Ivey Publishing

Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning & Operation

Chopra, S., Meindl, P.,5/e (United States, Pearson Education, 2013)
Prepared By Jill Pillon, CaseMate Editor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Understanding the Supply Chain

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AT INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE
Katrin Haarer, Nahide Hannane, Leonardo Zapata-Flores, Joo Y. Jung

Product Number: 9B11D013
Publication Date: 10/31/2011
Length: 9 pages

In 2008, International Automotive Company (IAC), a German manufacturer of automotive parts, acquired a plant in Reynosa, Mexico. This plant produced various types of motors for power windows, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and wipers. At the time of acquisition, the plant was showing record losses. Because the acquisition was internally financed, it was crucial to make the plant profitable quickly. After conducting a deep analysis, the company discovered that a lack of proper management in the supply chain system was leading to a large amount of wasted resources. As a result, managers looked for opportunities to save money and facilitate improvements mainly in areas such as packaging, warehousing, and transportation. One of the greatest obstacles involved IAC’s employees, who were falling short in terms of knowledge and motivation.

Teaching Note: 8B11D013 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Operations Management; Lean Management; Mexico
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOKIA INDIA: BATTERY RECALL LOGISTICS
Charles Dhanaraj, Narendar Sumukadas, P. Fraser Johnson, Monali Malvankar

Product Number: 9B11D003
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case presents the challenge faced by Nokia India in 2007. Nokia had built a strong brand reputation over a ten-year period and was a market leader in Indian mobile devices. India, incidentally, was also Nokia’s second-largest market, next only to China. Suddenly, what corporate headquarters considered a routine product advisory for a defective battery resulted in panic in customers after the Indian media widely publicized the potential dangers that defective batteries could pose. Over a three-month period, Nokia India had to recall a few million batteries and replace them with new ones.



The case provides an opportunity for students to develop practical knowledge of the role of operations management in a product recall situation, particularly in an emerging market context. Product recalls are an integral part of supply chain management (SCM). Companies inevitably face a question of when, not if, a recall will be necessary. These recall situations combine the complexity of operations with the time-urgency of a mission-critical task. The case also provides a rich context to learn about the interaction of SCM, information systems and reverse logistics, and to understand the marketing, logistics, and communication challenges faced by a multinational company operating in an emerging market such as India.


Teaching Note: 8B11D003 (11 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Logistics; Communications; Crisis Leadership; Product Recall; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WAWA: SUPPLY CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Robert W. Keidel

Product Number: 9B11M042
Publication Date: 6/8/2011
Length: 14 pages

By mid-2007, Wawa, headquartered outside Philadelphia, had grown into a chain of 564 convenience stores (200 of which sold gasoline) within a 250-mile radius. A privately owned firm, Wawa employed over 16,000 people and had $4.67 billion of sales in 2006, an increase of 19.6 per cent over the prior year. It was widely admired as a highly effective and humane organization with a loyal and expanding body of customers.



This case addresses Wawa’s supply chain management (SCM) in the context of strategic direction, organizational design, and future growth opportunities. Over an eight-year period, Wawa had transformed its supply chain from a disjointed array of parts into a coherent, high-functioning system. Issues before the company now included (1) the relation between SCM and competitiveness; (2) the nature of the typical store and store manager; and (3) possible expansion beyond Wawa’s current area of operations. Another question concerned Wawa’s stores. Historically, these had featured a friendly ambience where “everybody knows your name,” but the company was moving towards larger, more standardized units with fewer offerings, with the goal of minimizing customer throughput time. What would this shift mean for the role of the store manager, and for the overall customer experience? Finally, to what extent was Wawa “landlocked” in its concentrated, middle-Atlantic market? Could — and should — the company attempt to export its distinctive value proposition, culture, and methods to other geographic areas?


Teaching Note: 8B11M042 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Geographic Expansion; Convenience Stores; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 2:
Supply Chain Performance: Achieving Strategic Fit and Scope

GLOBAL SOURCING AT ANHEUSER-BUSCH INBEV: TAPPING (BEER) INTO THE CHINESE SUPPLIER MARKET
Martin Lockstrom, Thomas E. Callarman, Shengrong (Linda) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12D015
Publication Date: 7/25/2012
Revision Date: 7/25/2012
Length: 5 pages

This case concerns the difficulties of global sourcing for InBev, an international brewery with branches in six geographical zones. In 2006, Pascal Baltussen came to China to set up the company's international procurement office and had it up and running by the end of the year. Not only were risks such as delivery delays and rising costs constantly lurking, but in 2010 his company, Brazilian-Belgian brewer InBev, acquired the almost equally large U.S. brewer Anheuser-Busch to form the world's largest brewer, AB InBev. This posed further complications. How could Baltussen now successfully roll out his sourcing vision for China and manage internal and external challenges?

Teaching Note: 8B12D015 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Global Sourcing; Supplier Selection; Procurement Organization; Sourcing Strategy; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



HALF A CENTURY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AT WAL-MART
P. Fraser Johnson, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B12D010
Publication Date: 4/19/2012
Revision Date: 11/12/2013
Length: 23 pages

In 2012, a stock analyst was preparing a recommendation on what his firm, a large U.S. investment house, should do with its stake in Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Wal-Mart, the world’s largest retailer, was trying to recover from a series of missteps that had seen competitors such as dollar stores and Amazon.com close the performance gap. Competitors had copied many aspects of Wal-Mart’s distribution system, including cross-docking products, eliminating storage time in warehouses, positioning stores around distribution centres, and widespread adoption of electronic data interchange (EDI), as well as ordering and shipping from suppliers.

Teaching Note: 8B12D010 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Operations Analysis; Supply Chain Management; Supplier Relations; Competitive Advantage; Scheduling; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CRP PRODUCTS
David Wood, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B11D015
Publication Date: 11/10/2011
Revision Date: 6/29/2012
Length: 7 pages

Bruce Ballantyne had recently joined C.R.P. Products (CRP), a furniture manufacturer in Stratford, Ontario, to help review the company’s operations and assess what changes were necessary to keep up with demand. Although it was early 2011 and the peak season was still four months away, Ballantyne knew that he would have to determine what equipment was needed over the next three weeks to ensure it was delivered and installed before the peak season. Jamie Bailey, the owner of CRP, had also concluded that CRP did not have the financing available for both the new equipment needed to make its unique design of outdoor furniture and the seasonal working capital required to support inventory and accounts receivable. He had turned to Ballantyne to develop a solution that would keep up with demand, keep inventory low, and work within the available financing.

Teaching Note: 8B11D015 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Capacity Management; Inventory, Batch Size and Free Capacity; Economic Order Quantity; Process Design; Plant Layout; Furniture; Ontario, Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Supply Chain Drivers and Metrics

DECISION-MAKING AT A-CAT CORP.
Jitendra R. Sharma

Product Number: 9B11D011
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Length: 5 pages

The case describes the situation faced by the vice president of A-CAT Corp. The company was a mid-sized manufacturer and distributor of domestic electrical appliances, largely catering to the price-sensitive rural population. The firm operated two medium-sized facilities in a remote district in Vidarbha, India. A-CAT manufactured a wide range of electrical appliances including TV signal boosters, transformers, FM radio kits, electronic ballasts, battery chargers, and voltage regulators. The focus was on its flagship product, the VR500 voltage regulator. The team planned to identify potential suppliers/vendors with their attendant strengths and weaknesses and to do so in a well-documented and structured manner. Analytical hierarchy process was a technique that could be used to meet this challenge.

Teaching Note: 8B11D011 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Cost-benefit Analysis; Decision Making; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CRAIG MANUFACTURING
Peter C. Bell, Benjamin Craig, Andrew Weston, Sachin Gupta

Product Number: 9B11E004
Publication Date: 4/8/2011
Length: 5 pages

The general manager of Craig Manufacturing Cambridge Branch felt that there was room to improve top-line growth through better utilization of plant capacity. The company was losing out on sales due to the highly seasonal nature of demand; the plant was fully loaded four months of the year, but it had unused capacity during the remaining months. The general manager had just attended a lecture where a more flexible approach to pricing had been suggested as a way to better manage supply chain and capacity issues. An idea began to emerge: Could Craig Manufacturing use pricing to better match demand to plant capacity? If so, would this practice boost profitability, or would it merely reduce revenues?

Teaching Note: 8B11E004 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Pricing; Capacity Planning; Optimization; Revenue Management; Seasonal Demand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



3M HEALTH CARE
P. Fraser Johnson, Viola Hoo

Product Number: 9B04D008
Publication Date: 1/4/2011
Length: 12 pages

A summer intern student at 3M Health Care must analyze the health care division’s logistics systems and report her findings to the vice president of 3M Health Care Markets. The vice president is most interested in the recommendations for the proposed changes to the existing method of distributing products to Canadian hospitals. This case provides sufficient information for students to assess the quantitative and qualitative issues relating to direct distribution versus maintaining a current supply chain structure of using value-added resellers.

Teaching Note: 8B04D08 (7 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Hospitals; Sales Strategy; Logistics; Distribution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Designing Distribution Networks and Applications to Online Sales

DALIAN AIRPORT'S ALLIANCE MANAGEMENT DILEMMA
Miao Cui, Jun Wang, Jacqueline Tuck, Jingqin Su, Shujuan Wang

Product Number: 9B13M120
Publication Date: 1/10/2014
Revision Date: 1/10/2014
Length: 10 pages

The general manager of market development for the Dalian International Airport in China was worried. Two years after he had successfully launched the Northeastern Hinterland and Bohai Rim Region Airport Aviation Market Strategic Alliance in 2009, it was facing serious external and internal challenges. Competitors had begun to impact on the alliance by intensively adding flights to regional airports with the support of subsidies from provincial and local governments. And as alliance members gained more air traffic, they began to compete for transport resources, which challenged the organization’s sustainable development. From the beginning, Dalian International Airport, as the core of the organization, had shared its routes and ticket fares with other alliance member airports, had removed landing fees for stopover flights and had organized a trade fair to encourage interactions between small regional airports and the airlines that had ignored them in the past, not recognizing how China’s booming economy was making even remote routes potentially profitable. The general manager had three possible options: utilizing outside help, increasing his airport’s market position and strengthening internal ties to resist external forces. All three options had their pros and cons. What should he do?

Teaching Note: 8B13M120 (10 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Alliance management; competitive advantage; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



KKBOX.COM
Darren Meister, Soe-Tsyr Yuan

Product Number: 9B11D012
Publication Date: 8/3/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case describes the strategic internationalization options of a Taiwan-based digital music service provider, KKBOX.com. KKBOX was the first independent profitable digital music service provider in the world, with several factors having contributed to its profitability. While KKBOX looked for growth, service internationalization made it increase its involvement in international operations through adapting its strategy, resources, and structure. The CEO of KKBOX needed to decide between global growth through a content-based path, a technology platform path, or a new service path. Though there were good reasons to pursue each, it was vital to prioritize them to understand what was negotiable and what was core when going across borders to build a sustainable and strong KKBOX brand.

Teaching Note: 8B11D012 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Cloud-based Digital Music Service; Service Internationalization; Taiwan; China; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LONG WANG SHA TAN KU COMPANY
Peter C. Bell, Anna Galica, Vincent Fung, Lothair Ling, Pik-Kei Osburga Chan

Product Number: 9B09E008
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Length: 7 pages

The chief operation officer (COO) of Long Wang Sha Tan Ku Company, a boardshorts manufacturer based in Shanghai, China, was expected to present a plan to improve the company's profitability through adjustments to the company's operations. There were at least three possible paths to increase profitability. First, reviewing how production was scheduled between the company's two manufacturing facilities. Second, since the company operated at capacity during busy times, he thought that it might be beneficial for the company to expand capacity in one of its manufacturing facilities. Finally, the COO wondered whether some price adjustments could help out of the company's supply chain and increase contribution.

Teaching Note: 8B09E08 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Production Scheduling; Capacity Analysis; Supply Chain Management; Production Management/Control
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Network Design in the Supply Chain

LOCATION PLANNING AT A.B. CORP.
Jitendra R. Sharma

Product Number: 9B12D008
Publication Date: 4/30/2012
Revision Date: 4/12/2012
Length: 3 pages

In March 2010, the management of A.B. Corp. announced its plan to select a definite location for its central warehouse. The company, a major producer of agriculture and farm equipment, had gone through three consecutive years of financial loss as a result of increasing production costs. Management had to select a central warehouse between four candidates, based on the location of five distribution centres, the loads to be transferred, and other factors such as land costs and tax.

Teaching Note: 8B12D008 (8 pages)
Issues: Location Analysis; Centre of Gravity; Load Distance Factors; Factor Rating Method; Decision Making; Agriculture; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAREHOUSING STRATEGY AT VOLKSWAGEN GROUP CANADA INC. (VGCA)
P. Fraser Johnson, Adam Bortolussi

Product Number: 9B12D002
Publication Date: 3/5/2012
Revision Date: 11/15/2012
Length: 8 pages

The director of warehousing and logistics at Volkswagen Group Canada (VGCA) had been tasked with analyzing the capacity of the Toronto parts distribution centre to support an aggressive growth plan that involved a series of new product launches and product facelifts. Expecting that expansion of the facility would be necessary, the director needed to determine the additional warehouse capacity required, when it would be needed by, and which expansion option made the most sense.

Teaching Note: 8B12D002 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Warehousing; Distribution; Capacity Analysis; Logistics; Automotive Industry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ARE WE READY FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE PLANT?
Yi-Chia Wu, Joo Y. Jung

Product Number: 9B09D014
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
Length: 15 pages

The city of McAllen, Texas and its partners have worked on attracting an automotive assembly plant to the region for over fifteen years. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provision, this region enjoys the advantages offered by both sides of the Mexican-U.S. border. Even during the economic downturn of 2007 to 2008, McAllen experienced a lower unemployment rate compared to other cities in the United States. One of the primary reasons was its close proximity and economic ties to Mexico. Lower labour cost, a right-to-work state and proximity to Mexico were some of this region's strengths, while a high illiteracy rate, limited numbers of automotive suppliers and small workforce were among its weaknesses. Based on publicly available data and aggregate score evaluation methods, McAllen is compared to other potential sites. The case addresses a wide range of issue regarding site selection factors within the automotive industry.

Teaching Note: 8B09D14 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Automotive; Site Selection; Global Strategy; Decision Making
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Designing Global Supply Chain Networks

LIGHTING UP PHILIPS' ASIAN ENTERTAINMENT ACTIVITIES (B)
Koen H. Heimeriks, Mark Gunther, Margrit Lelieveld

Product Number: 9B14M019
Publication Date: 4/16/2014
Revision Date: 4/15/2014
Length: 8 pages

The case illustrates how Philips’ new venture integration team applies a new capability, captured in the “sales integration approach” (SIA), to organically grow its Asian Professional Lighting Entertainment activities. The capability, designed for acquisition integration, has previously helped realize substantial growth (or sales) synergies in a recent acquisition. The main challenge is to understand how to apply the SIA to realize organic (instead of acquisitive) growth (i.e., internal development). This case can be used with Philips-Indal: The Deal from Heaven? (A) 9B14M018.

Teaching Note: 8B14M019 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Post-acquisition growth; organic growth; new venture integration; Europe; Asia; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ELIZABETH ARDEN: EXECUTING GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN RE-ENGINEERING
David Wood, Norman Gao

Product Number: 9B13D017
Publication Date: 11/8/2013
Revision Date: 1/14/2019
Length: 11 pages

In mid-2008, the senior vice-president of Global Supply Chain at Elizabeth Arden in New York City was troubled with the challenges that lay before him. He had been hired to make sweeping changes to the company’s management of its supply chain, and he had already made a significant impact in forecasting, inventory control and service performance. His next move would require a radical consolidation of suppliers, make dramatic changes to inventory management, have a far-reaching impact on product development and require major lead time reductions. Given such a disruptive move, would current suppliers be able to meet expectations? Could the company’s current employees keep up with the pace of change expected? How many would have to be let go, and what would this do the morale of the workforce? Were significant results to shareholders really achievable? How much money would be saved, where would the savings come from and when would they be realized? The senior vice-president was determined to execute the re-engineering in a manner that would best address all these concerns.

Teaching Note: 8B13D017 (15 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Strategy; design; restructuring; impact of supply chain innovation; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STRATEGIC SOURCING AT WHIRLPOOL CHINA: FINDING THE IDEAL SUPPLIER
Martin Lockstrom, Thomas E. Callarman, Shengrong (Linda) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12D012
Publication Date: 6/21/2012
Revision Date: 6/19/2012
Length: 8 pages

It was April 10, 2011, when the head of Whirlpool’s Asia International Procurement Office in Shanghai was informed by his colleagues that the company was about to launch a new energy-efficient refrigerator model in just six months. For the new refrigerator model, the basic difference was in the motor; the current AC motor would need to be replaced with a DC motor, which was more efficient but also more expensive. He would have to find a suitable supplier of DC motors in a very short time. Delayed sourcing of components would cause delays in the production of a new refrigerator and result in a later launch of new products. Within the home-appliance industry, the fierce level of competition meant that any delays in launching new products would result in a loss of sales. How should Whirlpool go about the process of finding a suitable supplier for the required DC motor parts? Should the company explore the possibility of developing its current supplier, or should it quickly engage an existing supplier of DC motors?

Teaching Note: 8B12D012 (7 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Suitable Supplier; IPO; Global Sourcing; Supplier Quality; Strategic Sourcing; Supplier Selection Criteria; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 7:
Demand Forecasting in a Supply Chain

HARMONIZING DEMAND FORECASTING AND SUPPLY AT MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.
Alok Yadav, Sunil Ashra

Product Number: 9B13D019
Publication Date: 1/13/2014
Revision Date: 1/10/2014
Length: 6 pages

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., a US$15.4 billion company in 2012, has been the number one tractor manufacturer in India for the last 30 years. The agriculture tractor sale market in India is seasonal in nature and growing. To meet demand, the company has four manufacturing plants and 26 sales offices across the country; their main job is to coordinate supplies between its 800 dealers and the company. The sales offices provide a rolling tractor demand forecast for the current month plus two months in the future; it is used to determine the number and models of tractors to manufacture and to enable placing parts supply orders in advance. The deputy general manager of sales in the company’s Farm Division has been receiving an increasing number of complaints from irate dealers about the irregular and short supply of tractors from the company’s stockyards. This has created stress and low dealer satisfaction. The deputy general manager has decided to improve the demand forecasting of agriculture tractor sales and hence supply management.

Student spreadsheet 7B13D019 with data is available.


Teaching Note: 8B13D019 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sales forecasting; tractor sales; excel spreadsheet; time series; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A-CAT CORP.: FORECASTING
Jitendra R. Sharma

Product Number: 9B13D016
Publication Date: 9/13/2013
Revision Date: 9/6/2013
Length: 4 pages

A-CAT Corp., a company that produces domestic electrical appliances in a poor region of India, largely caters to the price-sensitive rural market. During the past several months, there has been an alarming dip in sales of its major product, a voltage regulator that is used for varied purposes but most commonly as a protective device for refrigerators and television sets, to protect the latter from the vagaries of load fluctuations and/or frequent power failures, which are a very common phenomenon in the region. At the same time, the production department has been complaining about shortages of spares and components. Placing orders beyond a certain limit for the vital transformers used in most of its products has also stretched the system — whereas the company previously had access to four suppliers of transformers, now there is only one. The vice president has asked the chief operations manager to look into the problem. The operations manager traces the production planning process and its reliance on accurate forecasts. The manager’s job is to collect the data, analyze the data patterns, use forecasting methods, carry out back-testing and submit recommendations to management to solve the problem.

Teaching Note: 8B13D016 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Forecasting; back testing; errors; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PROJECT MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNET FORECASTING INDUSTRY
Owen Hall, Jr., Kenneth Ko

Product Number: 9B12E006
Publication Date: 5/25/2012
Revision Date: 5/17/2012
Length: 3 pages

B&W Systems designs and distributes a variety of management software products through the Internet and retail outlets such as Best Buy. The company is considering the development of an Internet-based forecasting system designed specifically for new start-up and small business owners. The company’s primary concern with the product is timing and the possibility of new market entrants. The director of operations has been tasked with reviewing the timely implementation of the new product, including estimated completion times and costs, and presenting his findings to the board.

Teaching Note: 8B12E006 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Information Systems; Project Management; Critical Path; Linear Programming; Forecasting
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 8:
Aggregate Planning in a Supply Chain

AGGREGATE PLANNING AT GREEN MILLS
Owen Hall, Jr., Kenneth Ko

Product Number: 9B13D002
Publication Date: 3/14/2013
Revision Date: 3/12/2013
Length: 3 pages

Green Mills Inc. operates several lumber mills throughout the Northwestern United States that produce a variety of wood products. The company is currently considering expanding operations to Chile as a vehicle for reducing the costs of raw materials. In that regard, the management team is interested in analyzing the cost implications as a vehicle to properly assess this backward integration strategy. More specifically, management wishes to evaluate several different aggregate planning policies including level, chase and mixed policies.

Teaching Note: 8B13D002 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Aggregate planning; sensitivity analysis; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



DANFOSS — GLOBAL MANUFACTURING FOOTPRINT
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B11M049
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 19 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Supply Chain Management Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case examines the supply chain, managerial, and organizational challenges facing a large European industrial company competing in a mature industry with strong price pressure. Established in the 1930s in Denmark, Danfoss initially produced automatic valves for refrigeration plants. The company has since grown into a major industrial group. Until the mid-1990s, Danfoss had the majority of its sales and production in Europe. This changed, however, with the arrival of a new CEO, who initiated a process to change the company into a global player within all of its main business areas.

Following this process of internationalization, the company was facing three main issues which top management was concerned about: Danfoss’s manufacturing network; its continued global growth; and its highly engineering-based culture. The first issue stemmed from the fact that Danfoss had followed a strategy of one product, one plant. This had created a situation with a lot of highly specialized product lines and very few common features between them. On the other hand, the internationalization strategy had so far been quite successful in Eastern Europe and China. In the United States, however, the company was still experiencing difficulties despite heavy investments in its manufacturing capacity in Mexico. In China, the company had experienced success and wanted to secure long-term growth in the market. The third issue was the very engineering-based culture of the company, which among other things was manifested in the fact that Danfoss previously developed products at the expense of consumer demand and preferences.


Teaching Note: 8B11M049 (12 pages)
Issues: Family Business; Supply Chain Management; Organizational Design; Manufacturing Strategy; Internationalization; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AVALANCHE CORPORATION: INTEGRATING BAYESIAN ANALYSIS INTO THE PRODUCTION DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
Owen Hall, Jr., Kenneth Ko

Product Number: 9B11D006
Publication Date: 5/20/2011
Length: 3 pages

The director of operations at Avalanche Corporation was faced with some major decisions. The firm was experiencing considerable difficulties in matching supply with demand. As a result, the company was overproducing and had to sell the excess at a loss. At a recent board meeting, the vice president of marketing reported on a new snowboard product, the Avalanche Racer. She presented her rationale for introducing a new ski product at this time by highlighting the growth of the ski equipment sales over the past five years. The board meeting concluded with the general manager tasking the director of operations with developing an analysis and reporting back his findings to the board the following week.

Teaching Note: 8B11D006 (6 pages)
Issues: Risk Analysis; Manufacturing; Break-even Analysis; Decision Making; Skiing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Sales and Operations Planning: Planning Supply and Demand in a Supply Chain

MEAGAL STELPLAST: STEERING A NEW PATH
Rajiv Misra, Achin Kishore

Product Number: 9B13D013
Publication Date: 7/12/2013
Revision Date: 7/5/2013
Length: 12 pages

A family-owned business that manufactures automobile horns for the replacement market in Delhi, India is considering options to improve current operations and expand the business. The company is faced with numerous challenges: erratic demand, lack of brand, high warranty returns, lack of information, availability of skilled manpower and implementing modern methods of manufacturing. The company is also considering expanding beyond Delhi and manufacturing products for automobile manufacturers, which requires adherence to regulatory certification.

Teaching Note: 8B13D013 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Process analysis; line balancing; plant expansion; production planning; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



DOW'S ACQUISITION PROGRAM
Koen H. Heimeriks, Stephen Gates

Product Number: 9B10M058
Publication Date: 9/30/2010
Revision Date: 6/26/2014
Length: 23 pages

This case illustrates how Dow Chemical acquired and integrated Wolff Walsrode, a German specialty chemicals firm that was part of the Bayer Group. This acquisition, combined with Dow's existing cellulosics unit, helped it create a new specialty business with a forecasted $1.1 billion in annual sales and strengthen its footprint in Central and Eastern Europe.

The main challenge in this case concerns the complexities of acquisition integration, which are demanding in spite of Dow's extensive experience and track record. Dow is confronted with various integration challenges and faces several decisions concerning the degree and speed of integration of Wolff Walsrode and one of its units, Probis. The decisions pit considerations of rapid cost synergy capture via leveraging global systems platforms against process technology transfer and accommodating different customers and their requirements. Along with providing a review of the importance of a multitude of codified implementation templates and tacit integration mechanisms, this case illustrates how Dow's M&A integration personnel prove their worth by ensuring Wolff's successful integration.


Teaching Note: 8B10M58 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; Cross-border Merger & Acquisition Integration; Target Acquisition Integration; United States; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARROWAY ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
Robert Klassen, Adam Bortolussi

Product Number: 9B10D004
Publication Date: 4/19/2010
Revision Date: 5/27/2014
Length: 9 pages

New technology being developed by Carroway Environmental promised a clean, inexpensive process to deal with a vexing problem: scrap tires. Using microwave energy, tires were broken down to reclaim their raw materials for sale into a wide variety of markets and alternative uses. Just as important, no harmful wastes and pollutants were created. But the president and chief executive officer was continuing to face challenges to secure additional funding of $2 million required to get his new business venture off the ground. The president was also unsure about where to locate the first large-scale pilot plant. Finally, given that the president envisioned developing multiple sites across North America, should he be looking for a joint venture partner?

Teaching Note: 8B10D04 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Process Design/Change; New Venture; Sustainable Development; Technology
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Coordination in a Supply Chain

ADANI AGRI LOGISTICS LIMITED: BLOCKING THE GRAIN DRAIN
Mohita Gangwar Sharma, K.N. Singh, Sachinder Mohan Sharma, Puneet Mehndiratta

Product Number: 9B14D001
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Revision Date: 4/1/2014
Length: 11 pages

Adani Agri Logistics Limited (AALL) was established to execute a national project for the bulk handling of food grains through a public-private partnership with the Food Corporation of India. This project involved financing, planning, designing, constructing, operating and maintaining modern infrastructure for the bulk handling, storage and transportation of grains required for the public distribution system. Although a technology-driven supply chain solution was implemented, the benefits of this innovative supply system did not come into full fruition even after four years of operation. AALL soon realized that farmers were reluctant to accept the new storage system because it was a departure from the relationship-based transactions they were used to undertaking with traditional intermediaries. In this way, the company learned that there are cultural subtleties and traditions that must be appreciated and given consideration, along with the economic justifications. How could these traditions be respected and upheld while making way for improvement and progress?

Teaching Note: 8B14D001 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Supply chain strategy; collaboration; national culture; trust; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



COLD CHAIN DISTRIBUTION ISSUES AT INDO-EURO PHARMA
Mohit Srivastava, Helen Rogers, Kulwant Pawar, Janat Shah

Product Number: 9B13D018
Publication Date: 12/16/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 12 pages

The supply chain director of Indo-Euro Pharma summoned an urgent meeting in response to significant losses incurred by the company in the last fiscal year. This was primarily due to the return of yet another international consignment of temperature-sensitive drugs (TSDs) — this time worth millions of dollars. The meeting focused on the inability of Indo-Euro Pharma to appropriately distribute and monitor TSDs cost effectively across the various stages and locations of the supply chain — especially at the pharmacist level. Deviations from drugs’ required temperature ranges could happen during packaging, storage, transport, loading and unloading in aircraft, sea containers, trucks, etc. It was extremely difficult to monitor whether pharmacists were following proper procedures for storing TSDs. Most medical stores in India had domestic refrigerators that required frequent calibration. The problems indicated the need for Indo-Euro Pharma to adopt an alternative distribution system that was specifically tailored for TSDs.

Teaching Note: 8B13D018 (7 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Cold chain; pharmaceutical; temperature sensitive drugs; distribution; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PURCHASING CONSORTIUM FOR THE BMS INDUSTRY IN SINGAPORE
Mei Qi, Siew Hwa Ong

Product Number: 9B12D014
Publication Date: 7/17/2012
Revision Date: 7/9/2012
Length: 6 pages

Since November 2011, the director and chief scientist for Acumen Research Laboratories (ARL) had been conferring with Spring Singapore — a government agency devoted to the city-state’s economic growth — on ways to improve the current procurement practices of the biomedical science (BMS) industry in Singapore. As a senior chief scientist and the founder of ARL, she saw and experienced tremendous purchasing inefficiency and quality problems in the existing procurement practice in sourcing supplies and equipment. She believed that a centralized procurement structure and process among all members of the BMS industry in Singapore would be more efficient and was in April 2012 finalizing a proposal to Spring Singapore for initial funding to set up such a purchasing consortium. This consortium would be a new line of business for ARL.

Teaching Note: 8B12D014 (7 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Purchasing Consortium; Entrepreneurship; Purchasing Process; Supply Distribution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Managing Economies of Scale in a Supply Chain: Cycle Inventory

PHILIPS-INDAL: THE DEAL FROM HEAVEN? (A)
Koen H. Heimeriks, Ruud Geenen

Product Number: 9B14M018
Publication Date: 4/16/2014
Revision Date: 7/14/2015
Length: 18 pages

Philips’ new venture integration (NVI) department is aware of the fact that many acquisitions turn into “deals from hell” instead of “deals from heaven.” Its post-merger integration specialists have learned that cost synergies are far easier to realize than sales (or growth) synergies. Stimulated by the urge to grow, the NVI department has developed a new methodology called the “sales integration approach” to realize sales (or growth) synergies. It tries to implement this approach during the acquisition integration of Indal, a Spanish lighting company.

The main challenge is presented by the shift in acquisition-integration capability following Philips’ evolved corporate strategy. While historically Philips had a substantive acquisition program, Philip’s new CEO has stressed the need for organic growth and set the stage for a series of medium and small acquisitions. Philips needs to become more customer-centric to increase corporate growth. This has required a focus not just on cost synergies (e.g., economies of scale and increased efficiency), but also on capturing sales (or growth) synergies. Philips-Indal must choose to defend regions in which it has a strong position or target regions where it has a weaker position. Furthermore, Philips’ post-merger integration leader must choose an organizational structure for Philips-Indal and convince Indal’s executive team to adopt the NVI department’s sales integration approach. This case can be used with Lighting Up Philips' Asian Entertainment Activities (B) 9B14M019.


Teaching Note: 8B14M018 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Post-acquisition growth; post-merger integration; growth synergy; new venture integration; Europe; The Netherlands; Spain
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



OPERATIONS STRATEGY AT GALANZ
Ng Chi Hung, Barbara Li, Xiande Zhao, Xuejun Xu, Yang Lei

Product Number: 9B10D005
Publication Date: 8/20/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starting from a humble beginning of being a manufacturer of down feather products owned by Shunde Township, Galanz Enterprises Group Co. Ltd. (Galanz) had transformed itself into a world class manufacturer of microwave ovens producing about 50 per cent of the global output in 2003. This case describes the competitive and operational strategies that Galanz used to achieve such a meteoric growth. The company started out with a clear competitive strategy based on cost leadership. It designed and implemented operations system to help achieve lower cost through economy of scale, the transfer of production capacity from developed countries and full utilization of the available production capacity.

Teaching Note: 8B10D05 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Competitive Strategy; Operations Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TSC STORES: SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR PROFITABLE GROWTH
P. Fraser Johnson

Product Number: 9B09D005
Publication Date: 3/9/2009
Length: 10 pages

In May 2007, the chief operating officer at TSC Stores in London, Ontario, asked the director of distribution to evaluate the company's supply chain strategy and make recommendations to the board of directors. The chief operating officer was concerned about the ability of the company's supply chain to support the corporate business plan, which called for 20 per cent annual growth over the next three years. Preliminary analysis indicated that TSC would need more distribution capacity by first quarter 2008, which gave the director of distribution only six to eight months to evaluate options and implement a plan. The chief operating officer and the board would want to know the process and schedule that the director of distribution intended to follow to deal with the evolving capacity demands in distribution.

Teaching Note: 8B09D05 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Supply Chain Strategy; Capacity Planning; Distribution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Managing Uncertainty in a Supply Chain: Safety Inventory

ATHLETIC KNIT
David Wood, Dina Ribbink

Product Number: 9B12D020
Publication Date: 8/31/2012
Revision Date: 7/17/2017
Length: 7 pages

This case investigates issues of obsolescence and inventory control in a local sportswear company that is competing on the global stage with both multinational corporations and foreign, low-cost distributors. Athletic Knit, a family-owned company in Toronto, faces the need to balance peak-season demand during the third quarter of the year with the available knitting production capacity. Inventory, if it serves a purpose, can be an asset to a company, but too much inventory can be a liability. Trade-offs between capacity, inventory, and flexibility to meet custom orders must be met to support corporate strategy. Given the competitive nature of the industry, tighter inventory controls are essential, but the company must weigh endangering its reputation for fast responses to custom orders with managing inventory to prevent stock-outs and/or overruns of stock that cannot be sold.

Teaching Note: 8B12D020 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Inventory Analysis; Economic Order Quantity; Aggregate Planning; Cost; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING AT A-CAT CORP.
Jitendra R. Sharma, Tinu Agrawal

Product Number: 9B12D003
Publication Date: 4/12/2012
Revision Date: 4/11/2012
Length: 5 pages

Material requirements planning (MRP) systems have been widely used by manufacturing firms to maintain an optimum flow of inputs for the best production results. By using an MRP system, a firm can prepare a production plan that specifies the number of sub-assemblies that go into a final product along with the exact timeline of an order, from placement to completion.

In the case, an A-CAT employee is assigned the task of preparing an operating plan for the next eight weeks for a product. She has to decide how much to produce to be able to meet the requirements economically, taking into account the forecasted demand. The case examines the intricacies of procurement, warehousing, and processing costs of various material components by critically evaluating different techniques in practice. Using situational scenarios, the case presents lot-sizing techniques — including lot for lot, economic order quantity, least total cost and least unit cost — for balancing costs such as set-up costs, ordering costs, and inventory-holding costs.


Teaching Note: 8B12D003 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Material Requirements Planning; Inventory Management; Lot-sizing Techniques; Bill of Materials; Electrical Appliances; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE NORTH WEST COMPANY (B): SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
P. Fraser Johnson, Stephen R. Foerster, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B07D008
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
Length: 7 pages

The North West Company cases allow students to take a cross-enterprise leadership approach in looking at the dilemma facing the president and chief executive officer of The North West Company (North West), a food and general merchandise retailer operating primarily in Northern Canada. In early 2003, North West had negotiated a master franchisor agreement with Giant Tiger Stores Limited (Giant Tiger) with the objective of opening stores west of Winnipeg. In contrast with North West's push system of product replenishment, Giant Tiger had developed a successful pull system that gave individual store managers tremendous leeway in ordering decisions. The president and CEO wonders whether there is an opportunity to drive better results by adopting Giant Tiger's pull system within its Northern stores. The upside potential may include higher sales and reduced inventory levels as merchandise is tailored for each community. On the other hand, North West may face logistics and human resources issues in attempting to adopt this new system. This supplement to The North West Company (A): Cross-enterprise Strategy, product 9B07M047, discusses the supply chain issues.

Teaching Note: 8B07D08 (4 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Determining the Optimal Level of Product Availability

UPGRADING THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AT SICHUAN TELECOM
Xu Chen, Zhang Du, Li Zheng, Ding Yichao, Liu Ying

Product Number: 9B12D013
Publication Date: 8/21/2012
Revision Date: 8/20/2012
Length: 7 pages

In the process of business development, many enterprises have to deal with issues from all dimensions of operations management including inventory management, distribution management, and network design. Sichuan Telecom, a branch of China Telecom Co. Ltd, which was a Fortune Global 500 company, had achieved its highest market share in its broadband business and maintained strong growth momentum in this segment. However, there was a serious inventory management problem concerning ADSL modems, a component that most broadband users required. The problem was that Sichuan Telecom's ADSL modem inventory was either too high or insufficient. To reduce inventory costs and improve the service level, the procurement manager conducted a comprehensive analysis of the company's sales and demand forecasting, procurement and suppliers, distribution management, warehouse management, and inventory management. This case follows the procurement manager in analyzing the company's existing operational management system for ADSL modems in order to discover the cause of the inventory problem and develop an effective plan to improve operations management.

Teaching Note: 8B12D013 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Inventory Planning Control; Distribution Design; Telecommunications; Service Industry; China; Ivey/CMCC
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PROCESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR XYZ LIMITED - KLTD DIVISION
Srinivasan Maheswaran

Product Number: 9B09D007
Publication Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 4 pages

The case describes the situation faced by the vice-president of operations at Konkan Leaf Tobacco Development, the tobacco processing unit of XYZ Limited. This unit is in charge of procurement and processing of different varieties and grades of tobacco grown in southern India. The tobacco leaves are categorized into different varieties on the basis of quality and location of the crop. The company has two processing plants with varying processing capacities. Due to the seasonal and agricultural nature of the commodity, the company is finding it difficult to maintain efficiencies between the inflow of the tobacco and the requirement of the processing line capacity, resulting in frequent start-stop situations for the processing lines. This case enables students to develop strategies for the process management to achieve the optimum process schedule, which will result in the fewest stoppages of the process lines and optimization of both the utilization of the processing lines and the inflow patterns among the processing units.

Teaching Note: 8B09D07 (8 pages)
Issues: Mapping Inflow and Processing Line Capacity; Process Management; Capacity Utilization; Forecasting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAN B&W DIESEL A/S — MANAGING LICENSEES IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

Product Number: 9B09M030
Publication Date: 8/27/2009
Revision Date: 9/2/2011
Length: 20 pages

MAN B&W Diesel (MBD), a subsidiary of MAN AG, had become very successful by having its large two-stroke diesel engines produced under licence in Asia. The success had led it to the position of world leader in ship engines, with world market shares between 70 and 80 per cent. The relationship between MBD and the licensees was characterized by both parties leveraging each other’s competencies. It was critical for MBD to access new knowledge in order to optimize products from the producing licensees. Similarly, the licensees leveraged access to the design specifications of the engines as well as expert knowledge and service offerings from MBD. Despite MBD’s success with the licence business model during recent years, new developments had triggered some concerns over the model’s long-term sustainability and feasibility, particularly with regard to competitors and intellectual property rights in China. Hence, the main challenge facing MBD was how to future-proof and perhaps adjust its business model to secure more control of critical knowledge and the licensees without jeopardizing the productive and lucrative licensee relationships.

Teaching Note: 8B09M30 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Licensing; Global Strategy; Value Chain; Shipbuilding; Intellectual Property Rights; Europe; Korea; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Transportation in a Supply Chain

YAMATO TRANSPORT CO. LTD.: TA-Q-BIN
H. Brian Hwarng, Motoka Mouri

Product Number: 9B13D021
Publication Date: 2/28/2014
Revision Date: 2/28/2014
Length: 18 pages

Since 1976, Yamato had enjoyed steady growth in the Japanese domestic parcel delivery market. Yamato had maintained its leading position in Japan through its highly acclaimed TA-Q-BIN service. However, with changing demographics and market conditions, the business landscape had been changing. Overdependence on the domestic delivery business limited the overall growth of Yamato. Furthermore, the growth of the TA-Q-BIN business in Japan was limited by the stagnant growth of Japan’s economy. Makoto Kigawa, president and then chairman of Yamato Transport, had been relentlessly pursuing business restructuring as well as promoting productivity improvements. His goal was to increase the share of the delivery business related to overseas markets from four to twenty per cent of total revenue by the time of Yamato’s centennial celebrations in 2019. How could he successfully implement the TA-Q-BIN service system in overseas markets such as Taiwan, Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Malaysia?

Teaching Note: 8B13D021 (12 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Express delivery; door-to-door services; global operations; Japan
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SINOFERT HOLDINGS LIMITED: UREA DISTRIBUTION PLANNING
Peter C. Bell, Mehmet A. Begen, Duan Changshan, Fiona Yiu, Jeremy Cheng

Product Number: 9B13E027
Publication Date: 9/19/2013
Revision Date: 9/19/2013
Length: 6 pages

Sinofert Holdings Limited, the largest comprehensive fertilizer enterprise in China, is trying to improve the profitability of its urea business. The company has invested a great deal of time and money but still reported losses in 2007 and 2009 and only a small profit in 2008. Sinofert both manufactures urea and purchases it from external suppliers, as well as distributing it to the provinces. Manufacturing costs, transportation costs, market prices, demand forecasts and manufacturing constraints are all known. An optimal distribution plan using linear programming can be compared to the plan derived by Sinofert management. Substantial profitability increases are shown to be possible, although the optimization reveals some issues with contract constraints. If the company is to make its urea business profitable, it needs a fresh look and a change in the way of doing business. The company’s chief analytics officer has been asked to look at the urea business and to provide recommendations to increase profitability.

Teaching Note: 8B13E027 (3 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Optimization; transportation problem; supply chain; distribution planning; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DHL SUPPLY CHAIN
Singfat Chu, David Ringrose

Product Number: 9B12E003
Publication Date: 4/19/2012
Revision Date: 4/24/2015
Length: 3 pages

The degradation of the environment has led many governments and customers to pressure businesses to make their operations more environmentally friendly. The case illustrates an effective example of corporate social responsibility. Specifically, it demonstrates how a small increase in a supply chain budget can drastically reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the transportation of LCD TVs from their manufacturing bases to a distribution centre.

Teaching Note: 8B12E003 (7 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Environmental Sustainability; Linear Programming; Logistics; Optimization Analysis; Spreadsheet Modeling; Corporate Social Responsibility; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Sourcing Decisions in a Supply Chain

AGILE ELECTRIC: QUALITY ISSUES IN A GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN
Dhruv Dar, Sanjay Kumar, Vijay Aggarwal

Product Number: 9B12D011
Publication Date: 7/18/2012
Revision Date: 8/16/2012
Length: 16 pages

The case describes the evolution of a global multi-tiered supply chain involving one of the world’s largest automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), its tier 1 supplier — Automek, a U.S.-based global corporation — and the tier 2, tier 3, and tier 4 suppliers based in India.

With Automek’s engineering support, India-based Agile Electric had successfully developed many parts for the OEM in the past. Based on this experience, Automek buyers placed an order with Agile for a new product — an actuator assembly. In developing this product with little support from Automek, Agile was concerned due to its lack of knowledge concerning the suppliers for the actuator assembly components and the critical requirements. To allay its concerns, Automek promised to locate suppliers and assess and validate the suppliers based in India. Agile then invested in the assembly line and developed the actuator assembly. When supplies started, the OEM reported many quality problems, traceable to the tiered suppliers.

Along with quality and parts supply issues, the issues of subsequent liability in the case of a recall by the OEM were faced by members of the supply chain. Agile felt that since Automek had selected or approved the suppliers, and since Agile had had no original product expertise, that Automek should take responsibility for resolving the quality problems.


Teaching Note: 8B12D011 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Sourcing; Supply Chain Management; Quality Management; Cross-cultural Differences; Developing Countries; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL INDUSTRY: HOW BP GREASES ITS MACHINERY FOR FRICTIONLESS SOURCING
Martin Lockstrom, Shen Li, Shengrong (Linda) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12D006
Publication Date: 3/28/2012
Revision Date: 3/28/2012
Length: 9 pages

In the winter of 2010 in Shanghai, Dr. Zeb Feng, procurement director for Asia at British Petroleum (BP), was acutely aware of the growing burden that quality control imposed over his company’s global operations. Chinese suppliers were masters of cost-cutting, but quality often suffered as a result, which led in turn to an increased need for inspection and development efforts. Almost five years ago, Feng’s company had established an international procurement office (IPO) in Shanghai, which served as a shared service centre for internal customers throughout BP worldwide. Since that time, the IPO had been mainly sourcing non-hydrocarbon goods and services.



After a corporate board meeting with Christina De Luca, the vice president of procurement and supply chain management for BP’s downstream operations, it had been decided that the company would start to enhance its global competitive sourcing. As the number-one supplier market in the world, China was a high priority for further oil exploration. The pressing point that concerned Feng was whether Chinese suppliers were sufficiently ready to supply mission-critical supplies for oil drilling, extraction, and refining. During a recent conference call, De Luca had reiterated, “Zeb, our competitors are way ahead of us in their sourcing operations, and they have achieved much lower costs. We’ve got to do something!” Feng had to gather his team for a planning meeting. He knew that supply quality was the key issue, but how could it be resolved?


Teaching Note: 8B12D006 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: International Procurement Office (IPO); Quality Management; China; CEIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



HIGH-TECH METAL COMPONENTS: FINDING LOCAL SUPPLIERS
Martin Lockstrom, Shen Li

Product Number: 9B12D004
Publication Date: 3/22/2012
Revision Date: 10/26/2015
Length: 10 pages

In May 2009, High-Tech Metal Components (HTMC) inaugurated its brand new production plant of forgings and castings for automotive supplies in Suzhou, a city of 13 million close to Shanghai, China. After the successful installation of machinery and placement of workers, the company was prepared to begin production. A month later, the general manager of the Chinese division of HTMC received a phone call from the chief operating officer of its German headquarters; it was decided that it was necessary to cut costs for 2009 by more than five per cent. The cost structure was way too high, with many components imported from Europe. How could cost-cutting be done with the existing supply chain design in China? What long-term measures could be taken to realize the goal?

Teaching Note: 8B12D004 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supplier Management; Low-cost Country Sourcing; Technology; Germany; China; CEIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 16:
Pricing and Revenue Management in a Supply Chain

RED BRAND CANNERS AND ITS SUPPLY CHAIN
Christoph Haehling von Lanzenauer, Olaf Pohl

Product Number: 9B12E007
Publication Date: 8/10/2012
Revision Date: 10/6/2016
Length: 5 pages

Developed as a companion to the Red Brand Canners (RBC) case, the starting point in this case is the improvement in performance resulting from the optimization approach in the original case. However, RBC’s vice president of operations is concerned about the quality and quantity mix of the most recent tomato crop received from Greenfield Farms (GF). RBC’s preferred quality and quantity mixes differ significantly from the current harvest. To RBC, the issue is how to motivate the supplier to produce a crop more in line with RBC’s needs. Initially, both firms in the B2B section of the supply chain try to find a combination that would be mutually beneficial — an attempt that fails because of conflicts of interest. RBC’s objective might be accomplished by taking a supply chain approach and modifying the delivery contract by an appropriate pricing scheme. The task is to identify and calibrate a pricing scheme that will realize the supply chain’s maximum performance and lead to a stable win-win solution. The derivation of the supply chain optimal prices is carried out by developing and solving a linear optimization model.

Teaching Note: 8B12E007 (17 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Pricing; Linear Programming; Quantitative Analysis;Food Processing Industry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DENTAL ASSOCIATES OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA (A)
Marie E. Matta

Product Number: 9B10D017
Publication Date: 5/12/2011
Length: 6 pages

Dental Associates of Northern Virginia is one of the largest dental networks in northern Virginia. In this series of two cases, the head administrator must choose between keeping up with new technology by investing in innovative all-porcelain crown-making machines or holding onto a strategy of waiting and seeing. This choice also aligns with the head administrator making a larger decision of whether to enhance the core competency of his network by developing a complete in-house laboratory or continuing to rely on an expensive, but reliable, outside laboratory for all-porcelain restorations. Together, the two cases in the series are rich in concepts of cost, timeliness, quality, and flexibility, as students are forced to see an operations problem from both patient and doctor perspectives. The cases also consider the ever-changing world of technology and how it impacts a doctor’s practice along with an entire network of offices.

Teaching Note: 8B10D017 (14 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Break-even Analysis; Cost/benefit Analysis; Outsourcing; Operations Management; Technological Change; Dentistry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VESTAS WIND SYSTEMS A/S - EXPLOITING GLOBAL R&D SYNERGIES
Torben Pedersen, Marcus Moller Larsen

Product Number: 9B09M079
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Length: 17 pages

With a change in management in 2005 came a radical reorganization and the announcement of several new strategic initiatives. Among the initiatives was the establishment of the Vestas Technology research and development (R&D) business unit with an aim of achieving global leadership in all core technology areas and, consequently, strengthening the core competence for the company. By 2008, Vestas had succeeded in setting up a global R&D network with R&D centres in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore and India, and, in early 2009, a centre was opened in the United States. This transformed Vestas into a high-tech company and put a greater emphasis on its technological innovations.

Teaching Note: 8B09M79 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Research and Development; Global Strategy; Value Chain; Technology Transfer
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
Information Technology in a Supply Chain

VINSUN INFRA ENGINEERING: ERP ON PREMISE OR ON CLOUD
Sumedha Chauhan, Sangeeta Shah Bharadwaj

Product Number: 9B13E018
Publication Date: 8/7/2013
Revision Date: 1/6/2014
Length: 9 pages

The managing director of a small- to medium-sized electrical firm faces a major challenge: he realizes that the firm he founded has grown so significantly that information management has become very difficult. For solving issues of data integrity, redundancy, incompleteness and backup, he obtains quotations for implementation of enterprise resource planning from different vendors. Meanwhile, he discusses the issue of implementing the new system with his management team, who respond in different tones, leaving him confused. He also has to ensure that the initiative does not put strain on the firm’s finances. He ponders various options such as whether to adopt enterprise resource planning on premise or on cloud and whether to go with the safe but costly option of engaging a well-established firm or to risk dealing with a start-up.

Teaching Note: 8B13E018 (11 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: ERP; cloud computing; software as a service; information management; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



1-888-JUNK-VAN
Derrick Neufeld, Liliana Lopez Jimenez

Product Number: 9B11E025
Publication Date: 8/30/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 15 pages

The case describes the selection of an information technology (IT) product to support the operations of 1-888-Junk-Van, a small waste-collection business. Marcus Kingo, the business owner, has five alternatives from which to choose: a database upgrade, contracting out development of a new software application, using Google Docs, using an online tool framed as Platform as a Service (PaaS), or implementing a small-business enterprise resource-planning (ERP) system. Each option presents strengths and weaknesses, and students are left to make a decision. The case exemplifies the IT deployment challenges faced by small companies.

Teaching Note: 8B11E025 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Information Technology; IT Selection and Evaluation; Small Companies; Virtual Business; Cloud Computing; Waste Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WOODSYNERGY INC: INTEGRATING IT INTO THE SUPPLY CHAIN
Owen Hall, Jr., Andrea Scott, Mark Chun

Product Number: 9B10E013
Publication Date: 10/13/2010
Length: 4 pages

WoodSynergy Inc. had become a midsize player in the fine woods supplier industry. The firm purchased stock woods from a number of producers and processed them to meet specific customer specifications. WoodSynergy had recently launched a number of IT-based supply chain management initiatives and was interested in assessing the current progress. The senior management at WoodSynergy had long felt that efficiency improvements to the firm's supply chain could be made through increased information integration. This case introduces the student or student teams to the growing role of information technology in supply chain management.

Teaching Note: 8B10E13 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Strategy; Supply Chain Management; Information Technology
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 18:
Sustainability and the Supply Chain

NAMO ALLOYS PVT. LTD. - A DRIVE TO SUSTAINABLE INVESTMENT DECISION
Jitendar Khatri Bittoo, Ashutosh Dash

Product Number: 9B13D022
Publication Date: 2/28/2014
Revision Date: 2/28/2014
Length: 14 pages

Namo Alloys, a medium-size, secondary-metal manufacturing firm, is seeking to expand by investing in new technology. The co-founder’s challenge is to select a technology that aligns with the company’s sustainable manufacturing philosophy by creating not only economic value but also sustainable societal and environmental values that will ensure triple bottom line value creation for all company stakeholders.

Teaching Note: 8B13D022 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sustainable investment; sustainable development; triple bottom line; multi-criteria decision making; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



BUILDING SUSTAINABLE DISTRIBUTION AT WALMART CANADA
Robert Klassen, P. Fraser Johnson, Asad Shafiq

Product Number: 9B13D010
Publication Date: 4/5/2013
Revision Date: 11/12/2013
Length: 9 pages

The director of logistics at Walmart Canada, was developing plans for a new distribution centre in Alberta. Senior management had presented her with a challenge: why not build the most sustainable distribution centre in the world? Yet, much remained unclear about how to translate this challenge into specific actions, while keeping in mind corporate goals for sustainability. Her team now was exploring three options that promised to be significantly greener: hydrogen fuel cells for forklift trucks, LED lighting and renewable energy generation from on-site wind turbines. Any investment in these sustainable technologies had to make business sense, and any decision could dramatically affect the distribution centre’s operating performance.

Teaching Note: 8B13D010 (12 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Environmental Management; Supply Chain; Renewable Energy; Distribution; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAL-MART CHINA: SUSTAINABLE OPERATIONS STRATEGY
David J. Robb, Ben Hopwood, Lei Wang, Jun Cheng

Product Number: 9B08D009
Publication Date: 5/5/2009
Length: 20 pages

A German expatriate had moved to China in 2005 to take up a merchandizing position at the Wal-Mart China headquarters in Shenzen. By 2008 he had been promoted to the new position of senior director for sustainability for Wal-Mart China (retail) and Global Procurement. His new position required that he lead the rapidly-approaching inaugural Wal-Mart Sustainability Summit. The senior director must ensure that Wal-Mart China's five Strategic Value Networks (SVNs), which were tasked with leading sustainability change within the organization, continued to engage stakeholders by implementing innovative solutions that not only cut costs but also lead to more sustainable operations. The case describes Wal-Mart China's operations (including purchasing, distribution and retail) in the context of the company's desire to improve sustainability in a manner appropriate to China. The immediate issue is to identify opportunities to improve the sustainability of Wal-Mart China's distribution systems and retail operations.

Teaching Note: 8B08D09 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Distribution; Purchasing; Logistics; Supply Chain Management; Sustainability; Tsinghua/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA