Ivey Publishing

Moral Issues in Business

Shaw, W.H.; Barry, V.,12e (United States, Cengage Learning, 2013)
Prepared By under review,
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
The Nature of Morality

Matthew Thomson, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Valerie Ho

Product Number: 9B13A030
Publication Date: 10/8/2013
Revision Date: 10/8/2013
Length: 4 pages

The president and chief operating officer of Chick-fil-A is a devout Christian who publicly operates his restaurants according to Biblical principles. A recent controversy has surrounded his public opposition to gay marriage. As a result, the company is being accused of discrimination and prejudice. Are the company’s deeply rooted Christian values hindering the business?

Teaching Note: 8B13A030 (3 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Brand equity; public relations; ethics; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gerard Seijts, William T. Watson

Product Number: 9B12C003
Publication Date: 1/30/2012
Revision Date: 1/30/2012
Length: 4 pages

Noel Biderman was the president of Avid Life Media, a profitable Canadian growth company whose main businesses were various online social networks for groups seeking sexual partners and romance. Biderman was seeking to raise $60 million via a private placement offering to acquire a privately held online advertising sales company, merge the companies, and take the new and improved entity to the TSX Venture Exchange or the Toronto Stock Exchange. The Avid Life offering represented a legal and potentially lucrative investment. Nevertheless, only one investment bank (GMP Capital) was willing to help Biderman raise capital — because among the various social networks Avid Life owned the notorious Ashley Madison online community for married people seeking to commit adultery. GMP’s relationship was short-lived; after media coverage of the Avid Life offering started to focus on the bank’s willingness to service Biderman’s company, GMP withdrew its support. Possibly it was the bank’s desire to avoid being linked to someone known, rightly or wrongly, as the king of infidelity, that led to GMP’s withdrawn support, leaving Biderman unable to take a potentially lucrative investment opportunity to market.

Teaching Note: 8B12C003 (4 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Leadership; Values; Ethics; Investing; Social Networks; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Jean-Louis Schaan

Product Number: 9B08M038
Publication Date: 4/18/2008
Length: 8 pages

The case deals with a scam that has been run out of Nigeria since 1990. In it, foreign companies are approached for their assistance in facilitating an international transfer of funds in order to receive a very large but unearned commission. In the case, a Hong Kong-based manager who is travelling to Nigeria is unaware that he is walking into a situation where his company is about to be cheated. The objective of the case is to raise the issue of ethics in the conduct of international business. A follow-up case (9B08M039) is available.

Teaching Note: 8B08M38 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Negotiation; Human Behaviour; Ethical Issues; Personal Values
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B06M089
Publication Date: 11/6/2006
Length: 7 pages

This case presents the situation faced by three people in the United States as they exit a restaurant in California. They are discussing whether tipping is a form of private sector corruption, similar to public sector corruption that pervades many countries worldwide. Discussion ensues on what constitutes corruption, and whether private and public sector corruption are required and ethical business practices.

Teaching Note: 8B06M89 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Ethical Issues; Political Environment; International Business; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Normative Theories of Ethics

Alison Konrad, Moira Saganski

Product Number: 9B13C015
Publication Date: 11/19/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 2 pages

A large U.S. investment management corporation has recently acquired a prominent Canadian investment management company with the justification for the cost of the acquisition largely based on huge economies of scale from integrating parts of the operations of both companies. A senior vice-president of the Canadian company has been asked to recommend how this should be done. She concludes that it would be best to keep administrative functions under the Canadian company’s authority, but when she presents her report to the chief executive officer of the U.S. firm, he requests that she change her report to give these functions to the Canadian branch of the U.S. company. Should she bow to her superior’s wishes and change her recommendation? What are the ethics and career impact of changing a professional opinion under pressure from top management?

Teaching Note: 8B13C015 (3 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Ethical Decision Making; Mergers and Acquisitions; Career Decision-making; Managing Your Boss; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

John S. Haywood-Farmer, Samantha Winkler

Product Number: 9B13C020
Publication Date: 5/31/2013
Revision Date: 5/27/2013
Length: 8 pages

A graduating fourth-year HBA student faces an ethical dilemma as she struggles to decide which one of two job offers to accept. The situation is complicated by the fact that she has received an exploding offer from one firm and she must respond to it on the same day as she participates in a final-round interview with the other firm. The stakeholders in this case include the student, the two firms, the university and its career-management program, and the other graduating students in the HBA program. The (B) case 9B13C021 is set about two weeks later, when Patricia Coulter is wrestling with another decision.

Teaching Note: 8B13C020 (8 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Ethical Decisions; Personal Values; Recruiting; Career Planning; Professional Firms; Customer Services; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B11M056
Publication Date: 7/21/2011
Length: 3 pages

In 1995, the United Nations began to ease sanctions on Iraq in what was known as the “Oil for Food” program. One of the first companies to return to Iraq under the UN program was U.S.-based International Farm Equipment Co. (IFE). IFE had been an important supplier of agricultural equipment to Iraq until the Gulf War in 1990. Shortly after IFE established its Iraq office upon returning, the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture demanded a direct payment of 10 per cent of all future contracts. Several other companies had agreed to make the payments, including at least one prominent competitor of IFE. The payments would be classified as “post-sale commissions” and would be conducted through a third-party agent working on IFE’s behalf. IFE’s business manager for the Middle East needed to decide how to proceed.

Teaching Note: 8B11M056 (6 pages)
Issues: Contract Law; Human Resource Management; Ethics; Corruption; Iraq; United States; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Kimberley Howard, William Wei, Eric Zengxiang Wang

Product Number: 9B09M062
Publication Date: 10/9/2009
Revision Date: 7/27/2017
Length: 6 pages

When Yves Saint Laurent died in June 2008, his estate passed to his business partner, Pierre Bergé. Bergé decided to auction several items from Laurent's estate at Christie's international auction house, including two antique bronzes from China. The general feeling in China was that these artifacts had been looted and should be repatriated rather than auctioned. The case highlights issues of ethics, corporate governance and corporate responsibility.

Teaching Note: 8B09M62 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: ethical issues; corporate responsibility; customer relationship management; corporate governance; luxury goods
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alex Beamish, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B09C018
Publication Date: 9/18/2009
Revision Date: 3/24/2010
Length: 8 pages

In September 2009, Brian Lee purchased a computer game developed by a major company and, like other customers, he was experiencing difficulty running it. The source of the problems was a highly restrictive system of digital rights management (DRM), which, while more or less universally disliked, was causing serious technical problems for a minority of users. Lee began to share his experience on the company's message board and was engaging in a debate about online piracy with a company representative. He was curious about piracy in the file-sharing age and wondered why it would be wrong to download a pirated version of the game with the DRM circumvented. The case deals with an issue which resonates with students. Although the context is simple, the problem is complex, thus giving instructors wide latitude on how to teach the case. It is suitable for modules or courses focused on ethics, service operations, intellectual property rights and information technology.

Teaching Note: 8B09C18 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Service Recovery; Intellectual Property; Internet; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alexandra Roth, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B09M021
Publication Date: 3/9/2009
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 18 pages

A Swiss Catholic investor is faced with a decision on how to invest her savings in a socially responsible way. She learns of a new fund offered by Credit Suisse that purports to invest according to Christian values and principles. After researching the fund on the Internet, she becomes aware of the current state of ethical funds, their principles and their critics. Some organizations criticize socially responsible investing (SRI) as nothing more than a marketing ploy. The only way some funds are able to enjoy favorable returns is by using vague criteria that permit them to invest in questionable companies. Although the Christian Values fund has not performed well, it was only established a few months earlier and has not had time to establish a track record. Finally, the management fees were high compared to similar funds and the investor must decide if these fees are justified. The case provides a forum for the discussion of business ethics, religion in the workplace, and the history of ethical funds and ethical investing. Finally, it discusses the challenges faced by SRI fund managers who must balance ethical and financial considerations.

Teaching Note: 8B09M21 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Mutual Funds; Personal Values; Ethical Issues; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Justice and Economic Distribution

Sandeep Goyal, Amit Kapoor, Rajen Gupta

Product Number: 9B14M048
Publication Date: 5/6/2014
Revision Date: 5/6/2014
Length: 16 pages

More than one-third of India remained without electricity or received less than eight hours of electricity per day. To fight energy poverty, Boond was in the business of providing lighting solutions to the low-income population in rural India. By 2013, it had created a network of four hubs (energy centres) and impacted the lives of more than 50,000 people across two states in India through its solar energy systems. It had forged non-traditional partnerships with regional rural banks and community-based organizations and its plan was to shift from the inception phase to the growth phase in 2013–2014. The aim was to set up 30 hubs covering more than 50 districts in the states of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh by 2015. This required evaluating the transformational challenges and creating an action plan to address them without losing sight of the social mission. Key obstacles included attracting social investors, extending its reach, and finding and retaining skilled employees willing to operate in small towns and villages.

Teaching Note: 8B14M048 (16 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Social entrepreneurship; social enterprise; business model; market building strategy; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Karen MacMillan

Product Number: 9B11C034
Publication Date: 9/7/2011
Revision Date: 10/10/2018
Length: 5 pages

The owner of a large hardware, furniture, and building centre faced a dilemma regarding how to manage the upcoming wage review process. After two consecutive years of frozen wages, employees were impatient for financial progress, but there was no extra money in the budget. It was possible to pump savings from upcoming process improvement initiatives into wage increases. However, the owner had limited motivation to channel hard-won funds to underperforming employees. On the other hand, he was eager to reward the people who added value. Yet a plan that rewarded only some employees could result in an angry backlash. He had to decide if he wanted to divert the savings into compensation and, if so, he needed an effective distribution plan.

Teaching Note: 8B11C034 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Motivation; Compensation; Organizational Justice; Bounded Rationality
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gita Bajaj, Neelu Bhullar

Product Number: 9B11M010
Publication Date: 1/27/2011
Revision Date: 5/7/2013
Length: 16 pages

AWARD-WINNING CASE: Adjudged winner of the ISB Case Competition 2010 held in partnership with the Richard Ivey School of Business and the Association of Indian Management Schools and sponsored by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants.

BASIX was a microfinance company with livelihood promotion as its key agenda. It had a strong presence in the poverty-ridden state of Jharkhand, India, where farmers were struggling to make ends meet. In 2005, PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt. Ltd (Pepsi) entered into an agreement with BASIX for promoting contract farming of potatoes in Jharkhand. As per the agreement, Pepsi was to supply seeds and get an assured supply of quality potatoes. BASIX was to provide microfinance to the farmers and render training and consultancy for package of practices (POP). Farmers were to get assured buyback of the produce and also an opportunity to learn modern farming practices. The collaboration was successful in the first year and the project witnessed very high growth in the second year. The second-year results, however, were not as encouraging. The case is set at this juncture, where the project manager has to present his view on how to move ahead with the agreement.

Teaching Note: 8B11M010 (12 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Finance and Insurance
Issues: Marginalized Communities; Developing Countries; Sustainable Development; Partnerships; Non-profit Organizations; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 4:
The Nature of Capitalism

Kent Walker, Saeed Rahman

Product Number: 9B13M114
Publication Date: 1/29/2014
Revision Date: 3/29/2016
Length: 16 pages

This case discusses the only privately owned bridge between Canada and the United States and the possible construction of a second competing and publicly owned bridge. With an upcoming crucial vote on the fate of the public bridge, a Michigan student must decide how to vote and whether she believes that a central public infrastructure should be privately held. She contemplates a deeper issue as well – the fundamental principle of capitalism, a system that sometimes perpetuates inequalities since individuals are rewarded for their hard work and are able to defend their self-interests. The student recognizes that her vote is not just about the future of the public bridge but also about her beliefs in balancing individualism and equality.

Teaching Note: 8B13M114 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Business ethics; individualism; equality; invisible hand; public versus private ownership; United States; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Sunderasan Srinivasan

Product Number: 9B12N004
Publication Date: 4/23/2012
Revision Date: 4/20/2012
Length: 12 pages

In August 2010, SKS Microfinance became India’s (and South Asia’s) first publicly traded microfinance institution with a stock exchange listing. A share in the company was offered at INR 985 and it commenced trading at INR 1,036, reaching INR 1,404 within a month. However, that was the extent of the good news as far as the company and its shareholders were concerned. Things began to unravel rapidly. The initial public offering of shares was seen as the initiation of a conflict between the interests of the company’s shareholders and the poor rural borrowers it was expected to serve. Further, the company fired an arguably successful chief executive officer due to “inter-personal issues” within days from the end of the post-listing 40-day silent period. Matters were aggravated when 30 women who happened to be microfinance borrowers committed suicide within a span of 45 days, 13 of whom were reported to have been SKS members. The provincial government in the state of Andhra Pradesh, the hub of microfinance activity in the country, brought out an ordinance that effectively curbed microfinance lending and recovery operations. By May 2011, the Reserve Bank of India, the country’s banking regulator, had issued a notification placing caps on interest rates and margins and specifying minimum tenures for relatively larger loan sizes. Was this the end of the microfinance movement in India?

Teaching Note: 8B12N004 (7 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Initial Public Offering; Microfinance; Regulatory Environment; Corporate Governance; Ethics; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Gerald Zeitz, Ales Brglez, Irena Vodopivec

Product Number: 9B04M041
Publication Date: 6/24/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 12 pages

Gorenje D.D. is a kitchen appliance manufacturer located in the small town of Velenje, in Slovenia, a newly independent country that separated from Yugoslavia in 1991. Simultaneous with gaining independence, Slovenia also underwent a change from the unique market socialism that had characterized socialist Yugoslavia, to free enterprise capitalism. Furthermore, manufacturing firms in Slovenia had produced largely for the Yugoslav market, while after independence they were forced to compete in the wider European market. The company faces new challenges and key decisions in corporate culture, human resources and competitive strategy to face a turbulent environment.

Teaching Note: 8B04M41 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Strategic Positioning; Environmental Change; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 5:

Sheila Puffer, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B12M021
Publication Date: 2/29/2012
Revision Date: 2/28/2012
Length: 9 pages

The case takes place in Peru in the aftermath of the worst mercury spill in history, by a transportation contractor for Newmont Mining Corporation. BHP Billiton, which has no connection to Newmont but is affected by increased hostility toward mining companies, enters into an agreement with Oxfam to conduct training on sustainability and “the impacts of large-scale infrastructure projects on communities.” Executives from the company’s various international business units are selected to participate in the program, to be held each year in Orissa, India. One of the first managers selected to attend the program is the general manager for BHP Billiton’s Tintaya copper mine in Peru. The case discusses the process, objectives, and outcome of the resulting dialogue between BHP Billiton and local indigenous residents.

Teaching Note: 8B12M021 (6 pages)
Issues: Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility; Globalization; Developing Countries; Mining, Peru; Northeastern, Indigenous Peoples
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Rüdiger Hahn

Product Number: 9B10M042
Publication Date: 6/10/2010
Length: 17 pages

The case deals with issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the specific setting of a medium-sized enterprise (Host Europe) in the IT industry. Host Europe is the third largest webhosting company in German-speaking Europe. In recent years, the company has put substantial efforts into living up to its CSR and improving sustainability. The case presents the IT sector in Europe and Germany and highlights several industry-related issues such as green IT (especially in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and e-waste) and the digital divide. Host Europe has already implemented a couple of measures, such as building a new energy-efficient green data centre, switching to renewable energy, promoting virtualization, introducing several workplace measures, pursuing efforts to improve family friendliness, and publishing a sustainability report. However, there are still some challenges ahead and students are asked to think about further efforts of Host Europe to complete its path to becoming a responsible and sustainable medium-sized IT company.The case can either be used as an introductory case for CSR in medium-sized businesses and sustainability in the IT industry, or in advanced-level CSR and sustainability courses. As an introductory case it provides in-depth insights into a company that has already put substantial efforts into becoming a responsible and sustainable IT company. Students learn about various sustainability and CSR issues and measures in the specific context of a medium-sized enterprise. As an advanced case for CSR and sustainability, it can be used to build upon the existing knowledge of students and to ask them to come up with other ideas and a sophisticated strategy to pursue further CSR and sustainability. For example, since Host Europe is not certified according to environmental or social standards yet, students could come up with a detailed and customized plan on how to implement such a management system for the company.

Teaching Note: 8B10M42 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Communications; Sustainable Development; Information Technology; Computer Industry; Corporate Social Responsibility; Green IT; Organizational Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gwendolyn Toro, Julia Sagebien, Victor Quiñones

Product Number: 9B10M018
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 16 pages

The case centres on the many controversies surrounding the Paseo Caribe real estate development project in San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico. The project developers had to contend with large demonstrations, civil disobedience, government intervention, legal proceedings and costly delays as a result of allegations that there had been multiple irregularities in the permit-granting processes and that the project had been built on public domain lands. The fact that Paseo Caribe was located in San Juan's prime tourist and convention area, as well as in a historically and culturally important zone, added significance and visibility to the debates. Jos' Antonio Moreno, president of the Puerto Rico Architects and Landscape Architects Association, is reflecting on the lessons learned by industry participants, as well as on ways the association can encourage industry actors to handle conflict in a less confrontational manner. The case illustrates the downside of not managing stakeholder relations proactively or effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B10M18 (9 pages)
Issues: ethical Issues; business and society; stakeholder analysis; conflict resolution; government and business; corruption; corporate social responsibility; developing countries; Puerto Rico
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:

Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, June Cotte, Danae Blanchard

Product Number: 9B14A009
Publication Date: 4/9/2014
Revision Date: 4/9/2014
Length: 5 pages

The CEO of clothing manufacturer and retailer Abercrombie and Fitch defends his decision that the company will not offer plus sizes for women, although extra large sizes are available for men, because average- to large-sized female consumers do not fit the company’s target market. This insistence on a standard of female beauty as young, svelte and tall has enraged consumers who have criticized the company, and the CEO in particular, in both the traditional and social media for exacerbating problems of body image and gender stereotypes, especially among teens. Increasing sizes, however, presents not only logistical and manufacturing challenges but may lead to charges that the company is encouraging obesity and unhealthy lifestyles as happened when a competitor, H&M, introduced large-size models and mannequins in its stores. Abercrombie and Fitch’s popularity with its target teen market depends on its promulgation of exclusivity, which in turn depends on its vision of what is “cool.” Yet, in the face of mounting criticism and declining sales, does sticking to the segmentation strategy make sense?

Teaching Note: 8B14A009 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Marketing ethics; social media; targeting/segmentation; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate

Vivien K. G. Lim, Rashimah Rajah, Smrithi Prasad

Product Number: 9B12C047
Publication Date: 2/8/2013
Revision Date: 11/14/2012
Length: 8 pages

In 2008, a scandal in China involving milk products tainted with melamine (a chemical used in plastic production) brought regional and global attention to the country. More than 290,000 infants were affected and several died. At a time when international trade was important for China’s economic development, the tainted milk scandal raised concerns about the safety of products and food made in China. The case illustrates how the pressure of rapid economic development resulted in measures to cut costs at the expense of consumer safety and health, bringing into question the ethics underlying business practices in the country. The lack of quality control and corporate governance processes on the part of the company and government facilitated the ease with which the milk was tampered. The case also documents remedial efforts that followed the scandal, including recall of the tainted milk products, putting new government policies and regulations in place, arrest of top executives and the companies’ public apology in the unique form of a New Year text message.

Teaching Note: 8B12C047 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Ethics; management in Asia; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Brittany Schuette

Product Number: 9B12A032
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
Revision Date: 8/13/2012
Length: 5 pages

American Apparel, a popular clothing manufacturer, has socially progressive labour policies and uses significant environmental advances in its manufacturing process. In addition, it has a well-established philanthropic arm. Set against these socially responsible policies is the highly sexualized nature of the company’s advertising. This element of the marketing mix seems, at least to some consumers, very much at odds with the other aims and policies of the company. The question facing students is whether this disconnect can be maintained or whether the brand’s advertising should change.

Teaching Note: 8B12A032 (2 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility; Advertising Strategy; Controversial Advertising, United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Niraj Dawar, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06A020
Publication Date: 7/27/2006
Revision Date: 1/9/2008
Length: 24 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2006 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. In early 2005, Nestle is in the midst of a decision: whether or not the Fairtrade mark should be applied on Partners' Blend, a new instant coffee product to be marketed in the growing UK 'ethical' coffee segment. Application of the Fairtrade mark on the Partners Blend product means that Nestle must go against its historical position of not offering minimum guaranteed prices to coffee farmers. As part of their deliberations, Nestle executives must consider their coffee sourcing program at large, their corporate social responsibility framework, Nescafe and corporate Nestle branding, the UK market and the potential consumer benefits or backlash that could result from releasing such a product.

Teaching Note: 8B06A20 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: New Products; Corporate Responsibility; Brand Management; Product Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:
The Environment

Jette Steen Knudsen, Dana Brown

Product Number: 9B12M081
Publication Date: 9/7/2012
Revision Date: 2/14/2013
Length: 17 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case study deals with the opportunities and challenges faced by Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk with regard to its sustainability approach in China as of 2012. Novo Nordisk is well known for striving to integrate its business activities in a financially, environmentally, and socially responsible way, and many Novo Nordisk employees proudly refer to Novo Nordisk as a “triple bottom line (TBL) company.” Novo Nordisk has been active in China for more than 50 years; however, since the Chinese economy has expanded tremendously, this increase in wealth and a more sedentary Western lifestyle have led to growing problems with obesity. As a result, China’s insulin market is booming.

Novo Nordisk therefore faces new challenges concerning how best to organize its TBL program in a way that ensures a comprehensive approach throughout the organization, yet allows Novo Nordisk China to adopt initiatives that fit the Chinese business context. Furthermore, with ever-increasing competition for access to China’s lucrative insulin market, Novo Nordisk’s competitors are also engaging in sustainability, which means that Novo Nordisk must keep innovating to stand out, and must use sustainability as a source of competitive advantage.

Teaching Note: 8B12M081 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Non-market Strategy; China; Europe
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Robert W. Sexty

Product Number: 9B11M026
Publication Date: 5/20/2011
Length: 11 pages

Fortis Inc., a company with interests in various North American electric utilities, is proposing to build the Chalillo dam on the Macal River in Belize, Central America. The dam would contribute to the economic development of the country by meeting the increasing demand from industry and consumers for electricity. The company believes that the dam is the most feasible, reliable, and cheap supply of electricity. Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) oppose the project because of the destruction of wild animal and plant life and the adverse downstream impact, and allege that there are more viable and cost-effective sources. The case reviews the company’s presence in Belize, the environmental impact studies, and the activities of the ENGOs during 2001. At the beginning of 2002, management is faced with a decision of whether or not to go ahead with the project.

Teaching Note: 8B11M026 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Globalization; Ethics; Utilities; Central America; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Robert Klassen, Adam Bortolussi

Product Number: 9B10D004
Publication Date: 4/19/2010
Revision Date: 5/27/2014
Length: 9 pages

New technology being developed by Carroway Environmental promised a clean, inexpensive process to deal with a vexing problem: scrap tires. Using microwave energy, tires were broken down to reclaim their raw materials for sale into a wide variety of markets and alternative uses. Just as important, no harmful wastes and pollutants were created. But the president and chief executive officer was continuing to face challenges to secure additional funding of $2 million required to get his new business venture off the ground. The president was also unsure about where to locate the first large-scale pilot plant. Finally, given that the president envisioned developing multiple sites across North America, should he be looking for a joint venture partner?

Teaching Note: 8B10D04 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Process Design/Change; New Venture; Sustainable Development; Technology
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jennifer Lynes

Product Number: 9B09M028
Publication Date: 6/11/2009
Length: 11 pages

Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) is an innovator of strategic environmental management in the airline industry. Being a first-mover can have both its advantages and disadvantages. This case looks at the airline's decision of whether they should invest in the best available environmental technology for a fleet of new aircraft that would serve them for the next 25 years. While the technology for these low-emission engines had been around since the 1970s, it had never really been commercialized. SAS was feeling pressure from the regulatory authorities with regards to potential new charges and taxes that could affect the future operating costs of the fleet. Despite these anticipated future costs, at the time of the decision, the director of aircraft and engine analysis for SAS could not make an economic case for the more expensive engines. The challenge was for the fleet development team to try to convince the SAS management team to spend the extra kr5 million (Swedish Kronor) per aircraft for the dual combustor engine. Given that corporations are faced with increasing pressure with regards to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, this case study presents an opportunity for discussion and analysis of various environmental concepts including strategic environmental management, adoption of best available environmental technologies, the role of internal environmental leadership in a large corporation and the effect of market-based mechanisms to improve a sector's environmental performance. The case illustrates the complexities of environmental decisions in striking a balance between meeting ambitious commitments and dealing with real capabilities of companies and external pressures.

Teaching Note: 8B09M28 (14 pages)
Issues: Corporate Culture; Management Decisions; Competitive Advantage; Environment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 8:
The Workplace (1): Basic Issues

Ashok K. Mishra, Sangeeta Shah Bharadwaj

Product Number: 9B13C008
Publication Date: 5/1/2013
Revision Date: 5/7/2013
Length: 14 pages

KSOIL has a project that bills customers on units of documents delivered. The productivity of employees is evaluated on the same basis. The output of the home-based team has increased two to three times compared to its previous office-based performance. As a result, the rewards and compensation for the home-based team have doubled compared to office-based employees. The head of HR is convinced home-based workers are using unfair means to achieve such high output. She is against the decision of the project manager to increase the size of the home-based team. She believes this will only increase the unrest among office-based workers. The general manager needs to make a decision soon, while keeping in mind the profitability, employee welfare and ethics of the firm.

Teaching Note: 8B13C008 (10 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Business ethics; work life flexibility; outsourcing; home-based working; India; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Zsuzsanna Kispal-Vitai

Product Number: 9B11C049
Publication Date: 3/7/2012
Length: 7 pages

A young entry-level employee starts work in the hotel industry in Eastern Europe. The case describes her experiences and shows the HRM practices in the particular hotel in which she works. The issue for analysis is less whether or not the employee should stay or leave this hotel, which has minimal pay and poor working conditions, and more the overall nature of human resources (HR) operations at this service organization, with regard to ethics and sustainability.

Teaching Note: 8B11C049 (12 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Hotel Management; Human Resource Management; Job Satisfaction; Ethics; Motivation; Eastern Europe
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Charlene Zietsma, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B06M085
Publication Date: 11/6/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 10 pages

The vice-president of human resources of the British Columbia Automobile Association (BCAA) had just concluded negotiating the first collective agreements for two separate bargaining units with the association's union, who represented about 25 per cent of BCAA's workforce. BCAA's senior management wanted to find a way to reconcile with its unionized employees while still carrying on with the biggest cultural change in the company's century-long history. They wondered how best to proceed. The case serves as a discussion vehicle for how companies can manage labor relations post-strike, while attempting to implement strategic change.

Teaching Note: 8B06M85 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategy and Resources; Services; Small Business; Competitive Advantage
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alison Konrad, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B04C006
Publication Date: 1/26/2004
Revision Date: 10/6/2009
Length: 9 pages

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is a large Fortune 500 retail chain. The distinction of being the top-ranked company comes with intense scrutiny from the public and, especially, critics. Wal-Mart, a company lauded for its rapid response capability and stated commitments to gender equality is shown to be deficient in some glaring areas - the percentage of women compared to men at all levels of the company, and the compensation paid to women versus men at all levels of the company, to cite two examples. An executive vice-president must examine why these inequalities exist when the company seems to be doing everything else right. The company is the target of several gender discrimination lawsuits and the executive vice-president has the opportunity to obtain information that would be useful in the current situation, and must determine what information is needed. In the supplement, Staffing Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (B), product 9B04C007, the executive vice-president receives information and must determine how to address the situation.

Teaching Note: 8B04C06 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Management Decisions; Pay Equity
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 9:
The Workplace (2): Today’s Challenges

Srinivasan Tatachari

Product Number: 9B14C002
Publication Date: 3/12/2014
Revision Date: 3/7/2014
Length: 7 pages

This case traces the various events that happen in the organizational journey of a newcomer to the corporate world. It is based on the real-life incidents of a new employee in a leading information technology (IT) services company, Xciting, in India. Xciting is one of India’s top IT and IT-enabled services companies, with offices around the globe. With revenues in excess of $6 billion in 2010 and a global headcount of around 100,000, Xciting is a popular and reputable company in the global software services industry.

The case covers the initial year of the employee’s work with Xciting, following college graduation. She undergoes a training period with examinations in order to determine an appropriate work domain and relocation destination within India. She experiences organizational culture shock and location anxiety, and must respond to difficult co-workers and cancelled projects. In September 2011, with the first yearly review approaching, she reflects on her journey at Xciting and has to decide on what she wants to do with her career. Is there a mismatch between her expectations and those of Xciting?

Teaching Note: 8B14C002 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Socialization; social identity; newcomer; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Shashank Shah, Ajith Sankar, David J. Sharp

Product Number: 9B13C036
Publication Date: 12/18/2013
Revision Date: 12/18/2013
Length: 22 pages

The executive director, human resources, at Hindustan Unilever Ltd., a market leader in the Indian fast moving consumer goods sector and the Indian subsidiary of the major multinational, Unilever Ltd., is concerned that the company may be losing its position as the “dream employer” for graduates from the top Indian business schools from which it recruits its management personnel. The shifting demographic profile of employees and their changing expectations have already resulted in changes in the company’s employment model. These include on-the-job training and classroom and e-learning program facilities at all levels of the organization and at all stages of one’s career; mentoring by senior management; communication of vision and goals throughout the company, especially through regular meetings with the CEO; a focus on corporate social responsibility; and an emphasis on work-life balance, such as offering sabbaticals and providing health and recreation facilities at the new headquarters. While the company has changed its traditional employment value proposition, in a highly competitive and talent-scarce job market, can it continue to be relevant in order to attract and retain the best talent in the country?

Teaching Note: 8B13C036 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Employee expectations; Indian FMCG sector; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Alison Konrad, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05C032
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 3 pages

A group of four friends, all married men and in their late 20s, meet for coffee in a major city. One of the men has received a job application from a young woman he considers to be a stellar candidate for his job opening. The discussion turns into a debate about the feasibility of hiring young women for professional and managerial positions, given that they become pregnant and go on maternity leave.

Teaching Note: 8B05C32 (9 pages)
Issues: Discrimination; Human Resources Management; Women in Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James A. Erskine, Eric Dolansky

Product Number: 9B03C022
Publication Date: 6/26/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

John McCulloch takes a job as assistant general manager at a meat packing plant. After a short time in the job, he discovers it was nothing like he expected, worker safety is constantly compromised, the safety of the public from consuming tainted food is compromised and everything is subordinated to the production line's constant movement. He must decide whether or not he will stay with the company.

Teaching Note: 8B03C22 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Working Conditions; Conflict Resolution; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 10:
Moral Choices Facing Employees

Daniel Galindau, Won-Yong Oh

Product Number: 9B14M037
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/23/2014
Length: 8 pages

In 2012, the general manager at the Seoul location of a European manufacturing company faces an ethical dilemma involving bribery and “facilitation” payments. A key decision maker in a local construction company’s purchasing department has asked for a “facilitation” payment as a necessary condition for securing an order. If the expatriate manager decides to pay the money, he will secure an order that will lift his company to a new level of success for years to come. If he decides not to pay, the order and all the company has worked for over the last year will be lost. The expatriate manager must decide whether or not the payment would violate laws internationally, locally and in his home country. What are the real risks? Who can help him answer the many questions he has regarding this local practice?

Teaching Note: 8B14M037 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Ethics; decision making; bribery; facilitation payment; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Stephen R. Foerster, Michael R. King, Fatma Sonmez

Product Number: 9B12N021
Publication Date: 9/11/2012
Revision Date: 9/11/2012
Length: 7 pages

On January 6, 2010, Stanko Grmovsek was sentenced to three years and three months in prison for making profits of an estimated US$9 million over 14 years based on insider tips from his best friend from law school, Gil Cornblum. Grmovsek and Cornblum had operated an illegal insider trading scheme from 1994 until 2008. Using his role as a corporate lawyer at various law firms, Cornblum had passed material non-public information related to 46 takeovers to Grmovsek, who then traded illegally using brokerage accounts located in the Bahamas and Ontario. On October 27, 2009, Grmovsek pleaded guilty to all charges against him in both Canada and the United States following a joint investigation by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Ontario Securities Commission (OSC).

Teaching Note: 8B12N021 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Insider Trading; Ethics; Capital Markets; Securities Regulation; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Seijiro Takeshita, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B12M012
Publication Date: 2/24/2012
Revision Date: 2/24/2012
Length: 13 pages

The newly appointed president and chief operating officer of Olympus Corporation of Japan was called to an emergency board meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss governance issues regarding corporate mergers and acquisitions. However, it would be no ordinary meeting. Since assuming the role of president in April 2011, the president had discovered evidence of corporate fraud on a large scale. He had commissioned an external auditor report that showed a significant loss of shareholder value. His call for changes to be made to the Japanese board of directors had been met by resistance. How should he plan for the meeting? What could he expect? What position should he take? How should he influence decisions regarding the company’s immediate problems and its longer-term corporate governance?

Teaching Note: 8B12M012 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Governance; Fraud; Crisis; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Lisa A. Mainiero, Alison Konrad

Product Number: 9B11C014
Publication Date: 7/21/2011
Length: 16 pages

Office romance has challenged sexual norms at work. Under the prevailing norms 40 years ago, a workplace affair meant a semi-clandestine liaison between a male executive (married or unmarried) and a female secretary or low-level assistant. Over the past few decades, sexual norms have become more flexible, and office romances are more likely to be out in the open. This case provides six real-life examples of office romance. In each case, students have an opportunity to consider how well the parties to the romance have conducted the relationship in a business context and what leaders could have done to manage the situation.

Teaching Note: 8B11C014 (7 pages)
Issues: Women in Management; Sexual Harassment; Ethical Issues; Workplace Relationships
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B09M065
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Many countries have become increasingly concerned with the subject of corruption, and managers today must deal with changes in ethical norms and laws. New laws and international agreements seek to create a worldwide shift towards the reduction of corruption, and so management responsibilities are continually evolving. Both Transparency International and the World Bank provide estimates of the relative pervasiveness of corruption in different countries. Yet this subject is ambiguous and complex, creating significant challenges for managers. Both Volkswagen and Siemens have recently experienced public criticism and legal prosecution over corruption issues, some relating to internal and inter-corporate relations. Some cultures appear to accept corrupt practices as part of normal business-government relations. In China, guanxi is widely seen as a requirement for business success with the establishment of personal relationships that include an ongoing exchange of gifts and personal favours. Some managers may argue that the giving of gifts is acceptable, that bribes to expedite decisions may be necessary, and that only certain types of bribes should be seen as inappropriate corruption. However, this perspective involves the difficulty of drawing a line to guide decisions of corporate employees, and for many managers it is now necessary to implement clear corporate guidelines in regard to what they consider to be corruption. In this context, some managers may decide to avoid investing in certain countries until the culture of corruption has changed.

Teaching Note: 8B09M65 (3 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Business and Society
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gerard Seijts, Ivy Kyei-Poku

Product Number: 9B08C007
Publication Date: 4/1/2008
Length: 15 pages

The case explains the ordeal of the newly appointed manager of planning and reporting at Connectco, an outbound call centre in Ontario, Canada, who suspected wrong-doing early on at work. After his fears were confirmed, he was very uncomfortable with the situation he found himself in. However, he had to make a choice about how he would respond. This case also portrays, among other things, how young professionals find themselves in situations that create moral distress when they are aware of unethical conduct but feel constrained from taking action to correct it.

Teaching Note: 8B08C07 (6 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Leadership; Whistleblower; Accountability
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 11:
Job Discrimination

Cara C. Maurer, Andrew Cornies

Product Number: 9B12C027
Publication Date: 10/26/2012
Revision Date: 10/25/2012
Length: 8 pages

This case concerns the implementation and strategic direction of LGBTA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and ally) initiatives at TD Bank Financial Group (TD). In order to maintain its position as the “employer of choice” for the LGBTA community, TD must expand the measures it had taken since its Diversity Leadership Council was created in 2006 to promote a comfortable, barrier-free and inclusive work environment for all employees. TD’s corporate diversity group had been providing a growing number of resources, events and LGBTA-related sponsorships for the past six years, resulting in an exponential growth of engagement by LGBTA employees, but lately the bank’s competitors and other large companies were catching up. Moreover, a recent review showed that there was a large variance in the quality of experience between the different subgroups of TD’s LGBTA community. The bank’s senior manager of corporate diversity must report within a week to the Diversity Leadership Council on how to solve these issues.

Teaching Note: 8B12C027 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Change Management; Corporate Social Responsibility; Diversity Management; Social Values and Economic Value; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Timothy A. Ogden

Product Number: 9B11C044
Publication Date: 12/15/2011
Length: 5 pages

In this case series Robert Harvey, a business professor at a small university in Iowa, United States, had arranged for Hopwood Manufacturing Company to come to the campus to interview his students for internship and management-in-training positions, only to learn that the recruiters appeared to be more interested in the ethnicities of the candidates than their qualifications. Harvey must now decide what action to take in response to the recruiters’ discriminatory statements.

Teaching Note: 8B11C044 (8 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Workplace Diversity; Ethics; Discrimination; Hiring; Iowa, United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alexandra Roth, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B11C031
Publication Date: 8/30/2011
Length: 2 pages

British Airways took a strictly secular approach to religion in the workplace, banning any outward symbols of faith. This policy extended to the wearing of jewellery with religious symbolism. One employee who originally complied with the ban protested after she found out that the company had made accommodations to other faiths, such as allowing Sikhs to wear turbans. She then decided to wear a cross pendant in protest of the company’s perceived discriminatory policies. When British Airways disciplined the employee, it caused a public backlash by religious leaders and public supporters of the employee. The backlash against British Airways meant that even a favourable ruling by the employment tribunal would have negative consequences for the company’s public image.

Teaching Note: 8B11C031 (7 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Human Resource Management; Religion; Employee Relations; Discrimination; United Kingdom; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

William J. Russell

Product Number: 9B08C001
Publication Date: 10/31/2008
Length: 14 pages

This case involves a personnel matter at an agricultural chemical industry mining complex. A middle-level supervisor has been accused of gender-based and other discrimination. The complaint has come primarily from one employee who works under that supervisor's direction, but is supported at least in part by the testimony of other employees. The evidence is typical of the sorts of evidence that usually attend human resource disputes. Company policy manuals bear on the propriety of the mill coordinator's conduct apart from the issue of discrimination. Ultimately, an appellate process is also integrated into the procedural tools. This case considers the process by which the employment discrimination complaint is investigated, considered and resolved, including the weighing and evaluation of information gathered from those in the workplace. Various practical, legal and ethical issues typical to such cases are apparent.

Teaching Note: 8B08C01 (12 pages)
Issues: Perception; Work-Force Management; Risk Management; Morale; Mining; Ethical Issues; Employee Grievances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James A. Erskine, Aaron Anticic

Product Number: 9B07C020
Publication Date: 6/4/2007
Revision Date: 10/19/2007
Length: 5 pages

The president of a metal products manufacturer and distributor is informed that the company controller is having an affair with another employee who is married to the general manager of production. The president is in the process of selling the company and wonders what affect the affair, if true, will have. Three short supplementary cases are also available: 9B07C021, 9B07C022 and 9B07C023.

Teaching Note: 8B07C20 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Ethical Issues; Office Extramarital Affairs; Sexual Harassment; Employee Relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA