Ivey Publishing

Entrepreneurship

Hisrich, R.D.; Peters, M.P.; Shepherd, D.A.,9/e (United States, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2013)
Prepared By CaseMate Editor,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneurial Mind-Set

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: EXPAND LOCALLY OR INTERNATIONALLY?
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M098
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/27/2014
Length: 7 pages

This is the second case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M099 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. In this case, the entrepreneur realizes the importance of having a clear organizational structure with different departments and a clear chain of authority. As a result, she hires her daughter as the managing director to take on the responsibility of developing a mission, vision and explicit organizational structure. This restructuring allows the company to grow further, which leads the entrepreneur to consider her opportunities in the international market.


Teaching Note: 8B13M098 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; institutionalization; alliances; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ECOVATIVE DESIGN LLC: A BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS STARTUP
Chris Laszlo, Abdel Latif Ladki, Abraham Weiner

Product Number: 9B13M125
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 12/20/2013
Length: 8 pages

Ecovative Designs (Ecovative), a start-up company in upstate New York, uses an innovative process to combine agricultural waste and mycelium (mushroom “roots”) to grow forms for use in a wide variety of applications, especially a protective packaging material. Not only does this new product replace the need for the environmentally harmful alternative, extruded polystyrene, but the production process is less energy intensive. It exemplifies the cradle-to-cradle design indicative of a sustainably embedded product and attractive to companies looking to reduce their carbon footprint. In just a few years, Ecovative has expanded from a lab to a large facility funded partly through research grants and partly from contracts with two large corporations. In 2013, the partners are considering whether to sign a contract with Sealed Air, one of the largest distributors of packaging materials in the world, but the deal would mean relinquishing control over the only profitable segment of their company. They are considering alternative growth strategies to find the one that fits best with their goal: to have the largest impact on the planet while remaining profitable.

Teaching Note: 8B13M125 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sustainability; science, biomimicry; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



A NON-TRADITIONAL FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR (A)
W. Glenn Rowe, Yeh-Yun (Carol) Lin

Product Number: 9B11M016
Publication Date: 6/28/2011
Length: 14 pages

In 1985, the president and founder of New Deantronics (ND) launched her sales office in San Francisco, California, and then set up a factory in Taiwan in 1987. With no technical background or prior experience, the president used her system of management strategy and philosophy and built ND’s reputation as a trusted manufacturer and developer of medical devices. All of ND’s products were directly exported to large global health-care companies, including Philips Medical Systems, Johnson & Johnson, and Covidien. With the rapid increase in business, the need for expanding production capacity became increasingly urgent. Sitting in her office in early 2009, the president knew that she could no longer postpone her decision to relocate. Several options were presented to her, and the factors that influenced her decision included considerations about the supply of quality human resources, geographical convenience, the willingness of her current employees to relocate, affordability, and the possibility for future expansion. The president pondered what would be the best bet.

Teaching Note: 8B11M016 (13 pages)
Issues: Leadership; Small and Medium Enterprises, Female Entrepreneur; Growth Plan; Taiwan; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Corporate Entrepreneurship

LUMINAR: LEVERAGING BIG DATA USING CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Simon Parker, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B14M063
Publication Date: 5/22/2015
Revision Date: 5/22/2015
Length: 13 pages

Entravision, a leading Spanish-language broadcasting company in the United States that targets Hispanic Americans, has just set up a digital analytics division called Luminar, which uses Big Data to focus a company’s marketing to a particular set of consumers. The idea of launching Luminar has been mooted by an outsider who is a friend and protegé of the company’s founding chairman. As the incumbent president of the new division, he is grappling with some major issues. How should he secure the buy-in of line and staff managers at Entravision? How should he find a structural fit between Entravision and Luminar? How should he leverage business opportunities beyond digital analytics? What kind of entry barriers can he build so that Luminar retains its first mover advantage?

Teaching Note: 8B14M063 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Big data; digital analytics; corporate venturing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DRIVING INNOVATION AT PAR SPRINGER-MILLER (A)
Susan Fleming, Alyssa W. Goldman

Product Number: 9B14C022
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 12 pages

In fall 2009, the new president and chief executive officer of PAR Springer-Miller Systems, based in Stowe, Vermont, is tasked with leading the most significant innovation effort the company has undertaken since its founding in 1984. The company is a leading provider of property management, point-of-sale and spa management systems for high-end hotels, resorts, spas and casinos worldwide, but its legacy products are based on outdated technology and subject to increasing customer complaints; at the same time, the global recession has negatively affected the high-end market. In his first year, the new president has made significant progress in restructuring the organization and shifting its culture to a more entrepreneurial one. He is ready to begin the development of an entirely new product but has to decide on strategy, in particular deciding on the best market on which to focus the new software product and then mapping out a plan to execute its development and launch. How can he elicit a radical innovation from a team of management and employees so culturally rooted in their past accomplishments and legacy products? Should he look for a technology partner and develop the new product in a different location? Can the legacy products be kept up and running long enough for the new product to generate sufficient sales that they can be retired? These are the issues that must be addressed or the company may well face a dire future. See B Case 9B14C023.

Teaching Note: 8B14C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Innovation; technology; hospitality; leading culture change; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SOFAME TECHNOLOGIES INC.: SPARKING GROWTH IN A MATURE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B09M070
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 17 pages

The president, chief executive officer (CEO) and director of Sofame Technologies Inc. (Sofame) is trying to boost sales at his firm. Sofame is trying to figure out why, with proven environmentally friendly technology, it is unable to achieve rapid rates of growth. The purpose of the case is to exhibit the issues and challenges in selling new technology and to highlight key elements of entrepreneurship, such as sales strategy and managing the sales cycle.

Teaching Note: 8B09M70 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sales Management; Market Segmentation; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Entrepreneurial Strategy: Generating and Exploiting New Entries

GENERAL MILLS CANADA: BUILDING A CULTURE OF INNOVATION (A)
J. Robert Mitchell, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B14M015
Publication Date: 1/24/2014
Revision Date: 5/1/2015
Length: 6 pages

The president of General Mills Canada wants to build a culture of innovation in his firm. Prior to a senior management meeting in 2010 to review the company’s plans for 2011 and beyond, he met with the vice-president of Human Resources and asked him to provide feedback and suggestions about what the organization could do to change its corporate culture. A conservative organization with a collegial atmosphere where consensus and support were essential to moving projects ahead, General Mills Canada had developed an analysis-based, detail-oriented culture that was not necessarily conducive to innovation. This case provides an opportunity to engage in a discussion about the uncertainty faced by senior management in terms of specifically how to build a culture of innovation. While the senior leaders know they want to build a culture of innovation, the real question is how they should go about doing this. Also available is supplement case 9B14M016.

Teaching Note: 8B14M015 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Culture; innovation; change management; marketing; human resources; Canada
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



EMBRACE (A): OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
Mridula Anand, Anand Nandkumar, Charles Dhanaraj

Product Number: 9B13M004
Publication Date: 4/16/2013
Revision Date: 4/16/2013
Length: 7 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Award, 2013 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition.The Embrace case series provides an engaging context to understand social innovation, by taking students through a sequence of critical decisions from opportunity analysis and market feasibility study to formulating a competitive strategy and developing business models for growth. The focus of the case is on an innovative idea to solve the problem of a high number of fatalities in premature births in rural India, and the potential for an affordable product.

The case is structured as a four-part series:
  • Part A: Opportunity Identification. The setting is an MBA classroom where five teams have been given five ideas and the students are asked to match each idea to each team. The focus is on how to identify and evaluate an appropriate opportunity given a unique entrepreneurial team, its composition, and its prior experience. Often, entrepreneurs discount the critical role that team-task fit plays in subsequent success.
  • Part B: Market Feasibility Analysis (9B13M005). The social problem associated with neonatal care in rural India is presented and the economics of providing reasonable care for premature babies is discussed. Is it possible to find an affordable and profitable price point, and make the project sustainable?
  • Part C: Competitive Strategy (9B13M006). The students are taken through an external analysis of the potential competition. This calls for a close analysis of what the competitive advantage of the venture is and whether it is sustainable. It forces the students to consider other available neonatal care options in the market, as well as to think about the IP issues they could face.
  • Part D: Building the Business Model (9B13M007). The team must decide between manufacturing the product in-house or outsourcing to vendors. Also, issues of distribution and sales require consideration.


Teaching Note: 8B13M004 (16 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Emerging markets; affordable innovation; business plan; social entrepreneurship; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MUSICJUICE.NET: THE CHALLENGES OF STARTING UP A NEW INTERNET VENTURE
Simon Parker, Rocky Liu

Product Number: 9B10A013
Publication Date: 5/21/2010
Length: 6 pages

MusicJuice.net is a new website designed to bring together musicians and a fan-base in order to raise finance for new bands. It enables musicians to bypass the large established record companies and their high royalty takes, while giving fans direct contact and involvement with exciting new acts. It is an example of a venture idea transported from one country (the Netherlands) and applied in a new and larger geographical setting (North America). The case illustrates the novel crowd-sourcing business model, which is designed to raise finance from customers rather than the entrepreneur. Most importantly, the case illustrates the challenges of starting new Internet ventures and the early stage founding issues that are involved. After a long and costly delay in establishing their website, the two founders of MusicJuice.net have struggled to generate any interest or even awareness amongst online musicians and fans, despite only limited competition from other players in the marketplace - a situation, which is already beginning to change. Students are asked what the entrepreneurs behind MusicJuice.net can do to raise awareness of their service and to generate enough customers to survive.

Teaching Note: 8B10A13 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Internet; Competition; Dominant Designs; New Venture Challenges; Startups
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Creativity and the Business Idea

GROWING TENTREE: SOCIAL ENTERPRISE, SOCIAL MEDIA AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Peter W. Moroz, Simon Parker, Edward Gamble

Product Number: 9B14M030
Publication Date: 3/24/2014
Revision Date: 4/2/2014
Length: 12 pages

Two friends have launched tentree (TT), a Canadian entrepreneurial venture that sells an environmentally sustainable and trendy brand of apparel. For every product sold, TT plants 10 trees in locations around the world. Although TT is still in its infancy, it is already experiencing huge growth. The entrepreneurial founders now face several challenges: how to keep pace with the growing demand; how to plant as many trees as they can while staying true to their sustainable, environmental philosophy; how to break into the U.S. and other markets; and where to source their product.

Teaching Note: 8B14M030 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Social enterprise; media; sustainability; growth; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WHOLE FOODS MARKET INC.: EXPANSION IN CANADA
Cara C. Maurer, Valentina Bardorf

Product Number: 9B13M127
Length: 18 pages

In December 2012, the senior management team of Whole Foods Markets, Inc. was contemplating the company’s options for international expansion. Headquartered in Austin, Texas, the company was a natural and organic foods supermarket that was known as, and trademarked as “America’s Healthiest Grocery Store.” Since 1977, the company had grown from a single small store to a multinational chain with a presence in Canada and the United Kingdom. Its goal was to achieve a total of 1,000 stores by 2022 across all markets. Now, counting on the demand for organic products from the growing demographic of well-educated and wealthy professionals concerned about obesity and its related health issues, senior managers were wondering if it was time to expand further into Canada and, if yes, into which provinces. With unions being a clear factor in a Quebec expansion, would it be possible to enter the province without risking cultural inconsistency? Would its current U.S. team facilitate the expansion, or should a Canadian management team be developed? These issues must be resolved before the company can move forward.

Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Organic food industry; international expansion; growth strategy; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE MARK NEWS
Simon Parker, Mitchell Praw

Product Number: 9B10M056
Publication Date: 8/17/2010
Length: 6 pages

The founder of a new online news site, The Mark, has launched his venture at a time of unprecedented turmoil in the newspaper industry. While he believes that his advertizing-based business model is the future face of the industry, he is yet to attract much of a readership. The founder must now decide what strategies are needed to establish his business in the competitive Canadian news landscape.

Teaching Note: 8B10M056 (4 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: New Entrant; Brand Positioning; Models; New Venture Challenges
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ENTREPRENEURS AT TWITTER: BUILDING A BRAND, A SOCIAL TOOL OR A TECH POWERHOUSE?
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10M028
Publication Date: 3/22/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 10 pages

Twitter has become an incredibly popular micro-blogging service since its launch in 2006. Its founders have ambitious plans for the service, and are backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital funding, which values the company at $3.7 billion in 2011. Twitter seems to attract a diverse audience of users, such as political organizers looking to disseminate information to their followers; businesses looking to reach out, in real time, to potential customers; and social users. The company charges consumers nothing for its service. By 2011, competitors have emerged, some of whom are financially strong. It remains unclear - at least to some observers - whether the company will ever make money from its service.

Teaching Note: 8B10M28 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Social Networking Media; Strategic Positioning; New Venture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FARMING PHARMACEUTICALS: VENTRIA BIOSCIENCE AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER PLANT-MADE MEDICINES
Anne T. Lawrence

Product Number: 9B09M011
Publication Date: 2/19/2009
Length: 11 pages

How can a biotechnology start-up navigate a complex regulatory and stakeholder terrain to bring to market an innovative product with potentially significant public health benefits? This case focuses on the challenges facing Ventria Bioscience, a small biotechnology firm based in California. The company had developed an innovative technology for "growing" medical proteins useful in the treatment of childhood diarrhea in genetically modified rice. The company's efforts to obtain regulatory approval in California to commercialize its invention met with a firestorm of opposition from a wide range of stakeholders, including environmentalists, food safety activists, consumer advocates and rice farmers. The case presents the hurdles faced by Ventria as it has attempted to commercialize its invention in the context of the broader debate over the ethics of plant-based medicines. This case is suitable for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate course in entrepreneurship, small business, the management of technology or biotechnology. In such a course, it is best positioned in a discussion of the regulatory environment and stakeholder relations. Alternatively, the case may be used in a segment on technology or stakeholder relationships in a course in business and society.

Teaching Note: 8B09M11 (10 pages)
Issues: Genetically Modified Crops; Stakeholders; Biotechnology; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Identifying and Analyzing Domestic and International Opportunities

AZZA FAHMY JEWELLERY: EXPAND LOCALLY OR INTERNATIONALLY?
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Mariam Mohamed Sherin, Mariam Ali Mobarak, Amal Mohsen Fahmy, Dina Sameh Labib

Product Number: 9B13M098
Publication Date: 3/31/2014
Revision Date: 3/27/2014
Length: 7 pages

This is the second case in the Azza Fahmy series. This case and the three others in this series (9B13M097, 9B13M099 and 9B14M023) can be used together or on a standalone basis.

This case series features a female Egyptian entrepreneur who faces the challenge of developing her self-titled jewellery brand. In this case, the entrepreneur realizes the importance of having a clear organizational structure with different departments and a clear chain of authority. As a result, she hires her daughter as the managing director to take on the responsibility of developing a mission, vision and explicit organizational structure. This restructuring allows the company to grow further, which leads the entrepreneur to consider her opportunities in the international market.


Teaching Note: 8B13M098 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Internationalization; institutionalization; alliances; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LUMISMART (A): ANSWERING THE CALL FOR NEGAWATTS
Stewart Thornhill, Ellen M. Brown

Product Number: 9B11M031
Publication Date: 5/10/2011
Length: 16 pages

The president and chief executive officer (CEO) of an established Toronto-based boutique consulting firm is in the process of expanding his company’s core competency from the largely mature tech sector to the new and rapidly growing field of clean technology. During this time, the CEO is introduced to an inventor and an entrepreneur who have developed a waveform technology that they claim will instantaneously reduce electricity consumption by 30 per cent or more, when applied to a fluorescent lighting ballast. The two of them present the CEO and his partners with a rough prototype, a handful of patents on the verge of expiring, and mere verbal confirmation that the technology can be proven and certified. The CEO is intrigued by the potential of this radical new technology and must decide whether he and his firm will back the partners.

Teaching Note: 8B11M031 (5 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: New Product Development; Managing Growth; Green Energy; Fundraising; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Intellectual Property
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S - JAPAN
James M. Hagen

Product Number: 9A99A037
Publication Date: 4/13/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 17 pages

The CEO of Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. needed to give sales and profits a serious boost; despite the company's excellent brand equity, it was losing market share and struggling to make a profit. The company's product was on store shelves in all U.S. states, but efforts to enter foreign markets had only been haphazard with non-U.S. sales accounting for just three per cent of total sales. The CEO needed to focus serious attention on entering the world's second largest ice cream market, Japan. An objective of Ben & Jerry's was to use the excess manufacturing capacity it had in the U.S., and it found that exporting ice cream from Vermont to Japan was feasible from a logistics and cost perspective. The company identified two leading partnering options. One was to give a Japanese convenience store chain exclusive rights to the product for a limited time. The other was to give long-term rights for all sales of the product in Japan to a Japanese-American who would build the brand. For the company to enter Japan in time for the upcoming summer season, it would have to be through one of these two partnering arrangements.

Teaching Note: 8A99A37 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Alliances; Market Entry; International Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Protecting the Idea and Other Legal Issues for the Entrepreneur

SAWSTOP (A)
Stewart Thornhill, Sylvia Squair

Product Number: 9B12M064
Publication Date: 9/7/2012
Revision Date: 9/7/2012
Length: 9 pages

A patent lawyer and amateur woodworker with a doctorate in physics has invented a new technology to prevent table saw injuries - specifically, amputations. He has no desire to manufacture table saws, and instead protects his technology with patents and then seeks licensing arrangements with incumbent saw producers. In 2002, after two years of attempting to engage manufacturers, he accepts that they are unwilling to license his invention and he must decide whether to return to his law practice or launch a company to produce saws himself. He and his partners have no knowledge or experience with regard to making saws or starting a business. The (B) case advances the narrative to 2012.

Teaching Note: 8B12M064 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Innovation; Technology Commercialization; Licensing; Intellectual Property; Competition; Safety; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YOGURT MAMAS: PROBIOTICS IN TANZANIA
Oana Branzei, David J. Sharp, Jessica Kelly, Osama Siddiqui

Product Number: 9B09M051
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 22 pages

This case illustrates a grassroots enterprise's path to self-sufficiency in a subsistence market context. It explores the gradual evolution of a business model with strong social mandates (pro-health, pro-women) and asks which growth options best marry profitability and positive social change. The Mwanza, Tanzania-based Yogurt Mamas emerge as entrepreneurial role models in their communities, with funds from Western donors and an exciting new technology.

The Yogurt Mamas produce and locally distribute a probiotic yogurt to their small community; they are interconnected in a local value chain and benefit from annual inflows of expertise from Western partners, including free access to patented technology and free culturing of probiotic bacteria in a local lab. The case asks students to critically analyze the hurdles to profitability and suggest working solutions to scale up the venture. Challenges include funding sufficiency, clarity of roles and responsibilities, patent restrictions, kitchen ownership, food safety and quality concerns, and liability concerns. Options include technology/model licensing and franchising, organic growth and expansion to gain higher margins and greater control over the milk supply, and extending their distribution reach. If the Yogurt Mamas cannot find an attractive and feasible growth option, the partners will have to contemplate venture termination once the grant funding comes to an end, or consider alternative exit options.


Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Health Care Services, Manufacturing
Issues: Sustainable Development; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LICENSING OF APOEP1.B PEPTIDE TECHNOLOGY
James E. Hatch, Susanne Acklin

Product Number: 9B05N016
Publication Date: 9/1/2005
Revision Date: 6/16/2010
Length: 15 pages

Representatives of the technology transfer office are preparing a commercialization strategy of a new peptide. The function of the technology transfer office at the University of Western Ontario is to prospect for suitable technologies for commercialization, to manage the patent protection for such inventions, and to identify ways to develop such inventions. Two licensing opportunities are being considered, both of which entail creation of a startup company. The representatives must evaluate options to determine which offers the best potential for the commercialization of the invention for everyone involved.

Teaching Note: 8B05N16 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Entrepreneurial Finance; Licensing; Technology; Patents
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TIME WARNER INC. AND THE ORC PATENTS
Paul W. Beamish, John Adamson

Product Number: 9B01M059
Publication Date: 1/29/2002
Revision Date: 8/28/2009
Length: 16 pages

Optical Recording Corporation (ORC) secured the rights to a technology known as digital optical audio recording. During the time it took to negotiate the final transfer of the technology ownership, it was rumored that some major electronics manufacturers were developing compact disc (CD) players that recorded digital optical audio signals. A patent lawyer advised ORC that the compact disc players and compact discs recently released by these companies might be infringing the claims of ORC's newly acquired patents. Based on this information, the company proceeded to successfully negotiate licensing agreements with the two largest CD manufacturers, Sony of Japan, and Philips of the Netherlands The third largest manufacturer, WEA Manufacturing, a subsidiary of Time Warner Inc., maintained a position of non-infringement and invalid patents. With the U.S. patent expiry date looming, ORC decided to sue Time Warner for patent infringement. When the defense counsel presented testimony that questioned the integrity of the licensing agreement, ORC's president realized that the entire licensing program was in jeopardy and must decide whether he should accept a settlement or proceed with the lawsuit.

Teaching Note: 8B01M59 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Business Law; Intellectual Capital; Licensing; Patents
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
The Business Plan: Creating and Starting the Venture

SOCIAL ENTERPRISE FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES: ONTARIO, CANADA
Oana Branzei, Marlene J. Le Ber, Patrick Shulist

Product Number: 9B14M046
Publication Date: 5/7/2014
Revision Date: 5/7/2014
Length: 9 pages

In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, the not-for-profit sector in Ontario was forced to shift from a provider of social needs to a creator of social opportunities for communities doubly hit by rising unemployment and falling social supports. The Ontario Trillium Foundation moved to fund innovative, collaborative programs involving not-for-profit organizations, businesses and governments in creating viable social enterprises. Ottawa, London and Sarnia were three communities faced with different, but still difficult economic times, and each had responded to the crisis by proposing alternative models of social transition. In 2013, representatives from the not-for-profit sector in these cities joined with the Richard Ivey School of Business to present a proposal that promised they would work collaboratively, learn from each other, document the entire process and develop tools to prepare and guide many others. Would the Trillium Foundation support such a creative and ambitious project? See supplemental cases 9B14M046B.

Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Financial crisis; poverty; social innovation; collaboration; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BOOND: ENABLING ACCESS TO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR RURAL INDIA
Sandeep Goyal, Amit Kapoor, Rajen Gupta

Product Number: 9B14M048
Publication Date: 5/6/2014
Revision Date: 5/6/2014
Length: 16 pages

More than one-third of India remained without electricity or received less than eight hours of electricity per day. To fight energy poverty, Boond was in the business of providing lighting solutions to the low-income population in rural India. By 2013, it had created a network of four hubs (energy centres) and impacted the lives of more than 50,000 people across two states in India through its solar energy systems. It had forged non-traditional partnerships with regional rural banks and community-based organizations and its plan was to shift from the inception phase to the growth phase in 2013–2014. The aim was to set up 30 hubs covering more than 50 districts in the states of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh by 2015. This required evaluating the transformational challenges and creating an action plan to address them without losing sight of the social mission. Key obstacles included attracting social investors, extending its reach, and finding and retaining skilled employees willing to operate in small towns and villages.

Teaching Note: 8B14M048 (16 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Social entrepreneurship; social enterprise; business model; market building strategy; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



HELIO POLYMER ENTERPRISES
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Juma Wagoki, Clarke Eaton, Wesley Hunt, Matthew Smart

Product Number: 9B14D002
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 7 pages

Helio Polymer Enterprises, located in Nakuru, Kenya, is a company that manufactures synthetic polymer gunny bags used in the transportation and handling of animal feed. The owner wants to expand her business operations so she can serve more clients. She has three options: to add a night shift, buy a new printing machine or start producing laminate gunny bags for other markets. Before she makes the decision, she must understand her current operational capacity and determine what aspects of customer service she believes are important for the long-term success of her company.

Teaching Note: 8B14D002 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Capacity; bottleneck; expansion; emerging markets; Kenya
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
The Marketing Plan

JILL'S TABLE: DIGITIZING A RETAIL LEGACY
Raymond Pirouz, Janice Zolf

Product Number: 9B14A002
Publication Date: 3/20/2014
Revision Date: 3/20/2014
Length: 12 pages

The founder of a bricks-and-mortar kitchen accessories retail store, Jill's Table, is considering the expansion of her existing information-based website to an e-commerce presence, but wonders whether the factors that have led to her current success can be replicated in the virtual world. Students are asked to make decisions related to translating brand values from the real world to the virtual world; overcoming technological hurdles; addressing design issues in terms of the user experience; developing a content marketing and digital promotions strategy, including social media and email marketing; determining a pricing strategy; planning for fulfillment and returns; handling customer service and measuring performance.

Teaching Note: 8B14A002 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Online retailing; etailing; ecommerce; Internet marketing; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SACD
Simon Parker

Product Number: 9B11M027
Publication Date: 4/8/2011
Length: 6 pages

Giel Bessels is one of the three founders of a Dutch classical music record label called PentaTone Music BV, which releases all of its recordings on a high-resolution audio format called Super Audio Compact Disc (SACD). Now a decade old, PentaTone has survived the commercial failure of SACD’s launch in 1999 and the adverse market characterized by a continually shrinking demand for classical music recordings. However, the founders wish to build their company further and know that they must stimulate demand for their products so that they can finance further recordings. Bessels and his team recognize the unique difficulties of educating consumers about the superior quality of high-resolution, surround-sound classical music on SACD, which needs to be heard to be fully appreciated. The case invites students to think creatively about alternative ways of growing and protecting PentaTone’s business, including novel uses of social media and possible expansion into China. The case also illustrates a relatively unusual motive for new venture creation — here, the business is seen as an asset to be built up to provide a future capital gain through a trade sale rather than as a vehicle to generate a stream of current and ongoing dividends (incomes).

Teaching Note: 8B11M027 (5 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Asset Generation versus Income Flow; Social Media; Classical Music Industry; the Netherlands; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IMAX: LARGER THAN LIFE
Anil Nair

Product Number: 9B09M019
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 18 pages

IMAX was involved in several aspects of the large-format film business: production, distribution, theatre operations, system development and leasing. The case illustrates IMAX's use of its unique capabilities to pursue a focused differentiation strategy. IMAX was initially focused on large format films that were educational yet entertaining, and the theatres were located in institutions such as museums, aquariums and national parks. However, IMAX found that its growth and profitability were constrained by its niche strategy. In response, IMAX sought to grow by expanding into multiplexes. Additionally, IMAX expanded its film portfolio by converting Hollywood movies, such as Harry Potter and Superman, into the large film format. This shift in strategy was supported by the development of two technological capabilities - DMR for conversion of standard 35 mm film into large format, and DMX to convert standard multiplexes to IMAX systems. The shift in strategy was partially successful, but carried the risk of IMAX losing its unique reputation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Business Policy; Strategic Positioning; Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
The Organizational Plan

PARKIN LABORATORIES: SALES FORCE EFFECTIVENESS
Sandeep Puri

Product Number: 9B14A015
Publication Date: 5/23/2014
Revision Date: 5/21/2014
Length: 10 pages

The profits of a generic-pharmaceutical company, Parkin Laboratories, are dwindling as a result of recent legislation implemented by the Indian government. To compensate for the loss in value, the company needs to increase its sales volumes. The general manager of sales is exploring the idea of investing in a program of sales force effectiveness to increase the efficacy of the sales team.

Teaching Note: 8B14A015 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sales force effectiveness; sales management; sales performance; pharmaceutical selling; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



THE INDIAN GREENPRENEUR: MANAGEMENT OF FRENEMY TALENT AND COOPETITION
Jyotsna Bhatnagar, Neha Paliwal Sharma, Nakul Gupta

Product Number: 9B13C028
Publication Date: 9/11/2013
Revision Date: 5/15/2014
Length: 8 pages

During the 2013 Indian festival of colours, a young green entrepreneur and owner of Green Horizon Consulting (GHC) faced a plethora of business growth challenges. His former employee, who had quit GHC a while back to work for a major rival, wanted to return. However, the entrepreneur could not figure it out — would rehiring an ex-employee be a sound business decision? Should he take a risk and give the former employee another chance? If he did, he could look after GHC business in India, and be free to work on his plans to start a new venture in Dubai.

But, his dilemma didn’t end there. Being the eldest son in his family, he realized that besides the aforementioned strategies, there was also the possibility of living and working with his joint family. His father was getting old and his younger brother had joined the family business; merging the two companies (his and his father’s) would allow both brothers to take care of the businesses and family between them. If that happened, he would no longer need his old frenemy. Even so, there was no doubt in his mind that relocating to Dubai would be a very lucrative move, especially as prospective clients in this region understood the language of green loud and clear. But, despite his excitement at the idea, he could not forget that there would still be all the usual (yet critical) business problems of low consumer awareness and the need to swiftly catch up to the existing competition. What other factors and options would he need to consider to keep his budding, eco-friendly company afloat and to successfully navigate the contemporary business world?


Teaching Note: 8B13C028 (11 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Green; talent management; millennial; innovation; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CALLAWAY GOLF CANADA: THE MOBILE PERFORMANCE TEAM
John S. Haywood-Farmer, Brett Jackman

Product Number: 9B08D005
Publication Date: 12/9/2008
Revision Date: 4/17/2009
Length: 17 pages

On January 2006, the director of performance management for Callaway Golf Canada (Callaway Canada) was in his Toronto office preparing for his upcoming meeting with Callaway Canada's managing director. The managing director had asked the director of performance management to assess the results of the mobile performance team (MPT) and to design a plan for the 2008 golf season that would ensure that Callaway Canada would stay one step ahead of its competitors, who, the director of performance management believed, were preparing to increase their focus and resources on service.

Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Defense Strategies; Service Operations; Sports; Customer Service
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SELKIRK GROUP IN ASIA
Paul W. Beamish, Lambros Karavis

Product Number: 9A99M003
Publication Date: 2/20/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 16 pages

A family-owned brick manufacturer has built an export business to Japan and other Asian markets from zero to 10 per cent of its volume in seven years. The case examines the company's export strategy and organization in light of the recent Asian economic crisis and the reasons for their competitive success both in Australia and Asia. The managing director is raising the question of whether it is time to change their regional export strategy and organizational structure.

Teaching Note: 8A99M03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Structure; International Marketing; International Business; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
The Financial Plan

SCUBY'S ENTERPRISES: STARTING A BUSINESS IN GHANA
Francis Ayensu, Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Julianna Faircloth, Helen Fisher, David MacNicol

Product Number: 9B14M041
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 5 pages

In October 2011, a young entrepreneur in Ghana faced a critical moment. Given his degree in marketing from the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration and his past work experience running a retail clothing store, he was confident he could branch out and start his own photocopying service in his hometown of Koforidua, where there was a distinct undersupply of photocopying services. The proposed store would be located near All Nations University, whose students and faculty would provide a stable demand for his offerings. Now he must perform a breakeven analysis and return on investment calculation to assess whether he should go forward with the venture.

Teaching Note: 8B14M041 (8 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Breakeven analysis; return on investment; new venture; emerging markets; Ghana
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SWEET LEAF BATH CO.
Melissa Jean

Product Number: 9B13A044
Publication Date: 2/4/2014
Revision Date: 1/27/2014
Length: 15 pages

Sweet Leaf Bath Co. is a small, family-operated bath and body products company specializing in fairtrade, environmentally conscious products. The company progressed from initially selling its high-quality, unique products at craft shows and exhibitions to limited sales through local retailers. Through these sales channels, Sweet Leaf’s founding partners learned more about the bath and body industry and the international issues surrounding the sourcing of many raw ingredients used in their products. However, after a year of minimal sales growth, the partners realized that they needed to develop and implement a new marketing strategy that would enable them to grow the business. Out of the many options available to expand the company’s distribution plans and promotional efforts, its owners must select those opportunities that will offer maximum benefits on a limited budget.

Teaching Note: 8B13A044 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Planning; channels; breakeven analysis; fairtrade; Canada
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



THE KINKAJOU BOTTLE CUTTER
Ron Mulholland

Product Number: 9B13A034
Publication Date: 11/14/2013
Revision Date: 11/7/2013
Length: 10 pages

The inventor of the Kinkajou, a portable glass bottle cutter, has successfully completed a crowd-sourced financing campaign. His funding goal of $75,000 was considered to be quite ambitious and the timeframe in which he aimed to secure the funding was only 30 days. He managed the campaign impressively and exceeded his goal on the last day of the campaign. At this point in his business development, this entrepreneur has secured an offshore manufacturer, all backers have received their products and he has resolved a number of technical and operational problems. With so many challenges behind him, he now faces questions of future distribution through multiple wholesalers and is considering the opportunity of joining with a major international retailer.

Teaching Note: 8B13A034 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: New product; start-up; crowd-source financing; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JA INTERCARE INC.
James E. Hatch, Edward Chow

Product Number: 9B11N013
Publication Date: 10/28/2011
Length: 20 pages

The president and founder of the Taiwanese firm Shacom.com plans to set up an insurance scheme for low-income earners. A financial model for the operation has been created and students must assess the viability of the business, its adherence to financial regulations, and the risks that it entails.

Teaching Note: 8B11N013 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Insurance; Financial Model; Financial Regulations; Taiwan; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Sources of Capital

LAUNCHING A BUSINESS ACCELERATOR: VENVELO
Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B14M001
Publication Date: 3/14/2014
Revision Date: 3/13/2014
Length: 7 pages

An early stage investment firm is ready to launch after receiving funding from its first investor. With $400,000 in capital and twice that amount forthcoming, venVelo needs a process so it can be exposed to those seeking funding, evaluate the opportunities, make investments and mentor its portfolio clients. The challenge for venVelo’s management team is to apply the same principles in managing venVelo that it looked for in other companies seeking investment: don’t focus on being perfect; focus on getting better every day.

Teaching Note: 8B14M001 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Venture capital; angel investing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CROWDFUNDING AT THE BROOKLYN WAREHOUSE
Nicola Young, Karen Lightstone

Product Number: 9B13B020
Publication Date: 10/4/2013
Revision Date: 10/3/2013
Length: 8 pages

The Brooklyn Warehouse, a popular restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, is cramped for space because of its popularity within its neighbourhood and as a tourist destination in the city. The restaurant is a private company with two shareholders, one of whom is not involved in operations. Because of the economic downturn, the risky nature of the business and the fact that it has been open only four years, the owners are having trouble securing financing for their expansion plans from their bank and other conventional lenders. However, while negotiating a renewal of their lease in late 2011, their landlord offered to pay for half the cost of building a patio to increase the size of the restaurant. To raise the other half, the owners turn to crowdfunding as a method of raising capital through social media by tapping into their community of friends, family and loyal customers. In return for their donation, which may vary from $100 to $2,500, sponsors are offered various packages, including free meals, a company T-shirt and their name listed on a wall of honour. However, little is known about the appropriate accounting or tax treatment for money raised in this manner. The owners had heard horror stories about businesses that used innovative ideas to raise funds only to have fines and penalties levied by government agencies for income tax and sales tax or even by the Securities Commission for improper accounting. The owners turn to their accountant for advice.

Teaching Note: 8B13B020 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Crowdfunding; innovative financing; Canada
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



DEVIUM'S DASH: CROWDFUNDING A VENTURE ON KICKSTARTER
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B12M097
Publication Date: 10/29/2012
Revision Date: 11/27/2012
Length: 11 pages

A hybrid entrepreneur working at a full-time job has come up with the idea for his first product, a smartphone car stereo. He has invested $10,000 of his own money plus $3,000 from an early investor to develop his prototype. He needs to put together a viable commercialization plan and is considering crowdfunding as a viable funding source. He also needs to decide whether to distribute his product through direct sales or a traditional retail model.

Teaching Note: 8B12M097 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Crowdfunding; Finance; Innovation; Virtual Product Development; Supply Chain, United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRAIRIE VENTURES LIMITED
James E. Hatch, Zhou Zhang

Product Number: 9B09N025
Publication Date: 10/30/2009
Length: 16 pages

The investment manager at Prairie Ventures Limited, a Saskatchewan based venture capital firm, is examining the merits of financing a management buyout of Crestline Coach, a manufacturer of ambulances and distributor of buses. Students must design a term sheet and create an appropriate financing package. Students are provided with an Excel model to assist in their analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B09N25 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Venture Capital; Management Buyout; Valuation; Hill
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Informal Risk Capital, Venture Capital, and Going Public

SHER-WOOD HOCKEY STICKS: GLOBAL SOURCING
Paul W. Beamish, Megan (Min) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12M003
Publication Date: 2/13/2012
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

In early 2011, the senior executives of the venerable Canadian hockey stick manufacturer Sher-Wood Hockey were considering whether to move the remainder of the company’s high-end composite hockey and goalie stick production to its suppliers in China. Sher-Wood had been losing market share as retail prices continued to fall. Would outsourcing the production of the iconic, Canadian-made hockey sticks to China help Sher-Wood to boost demand significantly? Was there any other choice?

Teaching Note: 8B12M003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Insourcing; Nearshoring; R&D Interface; Labour Costs; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRIVATE EQUITY AT WORK: PURCHASING CAKE MASTERS
Craig Dunbar, Ken Mark, Michael Comisarow

Product Number: 9B06N007
Publication Date: 6/21/2006
Revision Date: 9/23/2008
Length: 13 pages

An entrepreneur must decide if he should bid to acquire a commercial bakery, Cake Masters, given his objectives in his search and his investors' expected returns of 20-30 per cent. If he bids, he must decide how much to bid and in what form of consideration. Students are introduced to valuation methodologies and will evaluate an acquisition or opportunity, understand the process of acquiring a small company, learn how preceding transactions are considered and learn about discounted cash flow analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B06N07 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Entrepreneurial Finance; Valuation; Financial Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MEDIAGRIF INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: THE IPO DECISION
James E. Hatch, Louis Gagnon

Product Number: 9B01N007
Publication Date: 1/22/2002
Revision Date: 1/5/2010
Length: 20 pages

Mediagrif Interactive Technologies operates vertical business-to-business e-commerce marketplaces. The chief executive officer must decide whether to go forward with a previously delayed initial public offering. He must consider the effect of changing market conditions and how to value the company in order to determine the price range that would be used.

Teaching Note: 8B01N07 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Initial Public Offerings; Valuation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Strategies for Growth and Managing the Implication of Growth

CHABROS INTERNATIONAL GROUP: A WORLD OF WOOD
Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND PRESERVE COMPANY: TURNAROUND
Paul W. Beamish, Nathaniel Lupton

Product Number: 9B08M049
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 18 pages

In April 2008, Bruce MacNaughton, president of Prince Edward Island Preserve Co. Ltd. (P.E.I. Preserves), was focused on turnaround. The company he had founded in 1985 had gone into receivership in May 2007. Although this had resulted in losses for various mortgage holders and unsecured creditors, MacNaughton had been able to buy back his New Glasgow shop/cafe, the adjacent garden property and inventory, and restart the business. He now needed a viable product-market strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B08M49 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing, Retail Trade
Issues: Bankruptcy; Product Diversification; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KASHIWA TUBING LTD.
David T.A. Wesley, Henry W. Lane

Product Number: 9B02M014
Publication Date: 7/22/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 8 pages

A student at a large Boston-area university would soon be completing a dual degree in Management Information Systems and Business Administration. She is the oldest child and only member of a Japanese family that spoke English and was learning to represent the family business, Kashiwa Tubing, with its international accounts. It was planned that she would eventually assume leadership of the company. During her studies she became a believer in the potential and reach of the Internet. She immediately set up a Web site for the company. Within six months, the Web site generated its first major sale, a $2.5 million order from Saudi Arabia. Recently, she had begun to negotiate a multi-million dollar deal with a Taiwanese firm. The company's Japanese headquarters recently forwarded an inquiry from Nigeria. The inquiry was from a member of the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, proposed a business transaction that would, if successful, represent the largest single Internet order in the history of Kashiwa Tubing. Believing in personally meeting with customers and building long lasting ties, her father suggests that she should meet with this customer, even if that meant traveling to Nigeria.

Teaching Note: 8B02M14 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Law; Third World; Internet; E-Commerce; Northeastern
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate


Chapter 14:
Accessing Resources for Growth from External Sources

LISCO ACQUISITION OF A MINORITY INTEREST OF ORION
Richard Howard, Kimberley Howard

Product Number: 9B13N008
Publication Date: 6/12/2013
Revision Date: 7/27/2017
Length: 11 pages

A wealth management company in Chile that provided financial advisory services to high net worth individuals and pension funds was at a crossroads. After 15 years in business, the company had become very successful. To increase its value without incurring undue corporate financial risk, the owner, who has invested most of his personal wealth in the company, has the opportunity to make an investment in a similar wealth management company in Colombia. What are the risks and rewards of such a complex international merger and acquisition for this medium-sized enterprise operating in an uncertain political and economic environment?

Teaching Note: 8B13N008 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Company valuation; minority acquisitions; Chile; Colombia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARTRIDGE WORLD: THE MASTER FRANCHISE OPPORTUNITY
Stewart Thornhill, Ken Mark, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05M071
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 12 pages

An entrepreneur has received additional information on the Cartridge World franchising concept - a store focused on the refilling of printer cartridges. The idea for Cartridge World began in Australia in 1988 and has grown to almost 200 locations in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The entrepreneur must look at the market opportunity in Canada and decide whether he should apply for the country's master franchise, a single franchise, or abandon the concept altogether. Students will evaluate a franchise concept based on market opportunity and the franchise contract.

Teaching Note: 8B05M71 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Models; Franchising; Investment Analysis; Market Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MASTER INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISING IN CHINA: THE ATHLETE'S FOOT INC.
Ilan Alon, Amber Xu

Product Number: 9B06M054
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 11 pages

Franchising in China is a relatively new and growing phenomenon. Among the franchising pioneers in China are the large and well-known food and beverage brands such as Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald's. Less known, but equally important, are the non-food retailing and service industries, such as The Athlete's Foot company. This U.S. born company made early entry into China using master international franchising. As the industry continues to grow, The Athlete's Foot franchise is losing its first-mover advantage and faces increased competition from department stores and brand-specific retailers, among other challenges. The case describes franchising in China, the Athlete's Foot company, and the experiences of the Chinese master franchisee.

Teaching Note: 8B06M54 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Competition; Franchising; Retailing; CEIBS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Succession Planning and Strategies for Harvesting and Ending the Venture

CONFLICT OVER LEADERSHIP AND SUCCESSION IN A SUCCESSFUL FAMILY BUSINESS: THE LAKKARD LEATHER COMPANY
Simon Parker, Matthias A. Tietz

Product Number: 9B11M043
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Revision Date: 11/1/2011
Length: 6 pages

The founder of the Lakkard Leather Company was proud of his business, and attributed much of its success to his own leadership style, which did not allow for anyone else’s participation in important decisions. When he was badly injured in a car accident, his son stepped in and kept the business going. Without any intention to take over, the son altered the leadership and operations of the company in the space of a few months, so that by the time the founder returned, the company had changed and his role was significantly reduced. The son, in the meantime, grew to like his interim position and believed he did a better job than his father. Both men became locked in a power struggle; yet the company faced several key decisions that had to be taken in terms of expansion, product offering, and sale opportunities.

Teaching Note: 8B11M043 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Family Succession; Leadership Conflict; Leather; Family Business; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT INFUSION
Christopher Williams, Melissa Davis

Product Number: 9B11M014
Publication Date: 2/18/2011
Revision Date: 9/29/2017
Length: 17 pages

Infusion had grown over the 10 years between 2000 and 2010 to become a $50 million per year international software services business with 350 employees. The president was wondering how he could move the company towards becoming a $100 million per year international business through a mix of organic growth and initiatives with partners. The entrepreneurial vision of its original founders lived on in many ways, but the company had found it necessary to install an administrative structure with a professional management layer to underpin delivery in both domestic and international markets. It had not been an easy ride. The company had encountered problems in India, and there had been periods of staff attrition and challenging deliveries to clients. Clients were beginning to pull the company in new directions. The pace of technology change appeared to be relentless. While entrepreneurship was still encouraged in the form of an idea incubator called Infusion Angels, the CEO was faced with some critical decisions.

Teaching Note: 8B11M014 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Personal Development; Entrepreneurial Behaviour; Growth Strategy; Technological Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WORKBRAIN CORP. - A CASE IN EXIT STRATEGY
Tevya Rosenberg

Product Number: 9B07N007
Publication Date: 4/2/2007
Length: 14 pages

The chief financial officer (CFO) of Workbrain Corporation (Workbrain) must prepare a memo for the upcoming board of directors meeting. Workbrain, a venture-backed company, has grown substantially since its founding in November 1999. Now the CFO must communicate to the board whether it is time to consider an initial public offering (IPO) and, if so, in which exchange market the stock should be offered. The company must also consider what financing alternatives are available (including maintaining the current venture financing arrangement) and whether the company needs to raise money at all. The CFO is thinking about the memo, knowing that his words will have considerable impact on the company.

Teaching Note: 8B07N07 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Initial Public Offerings; Valuation; Exit Strategy; Venture Capital
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA