Ivey Publishing

Total Global Strategy

Yip, G.S.; Hult, T.M.,3/e (United States, Pearson, 2012)
Prepared By Dwarka Chakravarty, PhD Student
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Understanding Global Strategy

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RANDOM HOUSE: SHIFTING TO E-BOOKS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD
Sarah Bickert, Volker Diestegge, Thorsten Knauer, Katja Möslang, Andrea Schroer, Friedrich Sommer

Product Number: 9B13M083
Publication Date: 9/25/2013
Revision Date: 9/24/2013
Length: 15 pages

The publisher Random House, a fully owned subsidiary of the German family company Bertelsmann SE & Co. KgaA, faces significant changes in its markets and internal structure. While printed books have been the company’s core competence from its earliest years, with the advent of the Internet, customers, especially in the West, are beginning to prefer electronic books. Will printed books be completely replaced by digital ones, or will e-books remain a niche market? How will this development affect production, distribution and marketing? Will Random House be able to compete for authors and sales with such online e-book giants as Amazon? The imminent merger with the U.K. publishing house Penguin also provides an opportunity and incentive to expand Random House’s operations into China as part of the internationalization strategy of the parent company. A post-merger integration plan must be established since the two publishers’ regional presences and product offerings are in part complementary. How can the new Penguin Random House strengthen its position as the world’s biggest and most successful publisher?

Teaching Note: 8B13M083 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Publishing; e-books; internationalization; strategic positioning; Germany; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA'S GLOBAL REACH
Paul W. Beamish, Vanessa Hasse

Product Number: 9B13M016
Publication Date: 2/11/2013
Revision Date: 3/4/2013
Length: 15 pages

In 2012, two years after a major restructuring project had begun at German skin care producer Beiersdorf, the process was still ongoing. The new chief executive officer (CEO) inherited several challenges from his predecessor, including the difficult implementation of the new transnational strategy, opposition from employees and the work council, and ineffective market-entry strategies (especially in China). Strong competitors and a slow rate of economic recovery in Beiersdorf’s main markets provided additional complexity. Questions remained about how the new CEO should address the ongoing challenges facing the company.

Teaching Note: 8B13M016 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Reorganization; Transnational; Restructuring; Multinational; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOUIS VUITTON
Mary M. Crossan, Manu Mahbubani

Product Number: 9B13M022
Publication Date: 2/4/2013
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 19 pages

Louis Vuitton, the flagship group within Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH), had contributed to the stellar growth of the group in 2010 and 2011. But, there were clouds on the horizon. Was the recent growth sustainable? What steps should Louis Vuitton take to address upcoming challenges? This case takes the student through the challenges a global company faces as it tries to grow a business that is based on one of the most valued high-end brands in the world. The case reveals the fundamental strategic tension between what a firm needs to do, given the competitive environment, what it can do, given its resources and organization, and what leaders want to do, given their fundamental motivations and beliefs, which shape the way they see the issues.

Teaching Note: 8B13M022 (22 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Strategic Management; Managing Global Business, Luxury Industry; Dynamic Capabilities; Global
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SWATCH AND THE GLOBAL WATCH INDUSTRY
Allen Morrison, Cyril Bouquet

Product Number: 9A99M023
Publication Date: 5/9/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The efforts of Swatch to reposition itself in the increasingly competitive global watch industry are reviewed in this case. Extensive information on the history and structure of the global watch industry is provided and the shrinking time horizons decision makers face in formulating strategy and in responding to changes in the industry are highlighted. In particular, the case discusses how technology and globalization have changed industry dynamics and have caused companies to reassess their sources of competitive advantage. Like other companies, Swatch faces the difficult task of deciding whether to emphasize product breadth, or focus on a few key global brands. It also must decide whether to shift manufacturing away from Switzerland to lower cost countries like India.

Teaching Note: 8A99M23 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Industry Analysis; Competing with Multinationals; Globalization
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 2:
Diagnosing Industry Globalization Potential

METALFRIO: ACHIEVING GLOBAL LEADERSHIP IN THE PLUG-IN COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY
Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, Flavia De Magalhaes Alvim

Product Number: 9B13M012
Publication Date: 3/5/2013
Revision Date: 3/6/2013
Length: 21 pages

The chief executive officer and chair of the board of directors of a company that designs, builds and sells consumer and commercial refrigeration products are trying to decide if the firm should expand in Asia and, if so, which method it should use. In recent years, Metalfrio has become a global leader in its industry by establishing manufacturing operations in Mexico, Turkey and Russia, as well as expanding within its home territory of Brazil, with sales in over 80 countries. Asia is offering promising opportunities for growth, and key customers are suggesting the company establish manufacturing operations there to better serve its global needs. The case addresses how Metalfrio transfers its competitive advantages across its international operations, and it further discusses how the company coordinates its operations to serve countries in which it does not have a production facility via exports. The case analyzes the competitive advantage of the firm and its transferability to other countries.

The supplement, A Note on the Commercial Refrigeration Industry 9B13M024, provides an overview of the commercial refrigeration sector.


Teaching Note: 8B13M012 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Competitive Advantage; Emerging Markets; Internationalization; Brazil; Turkey; Russia; Mexico; Denmark
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEGO GROUP: AN OUTSOURCING JOURNEY
Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen, Dmitrij Slepniov

Product Number: 9B10M094
Publication Date: 12/1/2010
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

The last year's rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would phase out the entire sourcing collaboration with Flextronics. This sudden change in its sourcing strategy posed LEGO management with a number of caveats. Despite the bright forecasts, the collaboration did not fulfill the initial expectations, and the company needed to understand why this had happened. Secondly, what could LEGO management have done differently?

Teaching Note: 8B10M94 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Outsourcing; Management Control; Global Strategy; Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CANADIAN SOLAR
Paul W. Beamish, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B10M019
Publication Date: 4/5/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 18 pages

In late September 2009, the CEO of the Nasdaq-traded solar cell and module manufacturer, Canadian Solar, was at an inflection point in the formation of its international strategy. The company had experienced dynamic growth during the past five years buoyed largely by aggressive incentive schemes to install solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in Germany and Spain. The credit crunch, coupled with changes in government incentive programs, caused a major decline in the demand for solar PV technology and analysts were predicting that full year 2009 sales would decline. Furthermore, competition in the industry was fierce with diverse players ranging from Japanese electronic giants to low-cost Chinese producers. Canadian Solar had decided to focus on 10 major markets in the next two to three years where strong renewable policies existed. Students are challenged with deciding if any changes to the company's global strategy are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B10M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Business; Growth Strategy; Global Product; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Building Global Market Participation

WALMART'S AFRICAN EXPANSION
Karen Robson, Stefanie Beninger, Sudheer Gupta

Product Number: 9B13M111
Publication Date: 11/19/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 10 pages

Walmart has decided to expand into Africa through the acquisition of the South African consumer goods retailer Massmart. In doing so, the world’s largest retailer faces significant backlash from South Africa’s largest union. The company must also contend with price-sensitive consumers and a lack of supplier relationships on the African continent. Will Walmart appeal to South African consumers and achieve the volume of sales needed to make its first African presence a success.

Teaching Note: 8B13M111 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Globalization; cross-cultural management; emerging markets; South Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CUMI INDIA'S GLOBAL STRATEGY: THE CHINA PUZZLE
S. Ramnarayan, Charles Dhanaraj, Krithiga Sankaran

Product Number: 9B13M023
Publication Date: 4/24/2013
Revision Date: 4/23/2013
Length: 16 pages

Carborundum Universal Murugappa International (CUMI) was a leading abrasives manufacturing company based in India with global operations in Russia, South Africa and China. In the global abrasives business, China held 50 per cent of the raw materials for the industry. China was also the largest market for abrasives worldwide and was expected to contribute to one third of the global demand for abrasives. CUMI had the vision to become a global leader in the abrasives industry within 10 years. It had successfully expanded operations in Russia and South Africa, where it was seen more as a partner than a conqueror in its acquisition strategy. In 2006, the company entered China through a joint venture with a Chinese state company but subsequently bought out the partner. However, the company was facing several problems with its stand-alone operation there, especially in terms of maintaining its workforce and hiring local managers. It was clear that winning market share in China was necessary, but the complexity of the Chinese market had proven to be a challenge. The managing director had to present a strategy for working successfully in China to the board.

Teaching Note: 8B13M023 (22 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization strategy; mode of entry; joint venture; Russia; South Africa; China; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



THE ESPRESSO LANE TO GLOBAL MARKETS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B12M058
Publication Date: 5/23/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

Founded in Trieste, Italy, Illy marketed a unique blend of coffee drinks in over 140 countries and in more than 50,000 of the world’s best restaurants and coffeehouses. The company wanted to expand the reach of its own franchised coffee bar, Espressamente, through international expansion. Potential markets included Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The managing director of Espressamente knew that global expansion meant prioritizing markets, but where did the greatest potential lie? In addition to market selection, mode of entry was vital and included options such as exporting, franchising, and joint ventures. This case provides a practical example of the challenges faced in international business.

Teaching Note: 8B12M058 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: International Market Selection; Modes of Entry; Franchising; Retailing; International Business; Coffee; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RUTH'S CHRIS: THE HIGH STAKES OF INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Ilan Alon, Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B06A034
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 8 pages

In 2006, Ruth's Chris Steak House was fresh off of a sizzling initial public offering and was now interested in growing their business internationally. With restaurants in just four countries outside the United States, a model to identify and rank new international markets was needed. This case provides a practical example for students to take quantitative and non-quantitative variables to create a short list of potential new markets.

Teaching Note: 8B06A34 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Strategy; International Business; International Strategy; Market Entry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Designing Global Products and Services

ISOFTSTONE: THE GLOBALIZATION OF A CHINESE IT SOURCING AND SERVICES POWER HOUSE
Richard M. Kesner

Product Number: 9B11E023
Publication Date: 7/21/2011
Length: 16 pages

Between 2001 and 2011, iSoftStone Holdings Ltd. grew from a small information technology services firm operating out of Beijing with 40 employees into a global IT consulting and services company with 11,000 employees, effectively competing with established Indian outsourcing IT providers such as Tata and InfoSys. The case discusses the particular go-to-market and growth strategies of iSoftStone and its evolution as a global player. The focus of the case is on addressing how iSoftStone approached the management of its human capital and intellectual property as both the vehicle for its rapid and successful expansion and as a differentiating factor between the enterprise and its competitors. The iSoftStone story also demonstrates the importance of enterprise-wide measurement of performance and the use of lessons learned in refining internal business processes and in developing project and service delivery teams.

Teaching Note: 8B11E023 (13 pages)
Issues: Information Systems; Outsourcing; Intellectual Capital; Knowledge Management; China; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMERON AUTO PARTS (A) - REVISED
Harold Crookell, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M015
Publication Date: 1/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is about a small American auto parts producer trying to diversify his way out of dependence on the major automakers. A promising new product is developed and the company gets a chance to license it to a Scottish manufacturer. The issue of whether to license or go it alone in international markets is central to the case. (A sequel to this case is available titled Cameron Auto Parts (B) - Revised, case 9B06M016.)

Teaching Note: 8B06M15 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Exports; Licensing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOYOTA: DRIVING THE MAINSTREAM MARKET TO PURCHASE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Jeff Saperstein, Jennifer Nelson

Product Number: 9B04A003
Publication Date: 1/16/2004
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 23 pages

Toyota is a large, international automobile manufacturer headquartered in Japan, with plans to become the largest worldwide automaker, striving for 15 per cent of global sales. Toyota is committing itself to be the leader of the hybrid-electric automotive industry, and is relying on changes in the industry and customer perceptions to bring its plan to fruition. Toyota's challenge is to develop consumer attitude and purchase intent, from an early adopter, niche market model into universal mainstream acceptance.

Teaching Note: 8B04A03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Product Design/Development; Multinational; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Locating Global Activities

FIRSTWELL CORPORATION AND THE PRODUCTION MANDATE QUESTION
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B12M024
Publication Date: 2/28/2012
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 12 pages

Two facilities owned by a large U.S.-based multinational enterprise (one in Canada, one in the United States) are competing for a regional manufacturing and distribution mandate. The head of Firstwell’s global operating committee must decide whether the proposal from Firstwell Canada is best not only for the Kingston, Ontario, plant but also for Firstwell Corporation worldwide. The decision could signal a major shift in parent–subsidiary relations.

Teaching Note: 8B12M024 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Subsidiaries; MNE Reporting Structures; Production; Organizational Politics; International Expansion; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SHER-WOOD HOCKEY STICKS: GLOBAL SOURCING
Paul W. Beamish, Megan (Min) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12M003
Publication Date: 2/13/2012
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

In early 2011, the senior executives of the venerable Canadian hockey stick manufacturer Sher-Wood Hockey were considering whether to move the remainder of the company’s high-end composite hockey and goalie stick production to its suppliers in China. Sher-Wood had been losing market share as retail prices continued to fall. Would outsourcing the production of the iconic, Canadian-made hockey sticks to China help Sher-Wood to boost demand significantly? Was there any other choice?

Teaching Note: 8B12M003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Insourcing; Nearshoring; R&D Interface; Labour Costs; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VESTAS WIND SYSTEMS A/S - EXPLOITING GLOBAL R&D SYNERGIES
Torben Pedersen, Marcus Moller Larsen

Product Number: 9B09M079
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Length: 17 pages

With a change in management in 2005 came a radical reorganization and the announcement of several new strategic initiatives. Among the initiatives was the establishment of the Vestas Technology research and development (R&D) business unit with an aim of achieving global leadership in all core technology areas and, consequently, strengthening the core competence for the company. By 2008, Vestas had succeeded in setting up a global R&D network with R&D centres in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore and India, and, in early 2009, a centre was opened in the United States. This transformed Vestas into a high-tech company and put a greater emphasis on its technological innovations.

Teaching Note: 8B09M79 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Research and Development; Global Strategy; Value Chain; Technology Transfer
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Creating Global Marketing

BEST BUY INC. - DUAL BRANDING IN CHINA
Niraj Dawar, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B09A016
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Revision Date: 5/11/2010
Length: 17 pages

A month after Best Buy Inc. (Best Buy), the largest retailer of consumer electronics in the United States, acquired Five Star, the third largest retailer of appliances and consumer electronics in China in May 2006, the management of Best Buy is weighing in on a branding option. Should Five Star lose its identity and be marketed as Best Buy? Or should Best Buy retain the Five Star brand and let the two brands compete with each other in the Chinese market? The option has a sense of déjà vu because, when it first stepped out of its home turf in January of 2002 by acquiring Future Shop, the largest consumer electronics retailer in Canada, Best Buy was facing a similar dilemma. The company had decided, at the time, in favour of dual brand strategy. It had worked. There was no evidence of cannibalization, the single largest risk in dual branding. Best Buy and Future Shop had both grown together as independent brands in Canada. But, does dual brand strategy work in the vastly different retail environment of China?

Teaching Note: 8B09A16 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Brand Management; Retailing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BRAND IN THE HAND: MOBILE MARKETING AT ADIDAS
Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05A024
Publication Date: 9/26/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The Global Media manager for adidas International is responsible for developing and championing a new marketing strategy at adidas called brand in the hand that is based on the convergence of cell phones and wireless Internet. The case presents company background information, data on the penetration of mobile devices such as cell phones, the growth of global mobile marketing practices, and several mobile marketing communications campaigns that adidas launched in 2004, such as a mobile newsticker for the 2004 European soccer championship. The case then introduces a specific campaign - Respect M.E. - featuring Missy Elliott, a popular female hip-hop artist, and discusses the company's mobile marketing strategy to support MissyElliott's new line of sportswear. This case can be used to highlight the role of new technology in overall marketing strategy and integrated marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B05A24 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Marketing Communication; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Making Global Competitive Moves

LENOVO: A CHINESE DRAGON IN A GLOBAL VILLAGE
Pascal Vidal, Pierre-Xavier Meschi

Product Number: 9B13M029
Publication Date: 3/27/2013
Revision Date: 3/27/2013
Length: 16 pages

The fast rise of Lenovo among its competitors in the computer industry raised a series of questions regarding the sustainability of its competitive position, as well as the choices it had made in its efforts toward globalization. First, how could Lenovo establish and sustain a leadership role in an industry where competitive positions were increasingly unstable? Next, how could the Chinese firm build a solid competitive position in an industry characterized by smaller and smaller margins? Finally, after the acquisition of IBM’s PC business and the subsequent accelerated international expansion, could Lenovo still be considered an entirely Chinese entity or was it a truly global enterprise of Chinese origin?

A video interview with Lenovo's strategy and corporate development vice-president, Lenovo: A Chinese Dragon in the Global Village - DVD, is also available.


Teaching Note: 8B13M029 (13 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: International expansion; growth strategy; global; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA MOTORS' ACQUISITION OF DAEWOO COMMERCIAL VEHICLE COMPANY
Meera Harish, Sanjay Singh, Kulwant Singh

Product Number: 9B08M094
Publication Date: 2/2/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 15 pages

In January 2004, the chairman of the India-based Tata Group, announced that the Tata Group would focus its efforts on international expansion to become globally competitive. This largely domestic vehicle manufacturing firm subsequently acquired a leading established South Korean firm, Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company (DCVC). This case focuses on the background of the firms and the acquisition, and the bidding and acquisition process. It provides information on the interests of the acquirer and target, and how both came to see the value in the acquisition. The Tata Group acquisition presents an uncommon situation of how an Indian firm acquired a firm in South Korea while overcoming a series of cultural and other barriers. An analysis of this case provides the basis for determining what criteria should be considered to guide a successful acquisition. A companion case is also available, Tata Motors' Integration of Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company.

Teaching Note: 8B08M94 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Strategy; International Expansion; Management Decisions; Market Entry; Mergers & Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Business Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLA WARS IN CHINA: THE FUTURE IS HERE
Niraj Dawar, Nancy Dai

Product Number: 9B03A006
Publication Date: 8/6/2003
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 18 pages

The Wahaha Hangzhou Group Co. Ltd. is one of China's largest soft-drink producers. One of the company's products, Future Cola, was launched a few years ago to compete with Coca Cola and PepsiCo and has made significant progress in the soft-drink markets that were developed by these cola giants. The issue now is to maintain the momentum of growth in the face of major competition from the giant multinationals, and to achieve its goal of dominant market share.

Teaching Note: 8B03A06 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Market Strategy; Competition; Brand Management; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 8:
Building the Global Organization

MAINTAINING THE “SINGLE SAMSUNG” SPIRIT: NEW CHALLENGES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Shaista E. Khilji, Chang Hwan Oh, Nisha Manikoth

Product Number: 9B11C010
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case examines how Samsung has grown to become one of the world’s leading companies. It presents a detailed description of Samsung’s “top priority to the people” philosophy and its strong cultural values, both of which have been instrumental in ensuring its continued success in recent decades. Since 1982, the Samsung Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) has played a critical role in supporting Samsung’s corporate strategy of achieving global competitiveness through programs that focus on maintaining Samsung values and developing a cadre of effective next-generation leaders. New Employee Orientation (NEO), an intensive four-week in-house program for all Samsung employees, is one example of an SHRD program. NEO aligns employees across Samsung affiliates to its strategic direction, thereby fostering a stronger “Single Samsung” culture.

In recent years, however, NEO has been faced with new challenges. First, Samsung’s pool of new employees has become more diverse, with the recruitment of more experienced and foreign (non-Korean) employees in addition to the fresh college graduates whom Samsung has always relied upon. Second, Samsung has become aware of stark value differences between the older employees, who are obedient and easily follow rules, and the younger “digital native” employees, who are more individualistic and prefer egalitarian and open policies. Managers at SHRDC are concerned that the “Single Samsung” spirit, which forms the core of Samsung culture, is being threatened from within.

Students must address issues related to the need for maintaining a unified organizational culture among diverse groups of employees with conflicting values, and propose ways for Samsung to effectively employ and utilize all of its employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C010 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Culture; Generational Differences; Human Resource Development; Consumer Electronics; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ASIAN PAINTS LTD. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE
Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07M056
Publication Date: 10/24/2007
Length: 13 pages

The president of Asian Paints Ltd., India's largest paint manufacturer, was wondering how he could improve the way the company's International Business division was managing its team of 120 global managers. The company had operations throughout Asia in various locations such as China, Singapore and Thailand; throughout Africa in countries such as Oman, Egypt and Mauritius; and in the Americas in Jamaica. The team of global management was critical to the success of the company's globalization endeavour, which was expected to gather momentum once the ongoing consolidation was complete. The president must decide how to structure the management of this global team.

Teaching Note: 8B07M56 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Manager; Growth; Management Systems; Organizational Structure
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Regional Strategy

TESCO'S FRESH & EASY: LEARNING FROM THE U.S. EXIT
Christopher Williams, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13M126
Publication Date: 11/26/2013
Revision Date: 12/17/2014
Length: 14 pages

In mid-April 2013, the chief executive officer of Tesco PLC, the world’s third largest global retailer headquartered in London, United Kingdom, must explain to shareholders his decision to close down the operations of the fully owned subsidiary, Fresh & Easy Neighborhoods Market Inc., in the United States. Following a December 2012 strategic review that reported that the subsidiary was not delivering acceptable returns, operations have already been discontinued and a buyer is being sought. Although the focus on fresh food to ameliorate the health care costs of obesity in the United States was a driver for establishing the subsidiary, the effects of the 2008 recession discouraged consumers from paying the higher costs of fresh food. Is exiting the United States the right decision for Tesco? How should the process of exit be managed? Are there any takeaways from the U.S. operations that Tesco can apply elsewhere in its global strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B13M126 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Exit strategy; process management; under-performance; global strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WOMEN'S TENNIS ASSOCIATION IN ASIA - BUT WHERE? (A)
W. Glenn Rowe, Sharda Prashad

Product Number: 9B10M026
Publication Date: 10/25/2010
Length: 11 pages

In 2007, the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) was facing a saturated market for women's tennis and identified the emerging middle-class in Asia as a growth area. The chief operating officer (COO) of the WTA was faced with a dilemma: He had to decide the new location of the Asian regional office of the WTA and present his recommendation at both the next board meeting and the WTA Global Advisory Council. The COO's presentation had to include the rationale for the chosen location and a strategy to increase the sport's popularity in the Asian market. With several cities to choose from, the COO had to weigh the pros and cons of each to present the most logical choice.

Teaching Note: 8B10M26 (4 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Emerging Markets; Market Strategy; Location Strategy; Government and Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ING INSURANCE ASIA/PACIFIC
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M083
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Length: 15 pages

The new chief executive officer (CEO) of ING Insurance Asia/Pacific wants to improve the regional operation of the company. ING Group was a global financial services company of Dutch origin with more than 150 years of experience. As part of ING International, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific was responsible for life insurance and asset/wealth management activities throughout the region. The company was doing well, but the new CEO believed that there were still important strategic and operational improvements possible. This case can be used to discuss the local versus regional or global management issue and will yield best results if the class has already been introduced to different strategic and organizational alternatives in the international business context.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Subsidiaries; Organization; Leadership; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Measuring Industry Drivers

COCA-COLA: BACK IN BURMA
Tatiana Vashchilko, Christopher Williams, Carolyn Burns

Product Number: 9B13M079
Publication Date: 7/29/2013
Revision Date: 9/4/2013
Length: 18 pages

Coca-Cola has announced the opening of its first bottling plant in Burma in almost 60 years. Since 1962, Burma has been a closed and isolated country and under military rule. As a result of the military’s steady relinquishing of control over the government, Burma has begun opening its doors to international trade and investment. However, political instability is still very high and economic development is far from secure. Furthermore, although a framework agreement between the U.S. and Burmese governments has been signed, a bilateral investment treaty to provide protection for Coca-Cola’s direct investment is not yet in place. How should Coca-Cola pursue its strategy in Burma?

Teaching Note: 8B13M079 (17 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Entry Strategy; Non-commercial Risks; Legal Institutions; Burma
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ESTIMATING DEMAND IN EMERGING MARKETS FOR KODAK EXPRESS
Ilan Alon, David M. Currie

Product Number: 9B11A026
Publication Date: 6/23/2011
Length: 10 pages

An executive must estimate the demand for Kodak Express outlets in various developing countries based on socioeconomic and demographic data about the countries. The case requires students to think about how to transform data on a national scale (GDP per capita, population, income distribution) into a form that is meaningful for a managerial decision — here, the number of outlets that could be supported by a country’s market demographics. In this instance, doing so can be accomplished effectively through modeling on a spreadsheet.

Teaching Note: 8B11A026 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Demand Analysis; Retailing; Franchising; Market Selection; Market Assessment; Microsoft Excel
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAYER CROPSCIENCE IN INDIA (A): AGAINST CHILD LABOR
Charles Dhanaraj, Oana Branzei, Satyajeet Subramanian

Product Number: 9B10M061
Publication Date: 1/27/2011
Length: 19 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case explores value-driven strategy formulation and implementation by bringing to the fore issues of ethics, responsible leadership, social intiatives in emerging markets, and the global-local tensions in corporate social responsibility. It examines how Bayer CropScience addressed the issue of child labor in its cotton seed supply chain in rural India between 2002 and 2008. Bayer had been operating in India for more than a century. In December 2002, the Bayer Group completed the acquisition of India-based Aventis CropScience. Bayer CropScience first learned about the occurrence and prevalence of child labor in its newly acquired India-based cotton seed operations a few months post-acquisition, in April 2003. The Aventis acquisition had brought onboard a well-known Indian company, Proagro, which already had operations in the cotton seed production and marketing - a new segment of the supply chain for Bayer. Child labor was widespread in cotton seed production — a traditional practice taken for granted not only by Indian farmers but also by several hundred Indian companies then accounting for approximately 90 per cent of the market share. The (A) case focuses on Bayer’s decision whether, when, and how to launch a self-run program that would take direct responsibility for tracking and eradicating child labor in rural India.

Teaching Note: 8B10M061 (11 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Emerging Markets; Strategy Implementation; Ethical Issues; Crisis Management; Corporate Responsibility; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



INDIA'S FAILURE TO ATTRACT FDI
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M082
Publication Date: 8/29/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case uses several reports to compare China and India, and it encourages students to analyse the long list of public policies that have restrained India's economic growth and FDI inflows, and that have acted as barriers to liberalization reforms. Presented are the historical realities that supported India's political philosophy of autarky and government intervention. Finally, the case leads students to consider the future prospects for India, and potential foreign investors there, through comparisons with China.

Teaching Note: 8B06M82 (6 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Developing Countries; Government Regulation; International Business; Deregulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Conducting a Global Strategy Analysis

GODREJ CONSUMER PRODUCTS LTD. (A)
Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13M057
Publication Date: 5/7/2013
Revision Date: 5/7/2013
Length: 13 pages

A leading consumer packaged goods company manufacturing and marketing personal care products in India is examining ways of reaching its goal of 30 per cent growth in revenues per annum year after year. It has two options. It could concentrate on organic growth in the domestic market where, in spite of some categories having reached maturity, the overall demand for its products is forecast to grow consistently up to 2025. Alternatively, it could continue the inorganic path of acquiring companies globally; this appears, so far, to be the quickest route to building scale, but the long-term prospects are not certain. Case A deals with the dilemma about the fundamental growth strategy of whether to stick to the home market or go global. Case B, 9B13M058, examines the way forward with the framework of growth that the company has developed during the interim period. The company's managing director is testing this strategic framework in light of evaluating an acquisition target in Africa that has just surfaced.

Teaching Note: 8B13M057 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Growth Strategy; International Expansion; Acquisition, India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MORITA'S LEGACY AND INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY AT SONY
Christopher Williams, Nicole Duncan, Gregoire Thomas, Christopher Held, Ami Lebendiker

Product Number: 9B12M082
Publication Date: 8/17/2012
Revision Date: 11/19/2012
Length: 19 pages

Two years after the death of Sony’s visionary founder, Akio Morita, chief executive officer Noboyuki Idei faced a major crisis. Sony had just posted its worst performance in years and had to figure out if its current strategy needed to change. In pursuit of Morita’s vision to bring entertainment to the masses through innovation and applied technology, Sony had grown from a small Japanese company to a US$50-billion-per-year global corporation. As it entered the new millennium without its founder, Idei realized that the success Sony had enjoyed in the 1990s was being challenged in the global marketplace. With increasing global competition and in the midst of a recession, the company’s net income was far below expectations. The situation would probably worsen if Sony failed to make immediate strategic changes, including changes to its international strategy. Idei had experienced firsthand the success Sony enjoyed in the 1990s as it expanded its product lines and international presence. By April 2001, after reviewing the previous year’s financial performance, Idei knew Sony was fighting an uphill battle. All that Morita had worked towards, particularly in the 1990s, was suddenly being threatened. Idei faced a critical decision going forward. Sony was a company that still strove to embody its founders’ vision, but could he dare go against his predecessor’s approach and pursue a new international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B12M082 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Financial Performance; Company's Vision; International Strategy; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLOPLAST: TEN YEARS OF GLOBAL OPERATIONS
Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen

Product Number: 9B12M070
Publication Date: 8/2/2012
Revision Date: 7/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

In just a decade, the Danish health care product manufacturer Coloplast underwent a major transformation from a local Danish manufacturing company to a truly multinational corporation. In 2001, Coloplast conducted all its production in-house in three production facilities in Denmark. Ten years later, the company had relocated almost 90 per cent of the production to four different countries, with the majority in Hungary and China. However, a transformation of this caliber rarely comes without challenges. Coloplast’s relocation of production had largely been carried out through a trial-and-error process without an overarching corporate strategy. In this process, the company had experienced many difficulties. Although Coloplast had by 2011 successfully identified and changed the critical issues created by the offshoring initiatives, the executive management now faced a substantial challenge in understanding what Coloplast had learned over the last 10 years and how it could excel based on this history.

Teaching Note: 8B12M070 (15 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Operations Strategy; Strategic Change; Global Production Network; Offshoring; Denmark; Hungary; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



RESUMING INTERNATIONALIZATION AT STARBUCKS
Mario Koster, Rob Alkema, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M073
Publication Date: 9/23/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starbucks enjoyed tremendous growth over the previous two decades. In 2007, it had a global reach of over 17,000 stores in 56 countries. Between 2007 and 2009, however, Starbucks' relentless march was slowed by three forces: increasingly intense competition, rising coffee bean prices and a global economic recession. In order to remain profitable, the company started to scale back its overseas operations. In 2010, Starbucks was faced with a critical strategic decision: Should the company resume its international expansion and once again intensify its commitments in overseas markets? If so, what approach should the company take? Had the pace of Starbucks' internationalization (i.e. the rate of opening new stores abroad), the rhythm of its internationalization (i.e. the regularity by which stores were opened abroad) and geographical scope of its internationalization (i.e. number of new countries entered) had an impact on the company's performance in previous years? Could Starbucks learn from its prior internationalization within the coffee industry in order to guide its future international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B10M73 (10 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; International Strategy; Market Entry; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA