Ivey Publishing

Corporate Social Responsibility: Readings and Cases in a Global Context

Crane, A.; Matten, D.; Spence, L. (United States, Routledge, 2014)
Prepared By Hadi Chapardar, PhD Student
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Context

NOVO NORDISK: MANAGING SUSTAINABILITY AT HOME AND ABROAD
Jette Steen Knudsen, Dana Brown

Product Number: 9B12M081
Publication Date: 9/7/2012
Revision Date: 2/14/2013
Length: 17 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case study deals with the opportunities and challenges faced by Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk with regard to its sustainability approach in China as of 2012. Novo Nordisk is well known for striving to integrate its business activities in a financially, environmentally, and socially responsible way, and many Novo Nordisk employees proudly refer to Novo Nordisk as a “triple bottom line (TBL) company.” Novo Nordisk has been active in China for more than 50 years; however, since the Chinese economy has expanded tremendously, this increase in wealth and a more sedentary Western lifestyle have led to growing problems with obesity. As a result, China’s insulin market is booming.

Novo Nordisk therefore faces new challenges concerning how best to organize its TBL program in a way that ensures a comprehensive approach throughout the organization, yet allows Novo Nordisk China to adopt initiatives that fit the Chinese business context. Furthermore, with ever-increasing competition for access to China’s lucrative insulin market, Novo Nordisk’s competitors are also engaging in sustainability, which means that Novo Nordisk must keep innovating to stand out, and must use sustainability as a source of competitive advantage.


Teaching Note: 8B12M081 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Non-market Strategy; China; Europe
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



SUSTAINABILITY AT TETRA PAK: RECYCLING POST-CONSUMER CARTONS
Garima Sharma, Indrajeet Ghatge, Chris Laszlo

Product Number: 9B12M069
Publication Date: 7/5/2012
Revision Date: 9/30/2013
Length: 16 pages

This case explores the problems that Tetra Pak India faced in its ambitious goal of recycling post-consumer cartons (PCC) in India, and the approach that it adopted in overcoming obstacles. It provides a deep understanding of PCC recycling and Tetra Pak’s broad program of incorporating social, environmental, health, and ethical issues in its day-to-day operations. Evident in the case are Tetra Pak India’s efforts to meet environmental objectives and the seemingly insurmountable challenges in India that appeared to prevent it from attaining its goals.

The case offers students an opportunity for an intellectually stimulating discussion on whether or not, and how, Tetra Pak India overcame problems to succeed in its PCC recycling initiative. Students will be able to understand the importance of the partnerships and alliances that Tetra Pak forged with non-governmental organizations, scrap dealers, rag-pickers, commercial establishments, and organizations that championed the cause of the environment. With ever-changing mindsets, increasing regulations, and growing customer expectations in India, Tetra Pak would have to be on its toes to ensure that its success from the PCC recycling initiative could be sustained and scaled up in the future. The case explores how Tetra Pak India could face the challenges of the future.


Teaching Note: 8B12M069 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Recycling; International; Environmental Regulations; Balancing Stakeholder Expectations; Brand Management; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WALKING THE WALK: PUTTING SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY INTO ACTION AT THE WHITE DOG CAFE
Diane M. Phillips, Jason Keith Phillips

Product Number: 9B07M049
Publication Date: 10/24/2007
Revision Date: 9/8/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is designed to examine the issue of corporate social responsibility in a small firm. The key issue is how a small organization can maintain its strong social responsibility philosophy when (a) the organization is growing, (b) the environment in which the organization exists is extremely competitive, and (c) the entrepreneurial visionary who started the firm is getting ready to step down. The case describes the dilemma the owner of White Dog Cafe has regarding the transition of current management to the new management team and the development of the White Dog Cafe's social responsibility philosophy, the challenges that other socially responsible organizations have had as they have grown, and the strategies that the company has used to successfully keep its philosophies and goals at the forefront of its business operations.

Teaching Note: 8B07M49 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Corporate Culture; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Social Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMECO IN KYRGYZSTAN: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ABROAD
Pratima Bansal, John Scarfe, Richard Johnston

Product Number: 9B03M063
Publication Date: 11/28/2003
Revision Date: 10/22/2009
Length: 18 pages

Based in Saskatoon, Canada, Cameco was the world's largest uranium mining company. It had developed its policy for corporate social responsibility in northern Saskatchewan where it had its major mining operations and where there were a large indigenous population of Cree and Dene Indians. The issue centres on whether the same corporate social responsibility policy can be applied to the company's joint venture with the Kyrgyzstan government to operate a gold mine in eastern Kyrgyzstan. Complicating the decision was a chemical spill that had occurred several months before, and relations with citizens in nearby communities were at an all-time low. The joint venture's vice-president of human resources and corporate relations must decide which of the programs might be succesfully implemented in Kyrgyzstan, what new programs might need to be developed, and how best to communicate company policy to the local community.

Teaching Note: 8B03M63 (7 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: International Business; Corporate Responsibility; Communications, Indigenous Peoples
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
The Case for and Against CSR

RETHINKING POLITICAL ACTIVITY AT TARGET
Brian Richter, Anisha George

Product Number: 9B12M107
Publication Date: 11/29/2012
Revision Date: 11/29/2012
Length: 14 pages

The focus of the case is on understanding firms’ campaign contributions and lobbying strategies — and their limits. The case centers on controversy facing Target Corporation in 2010. In the wake of the Citizens United decision, Target was one of the first companies to take advantage of their newly acquired freedom to use corporate treasury money (rather than money in a corporate-linked PAC) to make a contribution to an independent expenditure committee (aka “Super PAC”).

The company decided to make a donation to Minnesota Forward, a political action committee that had the primary goal of supporting job creation within the state. Pro-gay rights activists discovered that Minnesota Forward primarily backed Republican gubernatorial candidate Tom Emmer, who had previously supported traditional marriage. After this, Target, despite its liberal and socially responsible positioning, was subject to harsh criticism and activist protests as its donation was viewed as a contradiction to its social policies.

The events put CEO Gregg Steinhafel in a position to revisit the company’s policies towards political activities. Should there be constraints on what the firm would do on the political front? If so, what should those be?


Teaching Note: 8B12M107 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Campaign Finance; Social Responsibility; Non-market Strategy; Governance; Activists; Political Activity; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA: LEADERSHIP WITH TRUST
Oana Branzei

Product Number: 9B10M025
Publication Date: 5/11/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2010
Length: 24 pages

The case illustrates the opportunities, challenges and trade-offs involved in the design, evolution and institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate sustainability (CS) within the Tata Group, an India-based indigenous multinational enterprise (MNE) with a unique 140-year old commitment to the community as the key stakeholder of business. Despite the 2008-2009 global recession, the Tata Group topped the economic value creation charts. In 2008-2009, the Group had grossed US$70.8 billion in revenues; 64.7 per cent of the Group's revenues were now coming from outside India. Its 96 independent companies spanned seven sectors: information systems and communications, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals. Economic turbulence had put a break on social and environmental investing for many other companies, but renewed Tata Group's commitment: the Group had recently revised its charitable giving, adopted a group-wide climate change policy, and separated its mandatory and voluntary initiatives. The case deals with the intricate connections between the Group's profitability and competitiveness on the one hand and its long-standing tradition of social responsibility on the other. It explores value-creation, leadership, ethics and sustainable development on the backdrop of rapid internationalizations and shifting stakeholders' expectations for corporate social responsibility.

Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Finance and Insurance, Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Ethical Issues; Sustainable Development; Value Analysis; Leadership; Corporate Social Responsibility; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE'S WAY - DON'T BE EVIL
Pratima Bansal, Marlene J. Le Ber

Product Number: 9B07M067
Publication Date: 1/4/2008
Revision Date: 7/3/2008
Length: 14 pages

Wall Street's darling, Google Inc., offered more than a pretty financial picture. Poverty, communicable diseases and climate change - some of the world's largest problems - were also key interests of Google's cofounders. By applying innovation and significant resources, Google's cofounders hoped that their efforts in these areas would one day eclipse Google itself in worldwide impact. On February 22, 2006, Google Inc. announced the appointment of an executive director of the newly created Google.org. With one per cent of Google Inc.'s equity and profit as seed money, Google.org's mandate was to address climate change, global public health, economic development and poverty. Although charity by successful entrepreneurs was not unusual, this press release signaled a new organizational form, a for-profit philanthropic company. The new executive director's task ahead was unprecedented. How could he leverage the company's for-profit status to make the biggest impact possible with the resources trusted to Google.org? What decision-making criteria should be used for strategic investments? How would he measure Google.org's success?

Teaching Note: 8B07M67 (11 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Corporate Governance; Strategic Decision Making; Business Sustainability; New Organizational Forms
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
What is CSR? Concepts and Theories

MSPL LIMITED: CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN MINING
Amit Gupta, Amita Joseph

Product Number: 9B12C023
Publication Date: 5/22/2012
Revision Date: 5/15/2012
Length: 19 pages

MSPL Limited was an iron ore mining and processing company in India. Owned by the Baldota Group, it also had interests in shipping, pelleting, and wind energy. In January 2012, MSPL’s businesses and operations were headed by Narendrakumar A. Baldota and his two sons. MSPL’s main source of revenue, the Vyasankere Iron Ore Mine (VIOM), was one of the largest iron ore mines in the private sector in India. MSPL had been progressive and proactive in its approach to sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Many of its initiatives predated government legislation related to environmental, employee, and community issues. MSPL’s policies towards environmental issues and local communities had been driven by the beliefs and vision of its founder and chairman, Baldota’s father. Baldota expanded MSPL’s initiatives related to the environment, employees, and communities. The case deals with the choices and decisions that Baldota had made regarding the numerous CSR and sustainability initiatives undertaken by the organization. Were there other initiatives that MSPL should have undertaken? Was it even necessary for the company to carry out CSR activities in the local communities?

Teaching Note: 8B12C023 (16 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Stakeholders; Mining; Natural Resources; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SUSTAINABILITY IN THE ARAB WORLD: THE ARAMEX WAY
Dima Jamali, Cedric Dawkins

Product Number: 9B11M060
Publication Date: 7/25/2011
Revision Date: 1/5/2017
Length: 16 pages

In 1982, Fadi Ghandour founded Aramex, a leading provider of logistics and transportation solutions with headquarters in Amman, Jordan. From its early inception, Ghandour strategically included principles and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the company’s culture in order to align business interests and competence with stakeholders’ needs. The community and environment were regarded as key stakeholders driving Aramex to act as a responsible citizen. Since its inception, Aramex had been involved in sustainability activities grouped into six primary areas: education and youth empowerment; community development; entrepreneurship; sports; environment; and emergency relief. Committed to growth and opening new offices globally, Aramex faced the challenge of preserving CSR as an integral part of its expansion strategy. In late January 2011, Ghandour and Hattar began brainstorming ways to address the need to harmonize CSR and sustainability values and practices across operations and ensure that sustainability principles were firmly institutionalized across branches and subsidiaries.

Teaching Note: 8B11M060 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Logistics and Transportation; Jordan, Middle East
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA POWER: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Trupti Karkhanis, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B10M013
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 18 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case describes the strategic dilemma involved in making a decision on the method of operation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) department for one of the leading Indian multinational corporations, Tata Power Company (TPC) from Tata Group of Companies. TPC had undertaken the CSR activities for decades, reflecting the company's commitment towards sustainable energy generation without undue compromise to human and environmental development. These activities were undertaken as a voluntary initiative by the employees of TPC, and there was no separate CSR department. However, with large scale expansion, the need to have CSR as a separate entity was felt. The dilemma for the decision manager was whether to create a separate CSR department or continue with the existing set up. Other related issues needed to be addressed strategically as well as tactically to maintain a balance between shareholders' interest and other stakeholders.

Teaching Note: 8B10M13 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability; Opportunity Recognition; Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholders; Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



BEYOND GOOD INTENTIONS: STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING YOUR CSR PERFORMANCE
Pratima Bansal, Cara C. Maurer, Natalie Slawinski

Product Number: 9B08TA04
Publication Date: 1/1/2008
Length: 9 pages

From the ephemeral to the measurable describes one way Corporate Social Responsibility has evolved. This article describes metrics and criteria that can help companies adopt best practices.

Issues: Corporate Responsibility



Chapter 4:
Responsibilities to Stakeholders

GREENPEACE'S UNFRIEND COAL CAMPAIGN AND FACEBOOK
Michael Sider, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B12M011
Publication Date: 2/10/2012
Revision Date: 10/28/2013
Length: 10 pages

Facebook’s director of policy communications was faced with a situation caused by a YouTube video posted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) Greenpeace. This video publicly critiqued the environmental sustainability of Facebook’s decision to build a new data centre, its main objection being that the new facility would be connected to a local utility provider that supplied electricity mainly from the burning of coal, one of the largest sources of global warming. This video was only the latest of a series of actions, commenced by Greenpeace eight months earlier, immediately following Facebook’s decision to build the new facility. Greenpeace had dubbed these actions the “Unfriend Coal Campaign,” which now had 500,000 followers and had generated numerous media stories. Greenpeace’s goal was to pressure Facebook into adopting cleaner energy policies by leveraging Facebook’s own social media against the company. As Facebook had no plans to stop building the facility, its director needed to figure out the best course of action to take in response to the mounting pressure from Greenpeace, in order to alleviate the increasingly negative attention from media and consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B12M011 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Ethical Issues; Social Media; Facilities Planning; Non-governmental Organizations; Communications; Corporate Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FARMING PHARMACEUTICALS: VENTRIA BIOSCIENCE AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER PLANT-MADE MEDICINES
Anne T. Lawrence

Product Number: 9B09M011
Publication Date: 2/19/2009
Length: 11 pages

How can a biotechnology start-up navigate a complex regulatory and stakeholder terrain to bring to market an innovative product with potentially significant public health benefits? This case focuses on the challenges facing Ventria Bioscience, a small biotechnology firm based in California. The company had developed an innovative technology for growing medical proteins useful in the treatment of childhood diarrhea in genetically modified rice. The company's efforts to obtain regulatory approval in California to commercialize its invention met with a firestorm of opposition from a wide range of stakeholders, including environmentalists, food safety activists, consumer advocates and rice farmers. The case presents the hurdles faced by Ventria as it has attempted to commercialize its invention in the context of the broader debate over the ethics of plant-based medicines. This case is suitable for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate course in entrepreneurship, small business, the management of technology or biotechnology. In such a course, it is best positioned in a discussion of the regulatory environment and stakeholder relations. Alternatively, the case may be used in a segment on technology or stakeholder relationships in a course in business and society.

Teaching Note: 8B09M11 (10 pages)
Issues: Genetically Modified Crops; Stakeholders; Biotechnology; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ETHICS OF OFFSHORING: NOVO NORDISK AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EPCOR UTILITIES INC. (A): A CRITICAL COMMUNITY CONSULTATION
Pratima Bansal, Tom Ewart

Product Number: 9B07M009
Publication Date: 1/30/2007
Length: 10 pages

In January 2003, EPCOR Utilities (EPCOR) was facing great pressure from a radical community group that wanted the company out of its community of Rossdale - where EPCOR was founded in 1891 and had been operating since. The pressure had mounted to the point that EPCOR's sole shareholder, the City of Edmonton, had asked that EPCOR prepare a long-term plan for its operations in Rossdale as part of a formal review of the land use at the site. Operations of EPCOR were $3 billion. The case encourages students to think through the senior vice-president of public and government relations job of engaging (or at least placating) the community from a philosophical level to the practical details of implementation.

Industry: Utilities
Issues: Communications; Stakeholder Analysis; Conflict Resolution; Corporate Responsibility
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
CSR in the Marketplace

OUR BEER PRINT: BREWING CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY AT MOLSON COORS
Mary Weil, Chitra P. Reddin

Product Number: 9B13A026
Publication Date: 11/19/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 14 pages

Molson Coors’ chief corporate responsibility officer has been tasked to use the company’s efforts toward global corporate responsibility to drive its global competitiveness. He must roll out new corporate responsibility initiatives to engage employees across the company’s range of geographic locations.

Teaching Note: 8B13A026 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Corporate responsibility; sustainability; communications; responsible sourcing; United States
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



LIVELIHOOD ADVANCEMENT BUSINESS SCHOOL
Amit Gupta, Amita Joseph

Product Number: 9B12M101
Publication Date: 11/22/2012
Revision Date: 11/21/2012
Length: 18 pages

Dr. Reddy’s Foundation (DRF) was established to focus on offering education and livelihood programs in India. The case deals with DRF’s innovative program called Livelihood Advancement Business School (LABS), under which vocational training programs are conducted to upgrade the skills of underprivileged, semi-educated and unemployed youth. These programs develop specific and marketable technical and work-related skills and provide entry-level jobs to the target group. The LABS program fills an important gap between employers’ need for skilled youth and potential employees who might not have training, skills, credibility or access to such jobs. The case describes DRF’s entry into this particular niche sector and the difficulties that it faced along the way. The case also analyzes the following aspects of the LABS program: monitoring systems and processes; partnering relationships formed to expand its presence and outreach to the target population; challenges related to ensuring fair wages and skilling the differently-abled youth; and potential future directions for the program.

Teaching Note: 8B12M101 (12 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Corporate social responsibility; organization systems; bottom of the pyramid; employability training; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMERICAN APPAREL: UNWRAPPING ETHICS
June Cotte, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, Brittany Schuette

Product Number: 9B12A032
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
Revision Date: 8/13/2012
Length: 5 pages

American Apparel, a popular clothing manufacturer, has socially progressive labour policies and uses significant environmental advances in its manufacturing process. In addition, it has a well-established philanthropic arm. Set against these socially responsible policies is the highly sexualized nature of the company’s advertising. This element of the marketing mix seems, at least to some consumers, very much at odds with the other aims and policies of the company. The question facing students is whether this disconnect can be maintained or whether the brand’s advertising should change.

Teaching Note: 8B12A032 (2 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility; Advertising Strategy; Controversial Advertising, United States
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



CAUSE-RELATED MARKETING: 3M AS A CORPORATE SPONSOR OF THE CANADIAN BREAST CANCER FOUNDATION
Allison Johnson, Laurie Dudo

Product Number: 9B11A003
Publication Date: 4/8/2011
Length: 18 pages

3M Canada has been a corporate sponsor of the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation (CBCF) since 2005. In support of the CBCF, 3M Canada has produced and sold pink products (i.e. products that bear the pink ribbon, such as Post-it notes, flag pens, Nexcare bandages and Scotch-Brite sponges), with a contribution of each sale benefiting the CBCF. This case examines this corporate sponsorship relationship, and specifically how 3M Canada’s brand manager for Post-it brand office products can further engage the relationship with the CBCF. The brand manager’s marketing campaign for 2009 was successful; however, she now needs to determine the best approach for her 2010 campaign.

Teaching Note: 8B11A003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cause-related Marketing; Sponsorship; Product Placement; Corporate Social Responsibility; Breast Cancer Awareness; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR GREENWASHING?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NESTLE'S NESCAFE PARTNERS' BLEND: THE FAIRTRADE DECISION (A)
Niraj Dawar, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06A020
Publication Date: 7/27/2006
Revision Date: 1/9/2008
Length: 24 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2006 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. In early 2005, Nestle is in the midst of a decision: whether or not the Fairtrade mark should be applied on Partners' Blend, a new instant coffee product to be marketed in the growing UK 'ethical' coffee segment. Application of the Fairtrade mark on the Partners Blend product means that Nestle must go against its historical position of not offering minimum guaranteed prices to coffee farmers. As part of their deliberations, Nestle executives must consider their coffee sourcing program at large, their corporate social responsibility framework, Nescafe and corporate Nestle branding, the UK market and the potential consumer benefits or backlash that could result from releasing such a product.

Teaching Note: 8B06A20 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: New Products; Corporate Responsibility; Brand Management; Product Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
CSR in the Workplace

LGBTA AT TORONTO-DOMINION BANK IN 2012
Cara C. Maurer, Andrew Cornies

Product Number: 9B12C027
Publication Date: 10/26/2012
Revision Date: 10/25/2012
Length: 8 pages

This case concerns the implementation and strategic direction of LGBTA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and ally) initiatives at TD Bank Financial Group (TD). In order to maintain its position as the “employer of choice” for the LGBTA community, TD must expand the measures it had taken since its Diversity Leadership Council was created in 2006 to promote a comfortable, barrier-free and inclusive work environment for all employees. TD’s corporate diversity group had been providing a growing number of resources, events and LGBTA-related sponsorships for the past six years, resulting in an exponential growth of engagement by LGBTA employees, but lately the bank’s competitors and other large companies were catching up. Moreover, a recent review showed that there was a large variance in the quality of experience between the different subgroups of TD’s LGBTA community. The bank’s senior manager of corporate diversity must report within a week to the Diversity Leadership Council on how to solve these issues.

Teaching Note: 8B12C027 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Change Management; Corporate Social Responsibility; Diversity Management; Social Values and Economic Value; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HOST EUROPE: ADVANCING CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY IN A MEDIUM-SIZED IT COMPANY
Rüdiger Hahn

Product Number: 9B10M042
Publication Date: 6/10/2010
Length: 17 pages

The case deals with issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the specific setting of a medium-sized enterprise (Host Europe) in the IT industry. Host Europe is the third largest webhosting company in German-speaking Europe. In recent years, the company has put substantial efforts into living up to its CSR and improving sustainability. The case presents the IT sector in Europe and Germany and highlights several industry-related issues such as green IT (especially in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and e-waste) and the digital divide. Host Europe has already implemented a couple of measures, such as building a new energy-efficient green data centre, switching to renewable energy, promoting virtualization, introducing several workplace measures, pursuing efforts to improve family friendliness, and publishing a sustainability report. However, there are still some challenges ahead and students are asked to think about further efforts of Host Europe to complete its path to becoming a responsible and sustainable medium-sized IT company.The case can either be used as an introductory case for CSR in medium-sized businesses and sustainability in the IT industry, or in advanced-level CSR and sustainability courses. As an introductory case it provides in-depth insights into a company that has already put substantial efforts into becoming a responsible and sustainable IT company. Students learn about various sustainability and CSR issues and measures in the specific context of a medium-sized enterprise. As an advanced case for CSR and sustainability, it can be used to build upon the existing knowledge of students and to ask them to come up with other ideas and a sophisticated strategy to pursue further CSR and sustainability. For example, since Host Europe is not certified according to environmental or social standards yet, students could come up with a detailed and customized plan on how to implement such a management system for the company.

Teaching Note: 8B10M42 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Communications; Sustainable Development; Information Technology; Computer Industry; Corporate Social Responsibility; Green IT; Organizational Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TEXTRON LTD.
Lawrence Beer

Product Number: 9B01M070
Publication Date: 3/28/2002
Revision Date: 11/9/2012
Length: 10 pages

Textron Ltd. is a family-owned manufacturer of cotton and sponge fabricated items. The company wants to expand its business with an offshore manufacturing enterprise that will fit with the company's policy of caring for their employees and providing quality products. The company is looking at two options: a guaranteed outsourcing purchase agreement or a joint venture. After several meetings with offshore alliance candidates the vice-president of the company must analyse the cross-cultural differences to established corporate guidelines of global ethics and social responsibility that the company can use in their negotiations with a foreign manufacturing firm.

Teaching Note: 8B01M70 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Business; Ethical Issues; Business and Society; Developing Countries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ORANGEWERKS: A QUESTION OF ETHICS
Christina A. Cavanagh, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B01C007
Publication Date: 4/23/2001
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 4 pages

OrangeWerks, an entrepreneurial company that creates software applications, is preparing to present to venture capital firms for its first major round of funding. However, during routine network maintenance, the network administrator becomes aware that the company may not have purchased the original software used to create the company's product, and that government workplace safety insurance was not in place. He must decide how to proceed with the knowledge by assessing available options and judging the stakeholder impact, as well as his career implications.

Teaching Note: 8B01C07 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Action Planning and Implementation; E-Commerce; Organizational Behaviour; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
CSR in the Community

TAJ HOTELS: BUILDING SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS
Garima Sharma, David G. Hyatt

Product Number: 9B13C032
Publication Date: 10/18/2013
Revision Date: 10/18/2013
Length: 12 pages

This case explores issues faced by the corporate sustainability manager at the corporate headquarters of a large hotel group in a developing nation as she implements her company’s corporate sustainability strategy through supplier partnerships with bottom-of-the-pyramid (BoP) social organizations. Under the rubric of responsible purchasing, the hotelier’s “Creating Sustainable Livelihoods” initiative engaged cause-based nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) by exploring opportunities where the products or services of such organizations could substitute for similar products or services sourced from for-profit suppliers. The case illustrates the challenges inherent in a BoP responsible purchasing strategy, including the delicate balance between meeting business objectives while supporting social causes.

Teaching Note: 8B13C032 (9 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Cross-sector partnership; corporate social responsibility; bottom-of-pyramid supply chain; social and economic value
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CANADIAN BREAST CANCER FOUNDATION: CORPORATE SPONSORSHIP CHOICES
Allison Johnson, Laurie Dudo

Product Number: 9B11A002
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

The case explores the use and importance of corporate sponsorships — in this case, how these relationships are formed with the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation. The associate director of National Corporate Programs at the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation needs to determine the Foundation’s direction regarding its corporate sponsorship program. Due to the slowdown in the economic environment, a major sponsor of the Foundation, who has contributed more than $1 million to the charity over the past five years, has decided to pull two products from the shelf. The associate director needs to find a way to replace that support. Fortunately, the Foundation has been approached by three corporations who are interested in becoming corporate sponsors. The associate director and her team now need to evaluate the three corporate sponsorship proposals to determine whether they fit with the Foundation’s values and goals.

Teaching Note: 8B11A002 (13 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Not-for-profit Marketing; Brand Management; Cancer Research; Charities
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SAMSUNG TESCO HOMEPLUS AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Youngchan Kim, Kwangho Ahn

Product Number: 9B09M040
Publication Date: 7/13/2009
Revision Date: 7/29/2009
Length: 17 pages

Samsung Tesco Homeplus (STH), one of Korea's large hypermarkets, increased its investment in social contribution activities and systemized the organization in charge in the aftermath. It especially focused on education and cultural services, saving the environment and sharing with others. As a consequence, by December 2008, STH was considered one of the most innovative companies and one that realized true customer value. It had won a variety of awards, such as the Green Management award, Social Contribution Company award and the Eco-friendly Management award. After creating a corporate social responsibility (CSR) team in 2005, it won the CSR award given by the British Chamber of Commerce in Korea and was selected as one of Korea's Most Admired Companies. While much progress had been made, company executives wondered what factors would be the keys to their continuing CSR activities. This case presents points of contention and issues in the practice of corporate social responsibility by STH. Social contribution activities and STH were aligned with both sustainable management and customer value-oriented management. Various activities in extended education, environment and charity ultimately led customers to view STH as not just a discount store that simply sold products, but a value store. STH conducted systematic programs and activities in the areas of extended education environment and charity after having declared itself a social contribution company. This case illustrates how a company can develop its social contribution activities. In addition, discussion will centre on the long-term impacts that social contribution activities have on enterprises.

Teaching Note: 8B09M40 (10 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Customer Value Management; Ivey/Yonsei
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA
Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
CSR in the Ecological Environment

CARROWAY ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
Robert Klassen, Adam Bortolussi

Product Number: 9B10D004
Publication Date: 4/19/2010
Revision Date: 5/27/2014
Length: 9 pages

New technology being developed by Carroway Environmental promised a clean, inexpensive process to deal with a vexing problem: scrap tires. Using microwave energy, tires were broken down to reclaim their raw materials for sale into a wide variety of markets and alternative uses. Just as important, no harmful wastes and pollutants were created. But the president and chief executive officer was continuing to face challenges to secure additional funding of $2 million required to get his new business venture off the ground. The president was also unsure about where to locate the first large-scale pilot plant. Finally, given that the president envisioned developing multiple sites across North America, should he be looking for a joint venture partner?

Teaching Note: 8B10D04 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Process Design/Change; New Venture; Sustainable Development; Technology
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



Y U RANCH: STRATEGY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN CATTLE RANCHING (A)
Pratima Bansal, Pamela Laughland, Brent McKnight

Product Number: 9B09M080
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Length: 4 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case won the 2011 Oikos Sustainability Case Writing Competition. The owner and operator of Y U Ranch, a Longhorn cattle ranch in southern Ontario, is required to make a set of interesting but seemingly unimportant decisions. In this case series, students will see that each decision builds on the previous decision (i.e. the decisions are path dependent). Taken together, these cases illustrate why industrial farming has supplanted the farm-based agricultural system. After reviewing the case series, the instructor can engage students in a discussion about the importance of systems in influencing organizational resilience.

Teaching Note: 8B09M80 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Sustainability; Corporate Social Responsibility; Decision Making; Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SCANDINAVIAN AIRLINES: THE GREEN ENGINE DECISION
Jennifer Lynes

Product Number: 9B09M028
Publication Date: 6/11/2009
Length: 11 pages

Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) is an innovator of strategic environmental management in the airline industry. Being a first-mover can have both its advantages and disadvantages. This case looks at the airline's decision of whether they should invest in the best available environmental technology for a fleet of new aircraft that would serve them for the next 25 years. While the technology for these low-emission engines had been around since the 1970s, it had never really been commercialized. SAS was feeling pressure from the regulatory authorities with regards to potential new charges and taxes that could affect the future operating costs of the fleet. Despite these anticipated future costs, at the time of the decision, the director of aircraft and engine analysis for SAS could not make an economic case for the more expensive engines. The challenge was for the fleet development team to try to convince the SAS management team to spend the extra kr5 million (Swedish Kronor) per aircraft for the dual combustor engine. Given that corporations are faced with increasing pressure with regards to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, this case study presents an opportunity for discussion and analysis of various environmental concepts including strategic environmental management, adoption of best available environmental technologies, the role of internal environmental leadership in a large corporation and the effect of market-based mechanisms to improve a sector's environmental performance. The case illustrates the complexities of environmental decisions in striking a balance between meeting ambitious commitments and dealing with real capabilities of companies and external pressures.

Teaching Note: 8B09M28 (14 pages)
Issues: Corporate Culture; Management Decisions; Competitive Advantage; Environment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE: THE CASE OF SUNCOR ENERGY AND THE ALBERTA OIL SANDS
Pratima Bansal, Jijun Gao

Product Number: 9B08M073
Publication Date: 9/22/2008
Revision Date: 11/18/2008
Length: 17 pages

The chief executive officer of an oil and gas company must decide whether he wants to invest heavily in reducing greenhouse gases. Specifically, Suncor Energy must evaluate whether it should invest $425 million in carbon capture and storage or wait until there is greater certainty in the political, social and business environment. The case will help students develop skills of analyzing business decisions under higher environmental uncertainty, especially when the outcome is a long-term goal. Further, the issues presented in the case open up discussions about climate change and the interaction between business actions and societal expectations. There is also an opportunity to speak about the interaction between business and public policy.

Teaching Note: 8B08M73 (8 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Decision Making; Tradeoff Analysis; Uncertainty
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 9/24/2018
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
CSR Reporting and Auditing

ENBRIDGE MICHIGAN OIL SPILL: PATRICK DANIEL'S CHALLENGE (A)
Gerard Seijts, William T. Watson

Product Number: 9B12C039
Publication Date: 10/24/2012
Revision Date: 10/11/2013
Length: 10 pages

In 2010, approximately 20,000 barrels of oil being shipped south by Enbridge spilled into Michigan’s Talmadge Creek, contaminating wetlands around Battle Creek and the nearby county seat of Marshall, including a stretch of the Kalamazoo River. The timing of the incident could not have been worse. The pipeline had been carrying controversial tar sands oil at a time when Enbridge and its competitors were seeking to greatly expand their pipeline networks across North America. Moreover, the pipeline failure came on the heels of BP's much larger oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, amid a period of heightened public intolerance toward oil spills. As a result, Enbridge faced massive public relations (PR) and regulatory challenges. Enbridge's reputation was clearly at risk since the company had promoted itself as a true believer in corporate social responsibility, which had raised the stakes when dealing with the industrial accident. The CEO of Enbridge faced an almost impossible challenge. He needed to prove to American citizens — and to industry regulators, market watchers, company shareholders and Enbridge employees — that his company deserved to be judged on its own merits, not as a Canadian version of BP. To meet this challenge, he needed to demonstrate that Enbridge was run by people who not only wanted to make amends but could be trusted to do so.

Teaching Note: 8B12C039 (9 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Leadership; Crisis; Communication; Leadership Character; United States
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TALISMAN ENERGY INC.: THE DECISION TO ENTER IRAQ
Pratima Bansal, Natalie Slawinski

Product Number: 9B09M035
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 7/2/2009
Length: 17 pages

In June 2008, the chief executive officer of Talisman Energy Inc. (Talisman) and his senior executive team met with the company's board of directors. The purpose of this meeting was to debate Talisman's proposed entry into the oil-rich Kurdistan region of Iraq. This move was potentially very lucrative for Talisman but was fraught with risks. These risks were exacerbated by Talisman's previous foray into Sudan; during that expansion Talisman had been accused of complicity in human-rights abuses, stemming from industry-accepted royalties and fees it had paid to the government. This payment of fees was held as an example by public interest groups to allege that Talisman was indirectly funding the Sudanese civil war. Talisman's reputation had suffered to the point where the ire of investors and U.S. and Canadian governments was sufficient for Talisman to exit Sudan in 2003. There were many questions about the proposed move to Iraq, including the political situation, the views of the U.S. and Canadian government, and especially the US$220 million fee payable to the Kurdistan Regional Government. Should Talisman enter Iraq, and if so, could they avoid experiencing the same outcome as Sudan?

Teaching Note: 8B09M35 (11 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Corporate Responsibility; Risk Management; Political Environment; Sustainable Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KILLER COKE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST COCA-COLA
Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07C003
Publication Date: 1/31/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 23 pages

The CEO of Coca-Cola is faced with increasing criticism over the company's handling of alleged human rights abuses in Colombia. A grass roots protest movement known as The Campaign to Stop Killer Coke has built international support for a boycott of Coca-Cola products on college campuses. The campaign centers specifically on the intimidation and murder of union leaders at a specific Coca-Cola bottling plant in Colombia. Coca-Cola asserted that it was not responsible for such abuses. Rather, the violence at the Coca-Cola plant was the product of a political situation that was beyond the company's control. The company further argued that it was in compliance with local labor laws, and had been dismissed as the defendant in lawsuits filed in Colombia and U.S. courts. At the time of the case, Coca-Cola is faced with anti-Coke campaigns at more than 100 college campuses worldwide and official boycotts of its products at a number of large well-known campuses in the United States. In response, the company has undertaken an audit of its bottling plants in Colombia. It also launched a public relations campaign aimed at refuting accusations of human rights violations. The case can be used to discuss corporate ethics, extraterritoriality, marketing and public relations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C03 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Trade Unions; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Supplier Selection; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Developing CSR Strategy

ABB’S HYDROPOWER SUSTAINABILITY DILEMMA
Timo Busch, Vincent Dessain, Kathleen McCarthy

Product Number: 9B11M096
Publication Date: 11/30/2011
Length: 21 pages

This case is about the multinational company ABB’s development of a sustainability strategy, and its dilemmas in supplying hydropower dam projects. Adam Roscoe, head of sustainability at ABB Group, had to evaluate the content and business consequences of a letter written by the non-governmental organization (NGO) International Rivers. The letter discussed the alleged violations of sustainability criteria when building the Nam Theun 2 dam in Laos. Roscoe needed to assess what implications the letter had for ABB, which had a large stake in the outcomes of the project. Such a letter from a prominent NGO might affect ABB’s policies and practices in sustainability.

The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank had great interest in seeing the project’s success, as it would supply rural areas of Laos and Thailand with electricity, bring in a large source of revenue that would be used in poverty-reduction programs for Laos and, lastly, provide a non-carbon-based energy source. ABB also had to consider the position of its stakeholders including customers, investors, media, and NGOs. If ABB was associated with a dam project that did not comply with international regulations, this could lead to negative publicity and potential loss of business.

Roscoe thus faced two interweaved questions: Would International Rivers’ letter pose a reputation risk for ABB? What would this example mean for ABB’s sustainability criteria and objectives and would this need to be acknowledged and, if so, how?


Teaching Note: 8B11M096 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Stakeholder Analysis; Sustainability; Risk Analysis; Green Energy; Hydro; Switzerland; Thailand; Laos
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SOLUTIONS CARE ASSOCIATION: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B11M004
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 19 pages

This case focuses on Solutions Care Association (SCA) — a nonprofit health care organization established in 2000 that quickly became a leader in environmental stewardship and social responsibility. With headquarters in Nevada, United States, the company had a strong mission and socially responsible culture, which helped attract talent and launch social and environmental initiatives. Despite its numerous achievements and awards, however, there was limited awareness internally and externally about these initiatives and their impact on business and society. In addition, the company did not have a comprehensive way to track and report these achievements. As an emerging leader of the integrated health care plan in the United States, Solutions Care Association had both the responsibility and the opportunity to be a model of what American health care should look like. With growing concerns over and scrutiny of the health care industry, there was no better time for Solutions Care Association to continue to strengthen its leadership position in addressing key social and environmental problems, such as providing affordable health care, reducing climate change impacts, phasing out toxic chemicals and creating a safe, culturally sensitive, and supportive environment for employees, patients, and suppliers.

Teaching Note: 8B11M004 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Strategy Development; Communications; Health Care; Corporate Social Responsibility; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NEW BALANCE: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B10M011
Publication Date: 1/28/2010
Length: 21 pages

This case focuses on New Balance, a privately held company and the fourth largest athletic footwear manufacturer in the world. Founded over 100 years ago, New Balance has a strong social responsibility culture and mission established by its owners. Its commitment to employees, for example, was expressed through maintaining domestic manufacturing in the United States (the only large footwear manufacturer to do so presently) and avoiding layoffs in the deep recession of 2007-2009. In the late 1990s, the company established the Responsible Leadership Steering Committee to address human rights issues in overseas factories. Throughout the years, private ownership had allowed New Balance to take risks and make choices that publicly held companies might not have been able to do; at the same time, private ownership also meant lower pressures to disclose social and environmental performance. The owners were also very humble and hesitant to talk aloud about social responsibility. As a global player, the present challenge for the company has become to move corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the next level from doing what's right to fully integrating CSR into the business strategy. The overall goal of the case is to use the provided information from a comprehensive company assessment to identify a few key areas where New Balance can focus on and demonstrate industry leadership while also supporting the bottom line. A set of key questions is included at the end of the paper to guide student's discussion around critical issues for building an integrated CSR strategy for New Balance, considering its culture, structure and present level of corporate citizenship management.

Teaching Note: 8B10M11 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Strategy Development; Business Sustainability; Performance Assessment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
CSR, Partnership, and Self-Regulation

THE CANADIAN BOREAL FOREST AGREEMENT: A REVOLUTIONARY PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Mike Valente, Mark Desjardine

Product Number: 9B13M121
Publication Date: 12/3/2013
Revision Date: 3/7/2014
Length: 19 pages

The Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement (CBFA) had two primary purposes: (1) to protect Canada’s boreal forest from harmful logging practices; and (2) to improve and protect the reputation of Canada’s forest industry and companies. But the CBFA’s ambitious plans overlooked the fundamental challenges associated with the agreement’s implementation. Two years after its signing, the agreement suffers from a severe lack of funding, the withdrawal of one signatory and major hurdles at the regional working group level. The CBFA’s secretariat needs to develop a plan of action to realize the full potential of the agreement but faces numerous issues in terms of implementation: (1) the CBFA’s exclusion of First Nations communities; (2) funding issues; (3) disagreement at the local regional levels and among some signatories; (4) slow pace of implementation and (5) limited concrete signs of success thus far.

Teaching Note: 8B13M121 (11 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: sustainability; public-private partnership; negotiations; implementation; First Nations; Aboriginal Peoples; Canada; Indigenous Peoples
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PARTNERSHIP FOR LEBANON AND CISCO SYSTEMS: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT IN A POST-WAR CONTEXT
Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B11M050
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Revision Date: 11/21/2016
Length: 16 pages

The project manager of the Partnership for Lebanon (PFL) and Cisco Systems’s regional director of corporate affairs for the Middle East and Africa met in September 2009, three years after the PFL was first initiated. The meeting primarily revolved around the challenge of sustainability and what useful suggestions they could put forward to their partners to ensure that the projects initiated through the PFL were not dependent on the continuous investments of the partners.

The PFL, a major partnering initiative in a post-war context, was initiated in September 2006 after President George W. Bush called for the assistance of U.S. companies to help in the relief and reconstruction efforts in Lebanon after the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah. The five companies involved were Cisco Systems, Intel Corporation, Ghafari Inc., Occidental Petroleum, and Microsoft. They leveraged their core competence under five main work streams: emergency relief/response, job creation/private-sector revival, developing information and communication technology infrastructure, workforce training/education, and developing connected communities. Cisco took a leadership position within the PFL, establishing a management office in Beirut staffed by five senior full-time Cisco employees, and committed an investment of $10 million in the Lebanese private sector over a three-year period. The PFL’s corporate partners engaged closely with the Lebanese government as well as with various international and local NGOs to develop initiatives under the five work streams and yield a long-term sustainable impact.


Teaching Note: 8B11M050 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Information and Communication Technology; Lebanon; Middle East and United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAYER CROPSCIENCE IN INDIA (A): AGAINST CHILD LABOR
Charles Dhanaraj, Oana Branzei, Satyajeet Subramanian

Product Number: 9B10M061
Publication Date: 1/27/2011
Length: 19 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case explores value-driven strategy formulation and implementation by bringing to the fore issues of ethics, responsible leadership, social intiatives in emerging markets, and the global-local tensions in corporate social responsibility. It examines how Bayer CropScience addressed the issue of child labor in its cotton seed supply chain in rural India between 2002 and 2008. Bayer had been operating in India for more than a century. In December 2002, the Bayer Group completed the acquisition of India-based Aventis CropScience. Bayer CropScience first learned about the occurrence and prevalence of child labor in its newly acquired India-based cotton seed operations a few months post-acquisition, in April 2003. The Aventis acquisition had brought onboard a well-known Indian company, Proagro, which already had operations in the cotton seed production and marketing - a new segment of the supply chain for Bayer. Child labor was widespread in cotton seed production — a traditional practice taken for granted not only by Indian farmers but also by several hundred Indian companies then accounting for approximately 90 per cent of the market share. The (A) case focuses on Bayer’s decision whether, when, and how to launch a self-run program that would take direct responsibility for tracking and eradicating child labor in rural India.

Teaching Note: 8B10M061 (11 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Emerging Markets; Strategy Implementation; Ethical Issues; Crisis Management; Corporate Responsibility; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAL-MART PUERTO RICO: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Myrna Comas, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B10M024
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 14 pages

Sowing the Development of the Country (SDC) was a public-private partnership between Wal-Mart Puerto Rico (Wal-Mart PR), the island's Department of Agriculture as well as its Economic Development Bank (EDB), two NGOs Caborroje's Pro Salud y Ambiente (Caborroje's Pro Health and Environment) and ConectaRSE (a corporate social responsibility (CSR) promotion non-governmental organization(NGO)), and a group of local farmers. The objective of the project was to promote sustainable development on the island by encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurs by developing small agro-businesses. Wal-Mart acted as the primary buyer. The project faced many challenges, such as farmers' difficulties in meeting quality standards and delivery schedules, the lack of an existing vehicle through which to access funding from the EDB, and, most importantly, changes in the political party in power. Project partners had to develop a position from which to negotiate a new alliance with the incoming government administration. Since Wal-Mart was determined to guarantee the continuity and expansion of the SDC project, Wal-Mart had to step into the project champion role.

Teaching Note: 8B10M24 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade
Issues: Government and Business; Corporate Social Responsibility; Developing Countries; Partnership; Public Administration
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
The Future of CSR in a Global Context

SOJO: MODELING SOCIAL ENTERPRISE
Kanika Gupta, Melissa Leithwood, Oana Branzei

Product Number: 9B13M103
Publication Date: 9/26/2013
Revision Date: 9/26/2013
Length: 9 pages

SoJo is an online resource hub — optimized for web and mobile — focused on helping early-stage social innovators turn their ideas into action. Founded in Canada as a for-profit venture in 2010, the company depends mainly on volunteer part-time staff and competes for traffic in cyberspace with its own content providers. Many skeptics doubted the idea would ever work: why would content providers forego traffic on their own sites by relinquishing their “good stuff” to SoJo? Yet by 2012, with over 2,000 active users, 50 content partners, 1,300 Twitter followers, 80,000 articles viewed and more than 1,000 unique pieces of content that earned global praise from traditional business media outlets, SoJo is well positioned to grow even further and faster. However, its founder and chief catalyst, an award-winning social entrepreneur, is anxious to make the company self-sustaining by generating revenue through product and service extensions and by increasing its user base a hundred-fold. How can such a social enterprise be modeled to support the pace of growth it needs to remain the one best resource for change-makers the world over?

Teaching Note: 8B13M103 (11 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: social enterprise; social innovation; social change; youth entrepreneurship; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SANATKADA: GIVING WINGS TO DREAMS
Smita Singh, Nikita Kriplani, Abhinav Anand

Product Number: 9B12M074
Publication Date: 9/21/2012
Revision Date: 9/19/2012
Length: 15 pages

Sanatkada is a retail outlet for traditional handicraft items, hand-woven garments and fabrics. In 2006, Sanatkada was established to bring to the people of Lucknow a wide choice of arts and crafts from all over India. The outlet has been appreciated for its exhibitions, social efforts and unique methods of conducting business. However, this has not all translated into revenue. While commercial activity is one goal of Sanatkada, its founder feels very strongly about issues related to women's empowerment and has also brought a not-for-profit component to the business. This hybrid model of doing business is difficult to balance. The goal of the case is to work out the possible alternatives that would enable Sanatkada's founder to retain the spirit of Sanatkada, while simultaneously empowering her staff and making the social initiatives self-sustainable.

Teaching Note: 8B12M074 (10 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Not-for-profit; Handicrafts; Marketing; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NANO TATA-LOGY: THE PEOPLE'S CAR
Oana Branzei, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B08M074
Publication Date: 10/31/2008
Revision Date: 11/10/2008
Length: 32 pages

The case illustrates the opportunities, challenges and trade-offs involved in the design, prototyping, and marketing of the Nano - the People's Car - by Tata Motors Ltd (TML), a Tata Group Company. The case is set nine months after the January 2008 unveiling of the Nano concept car in New Delhi, India. The company's managing director faces multiple dilemmas in rolling the Nano off the production lines at the manufacturing plant in Singur, including growing local and global competition in the emerging low-cost, low-emission market, rising manufacturing costs, and stakeholder pressures. The decision reviews critical developments in global automotive markets from the point of view of TML's and Tata Group's deeply ingrained values for sustainable economic development and Indian-grown competitive advantage. It plots the promise of a rampant market growth and the emergence of an India-based small car cluster against international outcry about the proliferation of urban transportation, congestion, and pollution in emerging markets (particularly India and China). Students are asked whether Nano is a disruptive or sustainable innovation for the company and the group, and respectively for the Indian and global automotive industry. Smaller and cleaner than its well-established rival in the west, the Toyota Prius, the Nano promises reliable, safe transportation to India's emergent middle class as a fraction of the cost; the Nano is also 1.5-4 times cheaper than its Indian based rivals. However, production bottlenecks threaten Nano's launch in the last quarter of 2008. Speculating that first mover advantage may sway customer perception and breed loyalty, several competitors are quickly setting up India-based manufacturing of competing models. Market projections estimate over one million adoptions, mostly by prior two-wheeler motorists, and limited switches from higher emission options for fuel and emission conscious consumers. The case addresses the issue of carbon neutrality, and more broadly the role of emerging market companies in addressing global climate change issues.

Teaching Note: 8B08M74 (25 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing, Other Services, Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Marketing Management; Automotive; Emerging Markets; Sustainable Development; Innovation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA