Ivey Publishing

International Business: The New Realities

Cavusgil, S.T.; Knight, G.; Riesenberger, J.,3/e (United States, Prentice Hall, 2013)
Prepared By Ying Ying Hsieh, PhD Student
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introduction: What Is International Business?

TESCO'S FRESH & EASY: LEARNING FROM THE U.S. EXIT
Christopher Williams, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13M126
Publication Date: 11/26/2013
Revision Date: 12/17/2014
Length: 14 pages

In mid-April 2013, the chief executive officer of Tesco PLC, the world’s third largest global retailer headquartered in London, United Kingdom, must explain to shareholders his decision to close down the operations of the fully owned subsidiary, Fresh & Easy Neighborhoods Market Inc., in the United States. Following a December 2012 strategic review that reported that the subsidiary was not delivering acceptable returns, operations have already been discontinued and a buyer is being sought. Although the focus on fresh food to ameliorate the health care costs of obesity in the United States was a driver for establishing the subsidiary, the effects of the 2008 recession discouraged consumers from paying the higher costs of fresh food. Is exiting the United States the right decision for Tesco? How should the process of exit be managed? Are there any takeaways from the U.S. operations that Tesco can apply elsewhere in its global strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B13M126 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Exit strategy; process management; under-performance; global strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WHIRLPOOL AND THE BUILT-IN APPLIANCE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Sandeep Puri, Adeshwar Raja Balaji Prasad, Natarajan ANC, Parasaran VS, Sashikanth Yenika, Vijay Kumar Venna

Product Number: 9B13M082
Publication Date: 9/24/2013
Revision Date: 9/24/2013
Length: 8 pages

India’s real estate boom led to the built-in appliances industry’s biggest opportunity. In 2010 and 2011, a total of 533,954 residential units were launched in seven top cities: Mumbai, National Capital Region, Pune, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad. As the market evolved and demand increased, investments and improvements in infrastructure, software, education, work force, installation, after-sales service, logistics were guaranteed to occur. This was expected to initiate a cycle of profitable growth. Whirlpool was already an established player in the home appliances segment. Given the improving industry described above, should Whirlpool tap this emerging market? If so, what might be its strategic objectives and positioning strategies for dealing with the competition and appealing to its prospective customers?

Teaching Note: 8B13M082 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: New product management; business development; business environment; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LENOVO: A CHINESE DRAGON IN A GLOBAL VILLAGE
Pascal Vidal, Pierre-Xavier Meschi

Product Number: 9B13M029
Publication Date: 3/27/2013
Revision Date: 3/27/2013
Length: 16 pages

The fast rise of Lenovo among its competitors in the computer industry raised a series of questions regarding the sustainability of its competitive position, as well as the choices it had made in its efforts toward globalization. First, how could Lenovo establish and sustain a leadership role in an industry where competitive positions were increasingly unstable? Next, how could the Chinese firm build a solid competitive position in an industry characterized by smaller and smaller margins? Finally, after the acquisition of IBM’s PC business and the subsequent accelerated international expansion, could Lenovo still be considered an entirely Chinese entity or was it a truly global enterprise of Chinese origin?

A video interview with Lenovo's strategy and corporate development vice-president, Lenovo: A Chinese Dragon in the Global Village - DVD, is also available.


Teaching Note: 8B13M029 (13 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: International expansion; growth strategy; global; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Globalization of Markets and the Internationalization of the Firm

BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA'S GLOBAL REACH
Paul W. Beamish, Vanessa Hasse

Product Number: 9B13M016
Publication Date: 2/11/2013
Revision Date: 3/4/2013
Length: 15 pages

In 2012, two years after a major restructuring project had begun at German skin care producer Beiersdorf, the process was still ongoing. The new chief executive officer (CEO) inherited several challenges from his predecessor, including the difficult implementation of the new transnational strategy, opposition from employees and the work council, and ineffective market-entry strategies (especially in China). Strong competitors and a slow rate of economic recovery in Beiersdorf’s main markets provided additional complexity. Questions remained about how the new CEO should address the ongoing challenges facing the company.

Teaching Note: 8B13M016 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Reorganization; Transnational; Restructuring; Multinational; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBALIZATION OF WYETH
Munir Mandviwalla, Jonathan Palmer

Product Number: 9B08M017
Publication Date: 5/6/2008
Length: 19 pages

During the last decade, Wyeth transformed itself from a holding company to a global company using information technology (IT) as an important enabler. The first half of the case details the importance of global integration and how globalization was initiated at Wyeth. The original role of IT is introduced along with the challenges and barriers of starting a globalization strategy. This is followed by a discussion of how the role of IT started changing at Wyeth. An ambitious IT globalization plan is outlined. The second half of the case details the implementation of the IT globalization plan. The implementation started slowly, faced many challenges, and took longer than expected. The original plan was modified several times to address funding and management challenges. The case ends by discussing how Wyeth was able to complete the IT globalization plan. The case is anchored in the United States but considers global issues. The case includes issues and concepts that make it suitable for teaching management information systems, international business and strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B08M17 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Globalization; Process Design/Change; Information Technology; Strategy Implementation; Management Science and Info. Systems
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS (A): ENTERING INDIA
Sumit Chakraborty, Sushil K. Sharma, Sougata Ray

Product Number: 9B06M034
Publication Date: 3/11/2008
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Samsung Electronics (Samsung) managing director had presented the new management philosophy for achieving leadership in a global market. The three-part strategy would prioritize quality, globalization, and multifaceted integration, in that order. After a restructuring effort, Samsung had emerged as a leader in the global electronics industry. Now, considering the new management philosophy and several other factors, the managing director faced the decision of whether Samsung should enter the Indian market.

Teaching Note: 8B06M34 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Foreign Entry Strategy; International Business Operations; Global Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CARVEL ICE CREAM - DEVELOPING THE BEIJING MARKET
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A017
Publication Date: 8/5/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 12 pages

The manager of business development for Carvel Asia Limited is trying to determine how best to increase ice cream cake sales in Beijing. In doing so, he needs to develop a complete marketing program which includes decisions about product offerings, pricing, placement (distribution) and promotion - the 4 Ps. Carvel Asia was a 50-50 joint venture between Carvel (USA) and China's Ministry of Agriculture.

Teaching Note: 8A99A17 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Pricing Strategy; Product Concept; Marketing Communication; Distribution
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 3:
Organizational Participants That Make International Business Happen

KROHNE'S ENTRY INTO THE CHINESE MARKET
Taohua Ouyang, Meiying Yang, Zhi Xu, Ling Ding, Tang Yao, Miao Cui

Product Number: 9B13M039
Publication Date: 5/8/2013
Revision Date: 4/22/2013
Length: 8 pages

Krohne Inc. of Germany separately established a joint venture, a wholly owned sales company and a manufacturer in China. Unfortunately, although the sales channels were different, the product lines of the joint venture and the wholly owned manufacturer overlapped. The two companies were therefore competing and unsure about which company rightfully represented the parent enterprise. In addition, the two investment parties were battling for control of the joint venture.

Teaching Note: 8B13M039 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market entry; emerging market; equity recovery; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ABERCROMBIE AND FITCH
Cameron Mahi, David Anderson, Gracie Boelsems, John Garrison

Product Number: 9B12A033
Publication Date: 11/28/2012
Revision Date: 11/6/2012
Length: 15 pages

With roots in sporting and excursion goods, Abercrombie and Fitch Co. (A&F Co.) has grown into one of the most well-known men and women’s retail clothing brands by 2012. From the beginning, A&F has "stuck to (its) knitting by not trying to be all things to all people” and adopted the philosophy of creating a unique brand experience throughout each of its subsidiary brands. The company’s CEO was faced with the decision to focus attention on expanding direct-to-consumer operations and international brick and mortar stores, while closing stores domestically. The brand saw growth in sales in recent years but, in 2011, saw a drop in shares after missing Wall Street’s projected estimates. A&F Co. was in an interesting position — the company had to decide where to focus its brand and which market segment it would cater toward.

You might also like: Abercrombie & #Fitchthehomeless, Mountain Dew: The Most Racist Soft-drink Commercial in History?, Domino’s Pizza

Teaching Note: 8B12A033 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retail marketing; distribution channel; strategic management; international expansion; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SYNNEX INTERNATIONAL: TRANSFORMING DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Lien-Ti Bei

Product Number: 9B08A019
Publication Date: 12/1/2008
Revision Date: 7/8/2014
Length: 22 pages

The case describes how Synnex Technology International Corporation (Synnex) in Taiwan transformed itself from a local distributor of electronic components into a global logistic conglomerate of communication and information products between 1985 and 2007. The case analyzes the channel structure of electronic product distribution and explains how Synnex introduced innovative practices to transform its operation. The case is designed for MBA students to grasp some fundamental issues related to distribution channel design and supply chain management in a marketing or logistic management course.

Teaching Note: 8B08A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Logistics; Distribution Channels; Supply Chain Management; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
The Cultural Environment of International Business

WALMART'S AFRICAN EXPANSION
Karen Robson, Stefanie Beninger, Sudheer Gupta

Product Number: 9B13M111
Publication Date: 11/19/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 10 pages

Walmart has decided to expand into Africa through the acquisition of the South African consumer goods retailer Massmart. In doing so, the world’s largest retailer faces significant backlash from South Africa’s largest union. The company must also contend with price-sensitive consumers and a lack of supplier relationships on the African continent. Will Walmart appeal to South African consumers and achieve the volume of sales needed to make its first African presence a success.

Teaching Note: 8B13M111 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Globalization; cross-cultural management; emerging markets; South Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAINTAINING THE “SINGLE SAMSUNG” SPIRIT: NEW CHALLENGES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Shaista E. Khilji, Chang Hwan Oh, Nisha Manikoth

Product Number: 9B11C010
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case examines how Samsung has grown to become one of the world’s leading companies. It presents a detailed description of Samsung’s “top priority to the people” philosophy and its strong cultural values, both of which have been instrumental in ensuring its continued success in recent decades. Since 1982, the Samsung Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) has played a critical role in supporting Samsung’s corporate strategy of achieving global competitiveness through programs that focus on maintaining Samsung values and developing a cadre of effective next-generation leaders. New Employee Orientation (NEO), an intensive four-week in-house program for all Samsung employees, is one example of an SHRD program. NEO aligns employees across Samsung affiliates to its strategic direction, thereby fostering a stronger “Single Samsung” culture.

In recent years, however, NEO has been faced with new challenges. First, Samsung’s pool of new employees has become more diverse, with the recruitment of more experienced and foreign (non-Korean) employees in addition to the fresh college graduates whom Samsung has always relied upon. Second, Samsung has become aware of stark value differences between the older employees, who are obedient and easily follow rules, and the younger “digital native” employees, who are more individualistic and prefer egalitarian and open policies. Managers at SHRDC are concerned that the “Single Samsung” spirit, which forms the core of Samsung culture, is being threatened from within.

Students must address issues related to the need for maintaining a unified organizational culture among diverse groups of employees with conflicting values, and propose ways for Samsung to effectively employ and utilize all of its employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C010 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Culture; Generational Differences; Human Resource Development; Consumer Electronics; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ABC ENERGY LIMITED: CULTURE AND FORMALIZATION
Pavitra Mishra, Rajen Gupta

Product Number: 9B11C009
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 14 pages

AWARD-WINNING CASE: Adjudged third-best case at the ISB Case Competition 2010 held in partnership with the Richard Ivey School of Business and the Association of Indian Management Schools and sponsored by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants.

ABC Energy Limited (ABCEL) was created in March 2007 by ABC Infra Private Limited and XYG Private Limited. In September 2007, MNP Finance Limited joined ABCEL as an equity partner. In 2010, ABCEL operated in power generation and had plans to diversify into transmission and distribution. It aspired to be a world-class energy company with operations in India and neighbouring countries. ABCEL had grown by investing in greenfield projects and acquiring existing operations. The promoters of ABCEL had set a target of achieving a project portfolio of 30,000 megawatts by 2015, up from the current portfolio of 8,655 megawatts. The chief executive officer of ABCEL wanted to discuss the following issues at the board meeting on July 31, 2010, with regard to the opportunities and challenges in the growing market: 1) the key organizational needs that ABCEL might have in achieving its target by 2015, 2) the present culture of ABCEL, 3) the relationship between the culture and extent of formalization and hence the ramp-up of formalization that ABCEL might require, and 4) the method of introducing this formalization.


Teaching Note: 8B11C009 (11 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Formalization; Organizational Culture; Growth Strategy; Power Generation; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TATA MOTORS' ACQUISITION OF DAEWOO COMMERCIAL VEHICLE COMPANY
Meera Harish, Sanjay Singh, Kulwant Singh

Product Number: 9B08M094
Publication Date: 2/2/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 15 pages

In January 2004, the chairman of the India-based Tata Group, announced that the Tata Group would focus its efforts on international expansion to become globally competitive. This largely domestic vehicle manufacturing firm subsequently acquired a leading established South Korean firm, Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company (DCVC). This case focuses on the background of the firms and the acquisition, and the bidding and acquisition process. It provides information on the interests of the acquirer and target, and how both came to see the value in the acquisition. The Tata Group acquisition presents an uncommon situation of how an Indian firm acquired a firm in South Korea while overcoming a series of cultural and other barriers. An analysis of this case provides the basis for determining what criteria should be considered to guide a successful acquisition. A companion case is also available, Tata Motors' Integration of Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company.

Teaching Note: 8B08M94 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Strategy; International Expansion; Management Decisions; Market Entry; Mergers & Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Business Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Ethics, Sustainability, and Corporate Social Responsibility in International Business

CISCO'S VISION: A SMART+CONNECTED WORLD
Chris Laszlo, Patrick Kelly

Product Number: 9B13M116
Publication Date: 12/20/2013
Revision Date: 12/20/2013
Length: 16 pages

Having been called upon by global leaders to use its technology to address the global crises of climate change and poverty, Cisco opts to pursue sustainability for corporate social responsibility and as a driver of differentiation and competitive advantage. The case discussion explores how the company answered this call to action and how the resulting strategies have proven effective in protecting its competitive advantage in an increasingly hostile business environment. The case traces the company’s historical rise to power through the Internet bubble of 2000 and up to the present day, as the firm adjusts to competition in the 21st century. With the introduction of its new and ground-breaking technology, Cisco seeks to drive sustainability and future profits. The question becomes: will it work? The CEO ponders how he could use his company’s core business of information technology (IT) to drive global environmental and economic sustainability. Can he fulfill his dual responsibility of doing the right thing for his shareholders while, at the same time, doing the right thing for the world at large?

Teaching Note: 8B13M116 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Sustainability; smart cities; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA POWER: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Rama Deshmukh, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B10M013
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 18 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case describes the strategic dilemma involved in making a decision on the method of operation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) department for one of the leading Indian multinational corporations, Tata Power Company (TPC) from Tata Group of Companies. TPC had undertaken the CSR activities for decades, reflecting the company's commitment towards sustainable energy generation without undue compromise to human and environmental development. These activities were undertaken as a voluntary initiative by the employees of TPC, and there was no separate CSR department. However, with large scale expansion, the need to have CSR as a separate entity was felt. The dilemma for the decision manager was whether to create a separate CSR department or continue with the existing set up. Other related issues needed to be addressed strategically as well as tactically to maintain a balance between shareholders' interest and other stakeholders.

Teaching Note: 8B10M13 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability; Opportunity Recognition; Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholders; Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



FROM PATRIMONIO HOY TO ARTE EN CONCRETO: TAILORING A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAM AT CEMEX PUERTO RICO
Myrna Comas, Circe Niezen, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B09M083
Publication Date: 1/21/2010
Length: 18 pages

This case examines how CEMEX adapted its flagship corporate social responsibility (CSR) program (Patrimonio Hoy) to the specific socio-economic realities of Puerto Rico - Fundacion Arte en Concreto (the Foundation). The Foundation was a partnership between a number of entities in the private, public and not for profit sector. For CEMEX, the main partner and founder, Arte en Concreto provided a way to promote concrete as an art form while contributing to the economic and social development of Puerto Rico. The goal of the Foundation was to rehabilitate prisoners through vocational training. The case also examines a number of external factors that affected the Foundation in 2008-09, such as global and local economic recessions, a slowdown in the construction sector, destabilizing effects for a public-private partnership of a new political party in government, and a general distrust of CEMEX's environmental record. The staff at the board of directors needed to develop a strategy that could guarantee the future of the Foundation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M83 (9 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Entrepreneurial Marketing; Alliances; Correctional Institutions; International Business; Corporate Responsibility
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 6:
Theories of International Trade and Investment

THE BEER CASES (D): THAI BEV
Andrew Karl Delios, Donna Jimenez

Product Number: 9B13M065
Publication Date: 8/16/2013
Revision Date: 8/20/2013
Length: 16 pages

The beer industry comprises elements of sub-national, national and global competition. To expand, the industry players use various strategic approaches as illustrated by five major beer companies: Anheuser-Busch InBev (9B11M124), Groupo Modelo (9B11M125), Tsingtao Brewery (9B11M126), San Miguel (9B09M074) and Thai Bev. Observations about the beer industry — a fairly easy product and industry to understand — can be extrapolated to other industries. Lessons can be drawn regarding the influence of industry pressures on the four key components of an international expansion strategy: product choice for expansion, market choice for geographic expansion, timing of entry and mode of entry.

Teaching Note: 8B11M124 (16 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Industry analysis; strategic acquisitions; global strategy; industry globalization; strategic alliances; beer industry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESUMING INTERNATIONALIZATION AT STARBUCKS
Mario Koster, Rob Alkema, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M073
Publication Date: 9/23/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starbucks enjoyed tremendous growth over the previous two decades. In 2007, it had a global reach of over 17,000 stores in 56 countries. Between 2007 and 2009, however, Starbucks' relentless march was slowed by three forces: increasingly intense competition, rising coffee bean prices and a global economic recession. In order to remain profitable, the company started to scale back its overseas operations. In 2010, Starbucks was faced with a critical strategic decision: Should the company resume its international expansion and once again intensify its commitments in overseas markets? If so, what approach should the company take? Had the pace of Starbucks' internationalization (i.e. the rate of opening new stores abroad), the rhythm of its internationalization (i.e. the regularity by which stores were opened abroad) and geographical scope of its internationalization (i.e. number of new countries entered) had an impact on the company's performance in previous years? Could Starbucks learn from its prior internationalization within the coffee industry in order to guide its future international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B10M73 (10 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; International Strategy; Market Entry; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Political and Legal Systems in National Environments

HUAWEI ENTERS THE UNITED STATES
Tim Simpson, Ilan Alon

Product Number: 9B13N013
Publication Date: 7/24/2013
Revision Date: 10/28/2015
Length: 9 pages

Huawei has attempted to enter and acquire assets in the United States, but there are issues involved in understanding foreign market risk and the political challenges of internationalization. The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) twice denied Huawei’s acquisition of a U.S. computer company. Huawei had to transform its company image and reputation, changing from a Chinese company with Chinese characteristics into a global corporation equivalent to Cisco Systems or Ericsson. This case encourages students to address the issues of internationalization in an incompletely open global market, the government intervention in markets and the broader issues that arise with the geo-political and geo-economic shifts of 21st century.

Teaching Note: 8B13N013 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Political risk; international expansion; foreign direct investment; business strategy; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TELENOR'S DILEMMA: THE 2G SPECTRUM SCAM IN INDIA
Sanjeev Prashar, Adeshwar Raja Balaji Prasad, Parasaran VS, Vijay Kumar Venna

Product Number: 9B12M088
Publication Date: 9/21/2012
Revision Date: 9/12/2012
Length: 10 pages

In 2008 the Supreme Court of India revoked the 2G spectrum licences issued to many local and international companies because of major violations in the granting procedure by the Telecom Ministry. One of the worst affected companies was Norway’s Telenor communications company, which was involved with a local company in a joint venture, Uninor, which had all of its licences cancelled. The case provides students an opportunity to assess and understand the implications of the political as well as legal risks involved in entering uncertain markets, such as India’s, and to devise appropriate coping strategies to establish and successfully operate in such markets. The case drives home the significance of political and legal business environmental factors that have an impact on the successful conduct of business. Multinational companies tend to be vulnerable to political risks, and the case suggests to students how to handle such situations.

Teaching Note: 8B12M088 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: 2G scam; Telecom regulations; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Government Intervention in International Business

CRISIS IN CYPRUS: WAS IT DIFFERENT THIS TIME?
Nandita Yadav, Pratap Chandra Biswal

Product Number: 9B13N016
Publication Date: 9/10/2013
Revision Date: 9/13/2013
Length: 11 pages

Cyprus is a small island member of the European Union, constituting 0.2 per cent of the eurozone gross domestic product. During its growth phase, the Cypriot banking system developed vulnerabilities after suffering heavy losses during the Greek sovereign debt crisis. The European Central Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the European Union offered a bailout of US$16.9 billion if the Cypriot government could raise US$7.54 billion from within. The government had a few options on the table — a “one-off” stability levy on all bank deposits (a solution loathed by both native and foreign depositors), a bank restructuring plan, seeking help from Russia (which expected access to the island’s oil and gas reserves) and a complete banking system bailout (which would come with oversight and control from those offering the bailout). The economy was fast approaching a standstill and Cyprus had only two days to strike a deal to avoid the collapse of its banking system.

Teaching Note: 8B13N016 (14 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial crisis; eurozone; bailout; Cyprus
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



AUSTRALIAN MINERS AND THE RESOURCE SUPER PROFIT TAX
Andrew Karl Delios, Donna Jimenez, Clarissa Turner

Product Number: 9B12M042
Publication Date: 5/9/2012
Revision Date: 5/9/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents a means by which students can explore how government policy is influenced by the actions of stakeholders in an economy: firms, taxpayers, voters, unions, and other organizations. It highlights how policy-making can be a process endogenous to the interests and influence of the private sector, and not an exogenous one, even in domains that are the power reserve of public policy makers.

In 2010, the ruling party in Australia has devised a new tax, the Resource Super Profit Tax (RSPT). This tax has been devised to enable national and state governments to benefit from the boom in the mining industry by expropriating a greater portion of the industry’s earnings. The RSPT has been prepared without any input from major mining companies in Australia, and if implemented would represent a substantial increase in their tax payable. The case is presented from the perspective of the CEO of BHP Billiton, one of the largest mining companies in Australia. The situation considers what, if any, action can be taken to combat a tax that has already been devised by the government and is about to be implemented. Successful analysis of the case involves an evaluation of all stakeholders in the Australian economy that will be influenced by the imposition of the RSPT. After this is done, a strategy needs to be devised that will influence the government to withdraw a tax to which it has already demonstrated a firm commitment.


Teaching Note: 8B12M042 (11 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Non-market Strategy; Public Sector; Business Policy; Public Relations; Mining; Tax; Australia
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



HUNGARY'S REFORM PROCESS
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M081
Publication Date: 8/22/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 17 pages

By 2006, Hungary had experienced more than 15 years of transition from central planning to free markets. The reform process had involved several distinct phases. The initial leap to the market, with its widespread privatizations, included a dramatic deregulation with a guillotine procedure. A more refined process of regulatory impact assessments (RIAs) followed this period. A newly empowered competition office sought to strengthen the extent of competition within markets dominated by a single firm or a small group of firms. The goal of EU membership was a consistent driver of the reforms as early as 1991, since the EU model was compulsory for EU members. These years had been turbulent, and the transition was not yet complete. In 2006, Hungary faced the challenge of a fiscal deficit that was 9.5 per cent of GDP, and responded by raising corporate tax rates from 16 per cent to 20 per cent as an attempt to close the fiscal gap. However, Hungary was in an intense competition with Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania to attract opportunities. Tax rates were an important element in this competition, but so were the regulatory impediments and distortions that still remained in the economy. How to create a rapidly growing economy was a question at the forefront of public policy debate. A 2006 Financial Times article discussed this dilemma.

Teaching Note: 8B06M81 (8 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Government Regulation; Globalization; International Business; Deregulation
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GM IN CHINA
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B05M007
Publication Date: 12/20/2004
Revision Date: 9/30/2009
Length: 19 pages

For General Motors (GM), the year 2004 brought a wide variety of new challenges that added to an already complex business environment. The industry structure was changing quickly. Demand and supply projections for motor vehicles had promised substantial increases in sales and profits, but suddenly the optimism faded. China's new membership in the World Trade Organization created expectations of a level playing field for foreign investors, but - at least in the short run - major barriers remained. Government intervention persisted, particularly the requirement of a joint venture partner, competition from government-owned assembly firms, and arbitrary rules such as sector-specific credit restrictions. Violation of intellectual property, with the copying of foreign automobile designs and false-branding of parts, was an ongoing threat. Also, inflation was increasing and the government was unsure whether and how to use monetary and fiscal policies. The government had purposely kept the renminbi undervalued for many years. Pressure was building for the government to change its foreign exchange rate policy, but a higher renminbi would suddenly decrease GM China's international competitiveness.

Teaching Note: 8B05M07 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Business Policy; Globalization; Manufacturing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Regional Economic Integration

ISS & NORDEA: FACILITY MANAGEMENT IN THE NORDIC REGION
Torben Pedersen, Bent Petersen

Product Number: 9B12D005
Publication Date: 4/19/2012
Revision Date: 3/28/2012
Length: 20 pages

Nordea Bank had emerged as the largest financial group in the Nordic region. As part of its consolidated approach, Nordea’s top management had made the strategic decision to outsource a number of the company’s peripheral activities, such as catering, security, and cleaning, in order to focus on the core business of banking. In Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, some services had been outsourced to one of the leaders in the facility management (FM) market, the global service provider ISS. The relationship between Nordea and ISS on the delivery of facility services had a long history, but a new contract was successfully concluded by the end of 2010. Consequently, ISS was chosen as Nordea’s FM partner and would continually be providing Nordea with a scope of supportive services across 20 locations in the Nordic region. From 2010 and onwards, a significant switch was made to an output-based focus in the contract, where it was the quality of the delivered services that was specified rather than how to achieve this level of quality, i.e. the input. The change to an output-based contract was seen as a new beginning of a relationship that required significant changes on both sides in terms of mentality, organization, governance structures, and adjustments of expectations. Both the view of the customer (Nordea) and the supplier (ISS) are presented and contrasted in the case.

Teaching Note: 8B12D005 (15 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Outsourcing; Facility Management; Service Operations; Contract Governance; Supply Chain Management; Nordic Countries
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ARE WE READY FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE PLANT?
Yi-Chia Wu, Joo Y. Jung

Product Number: 9B09D014
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
Length: 15 pages

The city of McAllen, Texas and its partners have worked on attracting an automotive assembly plant to the region for over fifteen years. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provision, this region enjoys the advantages offered by both sides of the Mexican-U.S. border. Even during the economic downturn of 2007 to 2008, McAllen experienced a lower unemployment rate compared to other cities in the United States. One of the primary reasons was its close proximity and economic ties to Mexico. Lower labour cost, a right-to-work state and proximity to Mexico were some of this region's strengths, while a high illiteracy rate, limited numbers of automotive suppliers and small workforce were among its weaknesses. Based on publicly available data and aggregate score evaluation methods, McAllen is compared to other potential sites. The case addresses a wide range of issue regarding site selection factors within the automotive industry. Teaching objectives include: 1) to examine essential factors for site location of different industries, including the automotive industry 2) to evaluate the potential sites based on a quantitative method, such as the relative aggregate score 3) to understand other qualitative factors that can affect the decision. The case is suitable for courses and workshops concerning operations management, supply chain management, production management, project management, decision science and management science. Exhibits can be omitted for graduate and executive levels, requiring the students to research and come up with their own factors.

Teaching Note: 8B09D14 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Automotive; Site Selection; Global Strategy; Decision Making
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SANTA FE RELOCATION SERVICES: REGIONAL BRAND MANAGEMENT
Niraj Dawar, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05A029
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 15 pages

Sante Fe Relocation Services was a premium provider of relocation services based in Hong Kong. Founded in 1980, the company had built a reputation as a reliable, high-quality packer and mover of household goods. By 2000, the company also offered a full range of relocation support services including visa and immigration applications, home searching and cultural and language training. Santa Fe relocated expatriates and their families between Asian countries and between Asia and other regions. The company had its own staff and assets in Asia and managed its international operations through a network of partners. In 2005, the chief operating officer faced three key challenges: differentiating and positioning the brand in a crowded and often price-driven market; incorporating an expanded service line under the original brand and gaining market recognition for those additional services; and managing the brand across the Asian region with an effective balance of standardization versus local adaptation.

Teaching Note: 8B05A29 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: International Marketing; Competitor Analysis; Brand Positioning; Brand Extension; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Understanding Emerging Markets

JH MEN'S APPAREL: BUILDING A BRAND IN CHINA
Fengli Mu, Chen Xi, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B13M069
Publication Date: 7/11/2013
Revision Date: 6/17/2013
Length: 14 pages

The president JH Men's Apparel, a men’s apparel company in China, is considering the options available to his firm in light of the price war initiated by his competitors who are copying his company’s sweater patterns and selling the sweaters at a lower price point. Several of his biggest customers have demanded a price reduction to match the prices being offered by these competitors. In the face of such fierce competition, the president realizes that the multiple options available to his company boil down to a fundamental strategic choice between competing on the basis of cost leadership or of a differentiated, branded product line. He needs to make a decision and start implementing the strategy promptly.

Teaching Note: 8B13M069 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Competitive Strategy; Branding; Marketing; Industry Analysis; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



FILLING INSTITUTIONAL VOIDS IN INDONESIA: JABABEKA'S FORAY INTO INFRASTRUCTURE
Marleen Dieleman

Product Number: 9B12M073
Publication Date: 8/17/2012
Revision Date: 9/27/2012
Length: 12 pages

Led by CEO S.D. Darmono, Jababeka was a publicly listed real estate firm in Indonesia specializing in industrial estates. Due to infrastructure and logistics bottlenecks in Indonesia, the company had moved into various infrastructure projects, including a power plant and a port. Even though the company had identified substantial business opportunities in the form of a captive market of industrial estate tenants, both projects suffered from delays due to regulatory complexity. Darmono skillfully aligned the interests of private and public-sector partners, but was still unable to get quick returns on his considerable investments, necessitating an allocation of more funds. The case illustrates the opportunities and risks of emerging market infrastructure projects. Students are asked to evaluate the viability of Jababeka’s new infrastructure strategy and formulate an action plan.

Teaching Note: 8B12M073 (6 pages)
Industry: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
Issues: Institutional Voids; Non-market Strategy; Political Environment; Indonesia
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



NOKIA INDIA: BATTERY RECALL LOGISTICS
Charles Dhanaraj, Narendar Sumukadas, P. Fraser Johnson, Monali Malvankar

Product Number: 9B11D003
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case presents the challenge faced by Nokia India in 2007. Nokia had built a strong brand reputation over a ten-year period and was a market leader in Indian mobile devices. India, incidentally, was also Nokia’s second-largest market, next only to China. Suddenly, what corporate headquarters considered a routine product advisory for a defective battery resulted in panic in customers after the Indian media widely publicized the potential dangers that defective batteries could pose. Over a three-month period, Nokia India had to recall a few million batteries and replace them with new ones.

The case provides an opportunity for students to develop practical knowledge of the role of operations management in a product recall situation, particularly in an emerging market context. Product recalls are an integral part of supply chain management (SCM). Companies inevitably face a question of when, not if, a recall will be necessary. These recall situations combine the complexity of operations with the time-urgency of a mission-critical task. The case also provides a rich context to learn about the interaction of SCM, information systems and reverse logistics, and to understand the marketing, logistics, and communication challenges faced by a multinational company operating in an emerging market such as India.


Teaching Note: 8B11D003 (11 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Logistics; Communications; Crisis Leadership; Product Recall; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
The International Monetary and Financial Environment

PHILIPS NV: DEALING WITH A GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS
Christopher Williams, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13M011
Publication Date: 2/7/2013
Revision Date: 2/7/2013
Length: 19 pages

Philips NV, a multinational organization based in the Netherlands, is facing strategic dilemmas. The company has been in the middle of a transformation involving a shift in focus from lighting and health care products towards consumer products and services when a financial meltdown, triggered by a crisis in the U.S. housing market, leads to a credit crunch in financial markets. Countries that have traditionally sustained the demand for Philips merchandise — e.g., the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom and France — have been witnessing a decline in key indicators of economic growth. Philips’s revenues and margins are under pressure. Remedial actions are required to ensure that the company is on track to reach its own growth targets. The case deals with two dilemmas: How should Philips deal with the credit crunch in the short term? How should Philips come out of it as a robust company in the long term?

Teaching Note: 8B13M011 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Financial Crisis; Customer Centricity; Consumer Confidence; Credit Crunch; Netherlands
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ING AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL INTEGRATION (B)
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B08M027
Publication Date: 4/1/2008
Length: 3 pages

Global financial markets had changed dramatically in the decade following the ING (A) case, product # 9A99M022. This (B) case points to the nature of these changes, creating an opportunity for students to discuss them. Meanwhile, ING had also altered its global strategy, eliminating its attempts to create a global investment bank, and focusing its activities on specific financial sectors, each of which reported directly to head office. This new structure enabled ING head office to maintain closer control over its numerous local institutions. Students can analyze alternative potential strategies for ING in the context of the major financial changes. The (B) case presents summaries of: the 2007-08 global financial crisis; the attempts, like Basel II, to establish global reserve requirements; the economic prospects of the European Union and emerging markets; and ING Direct's success in e-banking.

Teaching Note: 8B08M27 (2 pages)
Issues: Financial Institutions; Globalization; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MASKWA RESOURCES: FINANCING WITH A EURO BOND
Stephen Sapp, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05N023
Publication Date: 6/30/2008
Revision Date: 10/4/2009
Length: 8 pages

The president of a small mining company is faced with an opportunity to purchase a mining refinery to complement its existing mining operations. It has the potential to bring the company into a situation of positive cashflow, but the small size of the company and high risk of the mining industry has left the president with few alternatives to raise the capital. The case focuses on the issuing of a Euro-denominated bond to finance this purchase and provide funds for future acquisitions. The case discusses the alternatives available in such a situation as well as the risks associated with changes in the price of metals and the value of the U.S. dollar, Canadian dollar and the Euro on the ability to make regular payments on the Euro-denominated bond and other financing alternatives.

Teaching Note: 8B05N23 (10 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Capital Markets; Risk Management; Hedging; Foreign Exchange; Financial Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 12:
Strategy and Organization in the International Firm

ARLA FOODS - MATCHING STRUCTURE WITH STRATEGY
Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13M112
Publication Date: 10/30/2013
Revision Date: 10/30/2013
Length: 17 pages

In early 2013, the head of business development and commercial operations of Arla Foods, a dairy enterprise focused on Northern European markets, is examining, in the light of a new five-year strategy, alternatives to the existing organization structure. His dilemma is to determine the best structure that can deliver the strategy, which is focused on renewed international expansion. The new structure must support the company's strategy in relation to both the existing core markets in Northern Europe and also the growth markets of the future in countries of Asia and Africa. It must ensure that Arla Foods has the right competitive stance in individual markets, which vary widely in terms of customer buying habits and retail formats. It must also ensure regular innovation of dairy categories developed from local resources and marketable globally.

Teaching Note: 8B13M112 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Strategy implementation; organization structure; innovation; globalization; key success factors; customer focus; United States.
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CUMI INDIA'S GLOBAL STRATEGY: THE CHINA PUZZLE
S. Ramnarayan, Charles Dhanaraj, Krithiga Sankaran

Product Number: 9B13M023
Publication Date: 4/24/2013
Revision Date: 4/23/2013
Length: 16 pages

Carborundum Universal Murugappa International (CUMI) was a leading abrasives manufacturing company based in India with global operations in Russia, South Africa and China. In the global abrasives business, China held 50 per cent of the raw materials for the industry. China was also the largest market for abrasives worldwide and was expected to contribute to one third of the global demand for abrasives. CUMI had the vision to become a global leader in the abrasives industry within 10 years. It had successfully expanded operations in Russia and South Africa, where it was seen more as a partner than a conqueror in its acquisition strategy. In 2006, the company entered China through a joint venture with a Chinese state company but subsequently bought out the partner. However, the company was facing several problems with its stand-alone operation there, especially in terms of maintaining its workforce and hiring local managers. It was clear that winning market share in China was necessary, but the complexity of the Chinese market had proven to be a challenge. The managing director had to present a strategy for working successfully in China to the board.

Teaching Note: 8B13M023 (22 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization strategy; mode of entry; joint venture; Russia; South Africa; China; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MORITA'S LEGACY AND INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY AT SONY
Christopher Williams, Nicole Duncan, Gregoire Thomas, Christopher Held, Ami Lebendiker

Product Number: 9B12M082
Publication Date: 8/17/2012
Revision Date: 11/19/2012
Length: 19 pages

Two years after the death of Sony’s visionary founder, Akio Morita, chief executive officer Noboyuki Idei faced a major crisis. Sony had just posted its worst performance in years and had to figure out if its current strategy needed to change. In pursuit of Morita’s vision to bring entertainment to the masses through innovation and applied technology, Sony had grown from a small Japanese company to a US$50-billion-per-year global corporation. As it entered the new millennium without its founder, Idei realized that the success Sony had enjoyed in the 1990s was being challenged in the global marketplace. With increasing global competition and in the midst of a recession, the company’s net income was far below expectations. The situation would probably worsen if Sony failed to make immediate strategic changes, including changes to its international strategy. Idei had experienced firsthand the success Sony enjoyed in the 1990s as it expanded its product lines and international presence. By April 2001, after reviewing the previous year’s financial performance, Idei knew Sony was fighting an uphill battle. All that Morita had worked towards, particularly in the 1990s, was suddenly being threatened. Idei faced a critical decision going forward. Sony was a company that still strove to embody its founders’ vision, but could he dare go against his predecessor’s approach and pursue a new international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B12M082 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Financial Performance; Company's Vision; International Strategy; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEGO GROUP: BUILDING STRATEGY
Darren Meister, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B11M086
Publication Date: 9/13/2011
Revision Date: 2/1/2013
Length: 12 pages

The world famous toymaker, The LEGO Group, assembled an internal management team to create a strategic report on LEGO’s different product lines and business operations. In recent years, numerous threats to LEGO had emerged in the toy industry. The acquisition of Marvel Entertainment by The Walt Disney Company created major implications for valuable toy license agreements. LEGO had also recently lost a long legal battle with major competitor MEGA Brands, makers of MEGA Bloks, with a European Union court decision that removed the LEGO brick trademark. Furthermore, the second-largest toymaker in the world, Hasbro, was preparing to launch a new rival product line called Kre-O. It was critical for the management team to identify where to expand LEGO’s product lines and business operations, in order to develop a competitive strategy to continue the organization’s recent years of financial success and dominance in the building toy market.

Teaching Note: 8B11M086 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Opportunity Recognition; Licensing; Competitive Strategy; Business Growth; Toy Industry; Denmark
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Global Market Opportunity Assessment

SHOULD RANBAXY LAUNCH AN ENERGY CANDY IN INDIA?
Sandeep Puri, Subhajit Bhattacharya, Harsh Ajmera

Product Number: 9B13M107
Publication Date: 11/29/2013
Revision Date: 11/18/2013
Length: 10 pages

This case chronicles the growth and evolution of Revital, the bestselling vitamin and mineral supplement in India. The Indian nutraceutical market was booming, as the growing economy and increasingly demanding job requirements were pushing young Indian consumers to look for products like energy drinks, energy candy and health supplements. Stressful work conditions and lifestyle changes were resulting in an increased incidence of chronic disorders, and more and more consumers were taking nutraceuticals as a preventive measure. No company had launched an energy candy in the Indian market and imported brands were of limited availability. The case explores the possible options for Ranbaxy — one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in India —with brand expansion opportunities for Revital through introducing Revital energy candy. Should Ranbaxy introduce an energy candy in the Indian market? If so, should it be a brand extension of Revital or a new brand altogether?

Teaching Note: 8B13M107 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Branding; market strategy; product management; strategic decision-making; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CAPRO GROUP: A GROWTH STORY
Anshul Jain, Pratap Chandra Biswal

Product Number: 9B12N020
Publication Date: 9/21/2012
Revision Date: 4/29/2013
Length: 9 pages

CAPRO Group is a small electrical engineering services firm operating out of New Delhi, India. In December 2011, with falling revenues due to macroeconomic conditions and increasing competition, the firm’s owner and founder appoints his son to look into restructuring the business. The electrical distribution control panel manufacturing and installation industry is highly fragmented, with only a few big firms and many small firms. Most firms specialize in one niche of the industry, whether it be manufacturing of equipment or panels, installation, or consultancy services. Different niches require different inputs in terms of labour, finances, and technical knowledge. Given the labour problems in India, combined with the country’s spiraling interest rates and slowing economic growth, the owner’s son must decide on a plan to bring his company out of its current slump.

Teaching Note: 8B12N020 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Family Business; Macroeconomic Slowdown; SWOT; Net Present Value; Internal Rate of Return; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Exporting and Countertrade

STAG INTERNATIONAL: STRATEGIC DILEMMAS OF A GROWING FAMILY OWNED INDIAN BUSINESS
Sanjay Goyal, Harsh W. Mishra

Product Number: 9B13M088
Publication Date: 10/8/2013
Revision Date: 10/31/2013
Length: 10 pages

The chairman of Stag International faced a number of challenges. As the number one table tennis brand in India and one of the top five companies globally, Stag could go after market share, diversify into domestic distribution, do both or just sit tight. The chairman also needed to set the business up for the fourth generation to step in and drive the family-owned business forward. The dilemmas he faced were defining the strategic intent, strategic choices and resourcing for the business as it entered its 90th year of existence as a leading manufacturer and exporter of sports goods in India.

Teaching Note: 8B13M088 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategic decision making; strategic planning; family-owned business; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



FERRO INDUSTRIES — EXPORTING CHALLENGE IN A SMALL FIRM
Justin Paul, Parul Gupta, Shruti Gupta

Product Number: 9B11M115
Publication Date: 1/25/2012
Revision Date: 6/12/2013
Length: 18 pages

This case deals with an exporting challenge faced by Ferro Industries, a small enterprise within the steel industry in India. The company’s manufacturing facility was located in the National Capital Region of Delhi. Ferro’s main products were roll-forming machines, cut-to-length lines, and slitting lines; the company was one of only three firms in the Indian sub-continent catering to the market for such products. This case raises two basic questions in relation to Ferro’s role as an exporter. Firstly, at what stage should an importer have to pay an exporter? Secondly, should the exporter release consignment to the importer before receiving payment? The case illustrates the challenges of exporting and international entrepreneurship for a small firm, taking into account payment risk, product pricing, deal-making strategies, promotional strategy, and client-management strategies. It also addresses the complexities involved in the decision-making process while exporting, as well as outlining various conflict-resolution techniques for closing a deal effectively while considering the appropriateness of taking risks.

Teaching Note: 8B11M115 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Exports; Trade Finance; International Trade Logistics; Global Supply Chain Management; Saudi Arabia; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



CHINESE FIREWORKS INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHABROS INTERNATIONAL GROUP: A WORLD OF WOOD
Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Foreign Direct Investment and Collaborative Ventures

CONSTRUCTING THE MEDUPI POWER STATION
Caren Scheepers, Schalk Marais

Product Number: 9B12C015
Publication Date: 4/24/2012
Revision Date: 4/27/2012
Length: 19 pages

Medupi was the first baseload project in South Africa in 20 years. It would be the largest dry-cooled, coal-fired power station in the world and was being developed by Eskom, which generated 90 per cent of Southern Africa’s power, at an estimated cost of R125 billion. In spite of the worldwide concern about greener energy, coal remained the most popular power station fuel for South Africa, due to the country’s vast resources of 224 million tonnes annually. The new capacity that Medupi would offer was sorely needed.

It had been challenging to follow a project schedule that involved various suppliers providing different packages at different dates and that required accommodating several interfaces during both design and implementation. Due to the massive scale and complexity of the project, three companies had joined forces to tackle the job, namely Murray & Roberts, Aveng, and Concor. Murray & Roberts had appointed Coenie Vermaak as project director at Medupi and, at 34, he was the youngest project director in the group. The managers of the joint venture had realized quickly that this would be “a project like no other.” The three companies’ different ways of working necessitated much more integrated coordination. For instance, employees from the different parent organizations had different job descriptions, remuneration, benefits, structures, processes, and cultures. Medupi’s uniqueness provided an opportunity to be pioneers in the construction industry and to “reconstruct construction.” A culture of employee engagement and alignment was required.


Teaching Note: 8B12C015 (18 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Change Management; Transformational Leadership; Performance Management; Organizational Culture; Coal Power; South Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



ALLIANCE MANAGEMENT AT FORBES MARSHALL
Naga Lakshmi Damaraju, Harshdeep Singh Chowdhary, Dhruv Khanna, Dhruv Ahuja

Product Number: 9B11M108
Publication Date: 1/24/2012
Length: 20 pages

This case traces the history and growth of Forbes Marshall (FM), a family-owned company in India. FM provides steam engineering and control instrumentation solutions for the process industry. The company has evolved into a leader in process efficiency and energy conservation through technology tie-ups and focused investments in manufacturing and research. Its joint ventures with the world's leading firms enable it to deliver quality solutions in 14 countries. Forbes Marshall's business practices and processes have combined into a unified philosophy of being trusted partners who provide innovative solutions.

Teaching Note: 8B11M108 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Alliance Management; Corporate Strategy; Transaction Cost Economics; Real Options; Value Chain; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 16:
Licensing, Franchising, and Other Contractual Strategies

THE ESPRESSO LANE TO GLOBAL MARKETS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B12M058
Publication Date: 5/23/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

Founded in Trieste, Italy, Illy marketed a unique blend of coffee drinks in over 140 countries and in more than 50,000 of the world’s best restaurants and coffeehouses. The company wanted to expand the reach of its own franchised coffee bar, Espressamente, through international expansion. Potential markets included Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The managing director of Espressamente knew that global expansion meant prioritizing markets, but where did the greatest potential lie? In addition to market selection, mode of entry was vital and included options such as exporting, franchising, and joint ventures. This case provides a practical example of the challenges faced in international business.

Teaching Note: 8B12M058 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: International Market Selection; Modes of Entry; Franchising; Retailing; International Business; Coffee; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



7-ELEVEN IN TAIWAN: ADAPTATION OF CONVENIENCE STORES TO NEW MARKET ENVIRONMENTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Aihwa Chang

Product Number: 9B12A011
Publication Date: 3/16/2012
Revision Date: 3/16/2012
Length: 24 pages

This case shows the expansion of 7-Eleven to Taiwan and the adaptation of the store format by its local franchisee to the new market environment. The core issue in this case is the balance between standardization and localization in business-format franchising across national borders. Despite keeping the store logo and convenience concept that was well established in the United States, the local franchisee of 7-Eleven in Taiwan re-formatted almost all aspects of the store chain, including its positioning, location, layout, and product offerings. In addition, 7-Eleven in Taiwan introduced a wide variety of new services for its customers, such as e-commerce (train or movie tickets), e-payment, mobile communications, pickup/delivery, and taxi services. The local franchisee, President Chain Store Corp. (PCSC), seemed to have struck the right balance between standardization and localization that allowed it to use service differentiation to gain competitive advantages over its rivals. In about three decades, it grew from zero to nearly 5,000 stores in Taiwan with over 50 per cent of the market, while expanding its reach to China and Thailand.

Teaching Note: 8B12A011 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Service Standardization; Localization Across Borders; Service Differentiation; Service Marketing; International Franchising; Taiwan; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IMPULSESOFT — MUSIC IN THE AIR
Balakrishnan Kondath

Product Number: 9B11M048
Publication Date: 7/19/2011
Length: 11 pages

Impulsesoft Private Ltd (IS) was a Bangalore-based information technology that was engaged in developing Bluetooth (BT) middleware. The founders had wanted to build a software product out of India that targeted a global market. This desire was verbalized as an idea “to build a Sony or HP (Hewlett-Packard) out of India” and “build a world-class products company.” In its infancy, IS undertook different kinds of development projects for third parties and considered several other options until it discovered BT middleware as an area of focus. The company eventually became profitable, with 52 employees by 2005 and a branch office in Silicon Valley. Impulsesoft’s BT software was in 50 per cent of all BT stereo headphones being shipped at the time. The market for BT-embedded accessories grew rapidly, but chip manufacturers began to incorporate BT features in their chips and gave away the technology for free, and the long-term outlook for IS deteriorated. There were also doubts about the scalability of a technology licensing business model. At this juncture, the president and CEO of Impulsesoft received a proposal from the CEO of TEN Technology, a customer of IS and a $20 million company, suggesting a merger of the two companies. The CEO of Impulsesoft needed to make a decision.

Teaching Note: 8B11M048 (11 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: High Technology; Technology Convergence; Bluetooth; Technology Licensing; Silicon Valley; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PEPSI-BASIX PARTNERSHIP
Gita Bajaj, Neelu Bhullar

Product Number: 9B11M010
Publication Date: 1/27/2011
Revision Date: 5/7/2013
Length: 16 pages

AWARD-WINNING CASE: Adjudged winner of the ISB Case Competition 2010 held in partnership with the Richard Ivey School of Business and the Association of Indian Management Schools and sponsored by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants.

BASIX was a microfinance company with livelihood promotion as its key agenda. It had a strong presence in the poverty-ridden state of Jharkhand, India, where farmers were struggling to make ends meet. In 2005, PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt. Ltd (Pepsi) entered into an agreement with BASIX for promoting contract farming of potatoes in Jharkhand. As per the agreement, Pepsi was to supply seeds and get an assured supply of quality potatoes. BASIX was to provide microfinance to the farmers and render training and consultancy for package of practices (POP). Farmers were to get assured buyback of the produce and also an opportunity to learn modern farming practices. The collaboration was successful in the first year and the project witnessed very high growth in the second year. The second-year results, however, were not as encouraging. The case is set at this juncture, where the project manager has to present his view on how to move ahead with the agreement.


Teaching Note: 8B11M010 (12 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Finance and Insurance
Issues: Marginalized Communities; Developing Countries; Sustainable Development; Partnerships; Non-profit Organizations; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 17:
Global Sourcing

GLOBAL SOURCING AT ANHEUSER-BUSCH INBEV: TAPPING (BEER) INTO THE CHINESE SUPPLIER MARKET
Martin Lockstrom, Thomas E. Callarman, Shengrong (Linda) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12D015
Publication Date: 7/25/2012
Revision Date: 7/25/2012
Length: 5 pages

This case concerns the difficulties of global sourcing for InBev, an international brewery with branches in six geographical zones. In 2006, Pascal Baltussen came to China to set up the company's international procurement office and had it up and running by the end of the year. Not only were risks such as delivery delays and rising costs constantly lurking, but in 2010 his company, Brazilian-Belgian brewer InBev, acquired the almost equally large U.S. brewer Anheuser-Busch to form the world's largest brewer, AB InBev. This posed further complications. How could Baltussen now successfully roll out his sourcing vision for China and manage internal and external challenges?

Teaching Note: 8B12D015 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Global Sourcing; Supplier Selection; Procurement Organization; Sourcing Strategy; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



HIGH-TECH METAL COMPONENTS: FINDING LOCAL SUPPLIERS
Martin Lockstrom, Shen Li

Product Number: 9B12D004
Publication Date: 3/22/2012
Revision Date: 10/26/2015
Length: 10 pages

In May 2009, High-Tech Metal Components (HTMC) inaugurated its brand new production plant of forgings and castings for automotive supplies in Suzhou, a city of 13 million close to Shanghai, China. After the successful installation of machinery and placement of workers, the company was prepared to begin production. A month later, the general manager of the Chinese division of HTMC received a phone call from the chief operating officer of its German headquarters; it was decided that it was necessary to cut costs for 2009 by more than five per cent. The cost structure was way too high, with many components imported from Europe. How could cost-cutting be done with the existing supply chain design in China? What long-term measures could be taken to realize the goal?

Teaching Note: 8B12D004 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supplier Management; Low-cost Country Sourcing; Technology; Germany; China; CEIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LEGO GROUP: AN OUTSOURCING JOURNEY
Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen, Dmitrij Slepniov

Product Number: 9B10M094
Publication Date: 12/1/2010
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

The last year's rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would phase out the entire sourcing collaboration with Flextronics. This sudden change in its sourcing strategy posed LEGO management with a number of caveats. Despite the bright forecasts, the collaboration did not fulfill the initial expectations, and the company needed to understand why this had happened. Secondly, what could LEGO management have done differently?

Teaching Note: 8B10M94 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Outsourcing; Management Control; Global Strategy; Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SCOTTS MIRACLE-GRO: THE SPREADER SOURCING DECISION
John Gray, Michael Leiblein, Shyam Karunakaran

Product Number: 9B08M078
Publication Date: 11/14/2008
Revision Date: 6/22/2009
Length: 11 pages

The Scotts Miracle-Gro company is the world's largest marketer of branded consumer lawn and garden products, with a full range of products for professional horticulture as well. Headquartered in Marysville, Ohio, the company is a market leader in a number of consumer lawn and garden and professional horticultural products. The case describes a series of decisions regarding the ownership and organization of the assets used to manufacture fertilizer spreaders. This case is intended to illustrate the application of and tradeoffs between financial, strategic and operations perspectives in a relatively straightforward manufacturing make-buy decision. The case involves a well-known, easily-described product that most students would assume is made overseas. Sufficient information is provided to roughly estimate the direct financial cost associated with internal (domestic) production, offshore (non-domestic) production and outsourced production. In addition, information is included that may be used to estimate potential transaction costs as well as costs associated with foreign exchange risk.

Teaching Note: 8B08M78 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Human Resources Management; Outsourcing; Globalization; Operations Management; Supply Chain Management; Operations Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 18:
Marketing in the Global Firm

CLEARWATER SEAFOODS - B2C IN CHINA
June Cotte, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B13A025
Publication Date: 8/29/2013
Revision Date: 8/29/2013
Length: 12 pages

Clearwater Seafoods, a Canadian shellfish enterprise, has four decades of experience in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. It harvests seafood, processes it and markets it in bulk to large restaurant chains worldwide. The company wants to pursue growth by marketing seafood directly to individual consumers (B2C) in China. The transition from B2B to B2C raises three fundamental questions. How can the company develop and deploy a go-to-market business model with Chinese grocery retailers? How can it balance its focus on margins with the Chinese retailers’ focus on revenues? How can Clearwater establish differentiation as a source of competitive advantage in seafood retailing in China?

Teaching Note: 8B13A025 (4 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Retailing; consumer marketing; operations; strategy; go-to-market planning; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LIMITED: MARKETING
Sanjeev Prashar, Harvinder Singh, Anshu Katiyar

Product Number: 9B13A001
Publication Date: 2/6/2013
Revision Date: 2/2/2013
Length: 10 pages

Maruti Suzuki India Limited, India’s largest car manufacturer and the only company in that country to have crossed the 10 million sales mark, was struggling with labour problems in one of its manufacturing units. As a result, it was rapidly losing its market share to competitors and its position as market leader was at stake. The strike not only damaged property at the plant and caused one death and hundreds of injuries, it also heavily impacted revenue and market share as customers and dealers dealt with the negative publicity and the shortage of production that resulted in long wait times for the company’s most popular models. The company must come up with a strategy to deal with its vulnerability in light of production cuts, demanding customers, disgruntled dealers and charged-up competitors.

Teaching Note: 8B13A001 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: customer relations; employee relations; risks; brand management; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LOUIS VUITTON IN JAPAN
Justin Paul, Charlotte Feroul

Product Number: 9B10M067
Publication Date: 10/19/2010
Revision Date: 2/22/2017
Length: 20 pages

This case deals with the opportunities and challenges of Louis Vuitton, the leading European luxury-sector multinational firm, in Japan, taking into account the unique features of brand management and integrating culture and consumer behaviour in Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been Louis Vuitton’s most profitable market, but the global economic crisis has presented challenges.

Facing a weak economy and a shift in consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has been adapting its unique strategy in the Japanese market. The days of relying on a logo and a high price seem to be gone, as there is more interest in craftsmanship and value for money. To promote sales, the company has had to launch less expensive collections made with cheaper materials. The brand has also been opening stores in smaller cities, where the lure of the logo still works.

Over the years, Japanese consumers have demonstrated fascination with and passion for the iconic brand. What have been the keys to Louis Vuitton’s successful business model in the Japanese market?


Teaching Note: 8B10M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Marketing; Strategic Management; Brand Management; Luxury Goods; Financial Crisis; Japan; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MARKET STRETCH
Gavin Price, Margaret Sutherland

Product Number: 9B09M046
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 11 pages

Bio-Oil is a multi-purpose skin care product that has gone from being sold only in South Africa to being the No. 1 scar treatment product in 16 of the 17 countries in which it is distributed. Retail sales have jumped from R3 million per annum to R1 billion from 2000 to 2008. Justin and David Letschert made key decisions to eliminate all of the other 119 products that were being manufactured by the company that they took over in 2000, and focused on the mainstay product of Bio-Oil. Union-Swiss accomplished its successful sales through the use of a hybrid distribution model that compelled its distributors in each country to communicate and share knowledge with each other. Union-Swiss also ensured that it remained focused on building the brand through limiting its activities in the value chain to that of marketing. It did this to such an extent that it created a separate entity to run the distribution of Bio-Oil in South Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B09M46 (8 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Market Entry; International Business; Supply Chain Management; Strategic Positioning; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 19:
Human Resource Management in Global Firm

HR AS TRANSFORMATION PARTNER IN MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.
Anita Ollapally, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B11C022
Publication Date: 7/27/2011
Length: 20 pages

The Indian business landscape is marked by uncertainty, turbulence, hyper-competition, and non-linear growth, as exemplified by the automobile sector. Increasing competition from foreign automobile organizations and homegrown ones such as Tata Motors are posing a threat to the market leader, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. A fierce battle for market share is ensuing among these automobile giants. However, Maruti Suzuki has succeeded in maintaining its leadership position. Yet with more companies venturing into the territory of Maruti Suzuki — the small car segment — the threat to Maruti Suzuki’s market share is looming larger than before.

This case illustrates Maruti Suzuki’s journey and depicts the changes in its organizational strategy, HR strategy, and work culture in response to new challenges. Maruti Suzuki had to change from a government-owned organization and a monopoly, to a firm capable of competing with world-class automobile companies. This case describes the various challenges faced by the organization and how HR has assisted in bringing about much-needed transformation. The challenges include having to create a performing workforce, changing the mindset of the employees, coping with cross-cultural issues and, most significantly, engaging in breakthrough innovation. HR needs to create an organizational culture that not only supports breakthrough innovation but also helps retain employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resource Management; Organizational Culture; Talent Management; Cultural Differences; Automobile Industry; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



L’OSERAIE — TURNAROUND CHALLENGE
Justin Paul, Marc Chaix, Shruti Gupta

Product Number: 9B11C018
Publication Date: 7/11/2011
Length: 15 pages

This case deals with the challenges faced at L’Oseraie, a nursing home located in the northeast of France. The director of L’Oseraie had to meet her new boss and brief him on the organization’s challenges while offering suggestions. A key obstacle involved employee motivation and engagement, particularly after a recent absenteeism episode. Furthermore, the lack of health care staff in France meant that employees might need to be sourced from abroad, perhaps from Eastern Europe or the French-speaking countries of North Africa. How could the director implement a strategy that would alleviate the day-to-day problems of the nursing home?

Teaching Note: 8B11C018 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Health Care Administration; Organizational Structure; Employee Retention; Human Resource Management; France
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 20:
Financial Management and Accounting in the Global Firm

7-ELEVEN IN THAILAND
Sundaravaradhan Venkatesh, Sandhya Bhatia

Product Number: 9B13B021
Publication Date: 12/9/2013
Revision Date: 12/6/2013
Length: 11 pages

CP 7-Eleven is a prominent retail chain in Thailand. The analysis of the financial statements for the year 2011 revealed that while the earnings per share increased, the return on equity (ROE) declined. The company had negative working capital. It exerted strong bargaining power over its suppliers and customers and had efficient inventory management. It had been accumulating cash and other liquid assets over the last few years and it expanded in a well-planned manner, with almost 500 new stores every year. However, the company was viewed as having a lot of “fat” on its balance sheet. It was necessary to trim the fat and enhance ROE. The company needed to focus on strategies for future growth.

Teaching Note: 8B13B021 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Ratio analysis; Thailand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IFRS: CANADA'S DECISION
Vaughan S. Radcliffe, Mitchell Stein

Product Number: 9B11B017
Publication Date: 10/27/2011
Length: 16 pages

The case comprises an interview with Paul Cherry, who as chair of the Accounting Standards Board of Canada (the Canadian accounting standard setter) led a process that brought Canada to adopt international financial reporting standards (IFRS). The case provides a rich and in-depth examination of the real-world considerations that led Canada to adopt IFRS. It offers analysis of the competing alternatives such as the U.S. GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles), describes the consultation process, and sets out the thinking that led to Canada adopting IFRS. The case offers a unique opportunity for students to see a leader in the Canadian accounting profession set out what actually led to the adoption of IFRS.

Teaching Note: 8B11B017 (3 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Accounting Standards; Financial Reporting; IFRS; GAAP
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STARBUCKS: VENTI LEASES
Vaughan S. Radcliffe, Mitchell Stein, Caleb Yong

Product Number: 9B11B014
Publication Date: 8/19/2011
Length: 19 pages

This case depicts a financial analyst trying to make sense of Starbucks’ finances and drawing from recent projects of the IASB and FASB to identify lease accounting as a key issue for the firm. The case underscores the importance of having a full picture of a company’s obligations in order to understand its overall performance.

In reviewing the case, students examine Starbucks’ extensive use of leases and use spreadsheet tools to understand the full extent of the corporation’s indebtedness. Although heavy users of leases such as Starbucks have argued that lease accounting is complex, an estimation of lease indebtedness can be made using relatively simple tools that are easy for students to understand. The case allows issues of high-level accounting standards to be elucidated, using a well-known company with which students identify. The case illustrates the real-world consequences of accounting policy choices.


Teaching Note: 8B11B014 (3 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Accounting; Financial Management; Accounting Standards; Leases; Debt; Coffee
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA