million order from Saudi Arabia. Recently, she had begun to negotiate a multi-million dollar deal with a Taiwanese firm. The company's Japanese headquarters recently forwarded an inquiry from Nigeria. The inquiry was from a member of the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, proposed a business transaction that would, if successful, represent the largest single Internet order in the history of Kashiwa Tubing. Believing in personally meeting with customers and building long lasting ties, her father suggests that she should meet with this customer, even if that meant traveling to Nigeria.

Teaching Note: 8B02M14 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Law; Third World; Internet; E-Commerce; Northeastern
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate


Chapter 15:
Venture International Growth Management – Can We Grow Internationally?

SHER-WOOD HOCKEY STICKS: GLOBAL SOURCING
Paul W. Beamish, Megan (Min) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12M003
Publication Date: 2/13/2012
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

In early 2011, the senior executives of the venerable Canadian hockey stick manufacturer Sher-Wood Hockey were considering whether to move the remainder of the company’s high-end composite hockey and goalie stick production to its suppliers in China. Sher-Wood had been losing market share as retail prices continued to fall. Would outsourcing the production of the iconic, Canadian-made hockey sticks to China help Sher-Wood to boost demand significantly? Was there any other choice?

Teaching Note: 8B12M003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Insourcing; Nearshoring; R&D Interface; Labour Costs; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FERRO INDUSTRIES — EXPORTING CHALLENGE IN A SMALL FIRM
Justin Paul, Parul Gupta, Shruti Gupta

Product Number: 9B11M115
Publication Date: 1/25/2012
Revision Date: 6/12/2013
Length: 18 pages

This case deals with an exporting challenge faced by Ferro Industries, a small enterprise within the steel industry in India. The company’s manufacturing facility was located in the National Capital Region of Delhi. Ferro’s main products were roll-forming machines, cut-to-length lines, and slitting lines; the company was one of only three firms in the Indian sub-continent catering to the market for such products. This case raises two basic questions in relation to Ferro’s role as an exporter. Firstly, at what stage should an importer have to pay an exporter? Secondly, should the exporter release consignment to the importer before receiving payment? The case illustrates the challenges of exporting and international entrepreneurship for a small firm, taking into account payment risk, product pricing, deal-making strategies, promotional strategy, and client-management strategies. It also addresses the complexities involved in the decision-making process while exporting, as well as outlining various conflict-resolution techniques for closing a deal effectively while considering the appropriateness of taking risks.

Teaching Note: 8B11M115 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Exports; Trade Finance; International Trade Logistics; Global Supply Chain Management; Saudi Arabia; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S - JAPAN
James M. Hagen

Product Number: 9A99A037
Publication Date: 4/13/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 17 pages

The CEO of Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. needed to give sales and profits a serious boost; despite the company's excellent brand equity, it was losing market share and struggling to make a profit. The company's product was on store shelves in all U.S. states, but efforts to enter foreign markets had only been haphazard with non-U.S. sales accounting for just three per cent of total sales. The CEO needed to focus serious attention on entering the world's second largest ice cream market, Japan. An objective of Ben & Jerry's was to use the excess manufacturing capacity it had in the U.S., and it found that exporting ice cream from Vermont to Japan was feasible from a logistics and cost perspective. The company identified two leading partnering options. One was to give a Japanese convenience store chain exclusive rights to the product for a limited time. The other was to give long-term rights for all sales of the product in Japan to a Japanese-American who would build the brand. For the company to enter Japan in time for the upcoming summer season, it would have to be through one of these two partnering arrangements.

Teaching Note: 8A99A37 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Alliances; Market Entry; International Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA