Ivey Publishing

International Management: Theory and Practice

Gooderham, P.N.; Grogaard, B.; Nordhaug, O. (United Kingdom, Edward Elgar, 2013)
Prepared By Yamlaksira Getachew, Ivey PhD Student
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Setting the Scene: The Multinational Company

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B13M102
Publication Date: 9/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/26/2014
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B13M102 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MABE: LEARNING TO BE A MULTINATIONAL (A)
José Luis Rivas, Luis Arciniega

Product Number: 9B13M042
Publication Date: 4/5/2013
Revision Date: 3/3/2016
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Latin American Business Cases Award, 2013 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. A Mexican appliance manufacturer, MABE, has evolved quickly after selling nearly half its stake to a large multinational company in the early 1990s. The manufacturer was then able to dominate the Mexican appliances market and venture into other Latin American countries. Just before the 2008 financial crisis, the manufacturer formed a joint venture with a Spanish company and entered the Russian market, but it was not successful. The manufacturer faced a dilemma: Should it leave the Russian joint venture with its Spanish partner and refocus on other emerging markets? Should it acquire a local manufacturer? Should it remain as it was?

This case can be taught on its own, or in combination with "Mabe: Learning to Be a Multinational (B)" 9B15M121.


Teaching Note: 8B13M042 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint ventures; Internationalization; Latin America; Russia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHABROS INTERNATIONAL GROUP: A WORLD OF WOOD
Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Foreign Operating Modes and Ownership Forms

THE ESPRESSO LANE TO GLOBAL MARKETS
Ilan Alon, Meredith Lohwasser

Product Number: 9B12M058
Publication Date: 5/23/2012
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

Founded in Trieste, Italy, Illy marketed a unique blend of coffee drinks in over 140 countries and in more than 50,000 of the world’s best restaurants and coffeehouses. The company wanted to expand the reach of its own franchised coffee bar, Espressamente, through international expansion. Potential markets included Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The managing director of Espressamente knew that global expansion meant prioritizing markets, but where did the greatest potential lie? In addition to market selection, mode of entry was vital and included options such as exporting, franchising, and joint ventures. This case provides a practical example of the challenges faced in international business.

Teaching Note: 8B12M058 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: International Market Selection; Modes of Entry; Franchising; Retailing; International Business; Coffee; Italy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA MOTORS' ACQUISITION OF DAEWOO COMMERCIAL VEHICLE COMPANY
Meera Harish, Sanjay Singh, Kulwant Singh

Product Number: 9B08M094
Publication Date: 2/2/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 15 pages

In January 2004, the chairman of the India-based Tata Group, announced that the Tata Group would focus its efforts on international expansion to become globally competitive. This largely domestic vehicle manufacturing firm subsequently acquired a leading established South Korean firm, Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company (DCVC). This case focuses on the background of the firms and the acquisition, and the bidding and acquisition process. It provides information on the interests of the acquirer and target, and how both came to see the value in the acquisition. The Tata Group acquisition presents an uncommon situation of how an Indian firm acquired a firm in South Korea while overcoming a series of cultural and other barriers. An analysis of this case provides the basis for determining what criteria should be considered to guide a successful acquisition. A companion case is also available, Tata Motors' Integration of Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company.

Teaching Note: 8B08M94 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Strategy; International Expansion; Management Decisions; Market Entry; Mergers & Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Business Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Strategies, Structures, and Learning Networks

BEIERSDORF AG: EXPANDING NIVEA'S GLOBAL REACH
Paul W. Beamish, Vanessa Hasse

Product Number: 9B13M016
Publication Date: 2/11/2013
Revision Date: 3/4/2013
Length: 15 pages

In 2012, two years after a major restructuring project had begun at German skin care producer Beiersdorf, the process was still ongoing. The new chief executive officer (CEO) inherited several challenges from his predecessor, including the difficult implementation of the new transnational strategy, opposition from employees and the work council, and ineffective market-entry strategies (especially in China). Strong competitors and a slow rate of economic recovery in Beiersdorf’s main markets provided additional complexity. Questions remained about how the new CEO should address the ongoing challenges facing the company.

Teaching Note: 8B13M016 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Reorganization; Transnational; Restructuring; Multinational; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESUMING INTERNATIONALIZATION AT STARBUCKS
Mario Koster, Rob Alkema, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M073
Publication Date: 9/23/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starbucks enjoyed tremendous growth over the previous two decades. In 2007, it had a global reach of over 17,000 stores in 56 countries. Between 2007 and 2009, however, Starbucks' relentless march was slowed by three forces: increasingly intense competition, rising coffee bean prices and a global economic recession. In order to remain profitable, the company started to scale back its overseas operations. In 2010, Starbucks was faced with a critical strategic decision: Should the company resume its international expansion and once again intensify its commitments in overseas markets? If so, what approach should the company take? Had the pace of Starbucks' internationalization (i.e. the rate of opening new stores abroad), the rhythm of its internationalization (i.e. the regularity by which stores were opened abroad) and geographical scope of its internationalization (i.e. number of new countries entered) had an impact on the company's performance in previous years? Could Starbucks learn from its prior internationalization within the coffee industry in order to guide its future international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B10M73 (10 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; International Strategy; Market Entry; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Risk Management

COCA-COLA: BACK IN BURMA
Tatiana Vashchilko, Christopher Williams, Carolyn Burns

Product Number: 9B13M079
Publication Date: 7/29/2013
Revision Date: 9/4/2013
Length: 18 pages

Coca-Cola has announced the opening of its first bottling plant in Burma in almost 60 years. Since 1962, Burma has been a closed and isolated country and under military rule. As a result of the military’s steady relinquishing of control over the government, Burma has begun opening its doors to international trade and investment. However, political instability is still very high and economic development is far from secure. Furthermore, although a framework agreement between the U.S. and Burmese governments has been signed, a bilateral investment treaty to provide protection for Coca-Cola’s direct investment is not yet in place. How should Coca-Cola pursue its strategy in Burma?

Teaching Note: 8B13M079 (17 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Entry Strategy; Non-commercial Risks; Legal Institutions; Burma
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JABWOOD INTERNATIONAL: THE RISKY BUSINESS OF EXPANDING EAST
Marina Apaydin, Rami Jabado, Hiba Obeid, Balsam Danhash

Product Number: 9B12M099
Publication Date: 11/21/2012
Revision Date: 11/21/2016
Length: 17 pages

Jabwood, a wood trading company with four branches in Lebanon owned by the Jabado family, is contemplating international expansion into new markets — specifically, Saudi Arabia and China — to compensate for a decline in revenues. This case examines the macroeconomic environment of Lebanon, China and Saudi Arabia as well as the wood industry in those countries. The characteristics of a successful international expansion are considered. In addition to identifying the criteria of attractiveness for each country, the case requires a decision on a market entry strategy that would ensure a successful expansion for the company. Given the risks and tradeoffs in each country, Jabwood has to decide whether it should expand in either market or both and on the mode of entry it should adopt to increase its chances of success.

Teaching Note: 8B12M099 (25 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: International trade; exports; business development; family succession; Lebanon
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ORASCOM TELECOM: RISKS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION
Marina Apaydin, Dina Zaki, Farah Zahran

Product Number: 9B11M023
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 9 pages

Orascom Telecom Holding S.A.E. (OTH) was established in 1998 in Egypt and grew to become a major player in the global telecommunications market. OTH was among the largest and most diversified network operators in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. Orascom Telecom Algeria (Djezzy) was launched in February 2002 and grew to become the market leader in Algeria in terms of both subscriber numbers and the quality of telecommunications services provided. Djezzy served more than 14.7 million subscribers on its network and had a 62.9 per cent market share.

Orascom wanted to further expand, and India was considered a great opportunity. In 2006, OTH agreed to acquire a 19.3 per cent stake in Hutchison to penetrate the Indian market. India was a promising market as there were strong complementary similarities between Orascom and Hutchinson Telecom. However, Orascom was not able to enter the market because it did not consider the expenses in an accurate way and ignored many factors. Now, in 2009, the treasury director of OTH was wondering what lessons in the risks of internationalization he could learn from the company’s failure in India and present difficulties in Algeria.


Teaching Note: 8B11M023 (20 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Business Sustainability; Internationalization; Tax Accounting; Telecommunications; Acquisitions; India; Algeria; Egypt
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate


Chapter 5:
Cultural Distance

KEN PRIVATE LIMITED: DIGITIZATION PROJECT
Rupali Pardasani, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B13C025
Publication Date: 8/19/2013
Revision Date: 8/9/2013
Length: 10 pages

The COO of a global knowledge-outsourcing and technology-services firm has been selected by his company’s board of directors to step in and rescue a large-scale digitization project that is in danger of missing its rapidly approaching deadline. The project requires the firm to create digital archives of a daily American newspaper, spanning a coverage time of 150 years. With teams from two different countries paired to work on this significant venture, things quickly go awry on several levels as a result of misunderstandings about client expectations, lack of employee training (both from a standpoint of cultural awareness and with respect to the use of new technology) and poor project management. The COO must quickly develop an action plan to address these issues and ensure the success of the project in the face of an ultimatum from the client: deliver the project on time or lose it completely.

In the role of the COO, students must create an action plan to overcome the issues that threaten to derail the project.


Teaching Note: 8B13C025 (10 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Planned change; cross-cultural communication; globally distributed team; project failure; India; Philippines
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TAKING ANDRÉ RIEU PRODUCTIONS TO BRAZIL?
Mark F. Peterson, Aycan Kara

Product Number: 9B12M118
Publication Date: 3/18/2013
Revision Date: 3/13/2013
Length: 12 pages

An entrepreneurial entertainment business is considering its possible entry into a new foreign market. The case does not, however, focus on the sales potential and financial considerations of entering Brazil. The company assesses these considerations by using fairly straightforward guidelines — its intuitive indications of interest based on DVD sales and attendance at performances elsewhere in the world and the availability of enough large venues to seat a certain total combined audience size. In assessing whether to enter Brazil, the case considers the management demands likely to be encountered in that new context and the management capabilities of the organization and the staff members to effectively deal with these demands. This analysis requires the company to consider many of the same issues that are typically discussed in international management courses: the nature of Brazil’s national environment and whether Brazil’s social infrastructure includes such elements as a dependable legal system, a pool of experienced local managers and a societal culture that will support dependable and trusting relationships with venue managers and local work crews.

Teaching Note: 8B12M118 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Entry; Brazil
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAINTAINING THE “SINGLE SAMSUNG” SPIRIT: NEW CHALLENGES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Shaista E. Khilji, Chang Hwan Oh, Nisha Manikoth

Product Number: 9B11C010
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case examines how Samsung has grown to become one of the world’s leading companies. It presents a detailed description of Samsung’s “top priority to the people” philosophy and its strong cultural values, both of which have been instrumental in ensuring its continued success in recent decades. Since 1982, the Samsung Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) has played a critical role in supporting Samsung’s corporate strategy of achieving global competitiveness through programs that focus on maintaining Samsung values and developing a cadre of effective next-generation leaders. New Employee Orientation (NEO), an intensive four-week in-house program for all Samsung employees, is one example of an SHRD program. NEO aligns employees across Samsung affiliates to its strategic direction, thereby fostering a stronger “Single Samsung” culture.

In recent years, however, NEO has been faced with new challenges. First, Samsung’s pool of new employees has become more diverse, with the recruitment of more experienced and foreign (non-Korean) employees in addition to the fresh college graduates whom Samsung has always relied upon. Second, Samsung has become aware of stark value differences between the older employees, who are obedient and easily follow rules, and the younger “digital native” employees, who are more individualistic and prefer egalitarian and open policies. Managers at SHRDC are concerned that the “Single Samsung” spirit, which forms the core of Samsung culture, is being threatened from within.

Students must address issues related to the need for maintaining a unified organizational culture among diverse groups of employees with conflicting values, and propose ways for Samsung to effectively employ and utilize all of its employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C010 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Culture; Generational Differences; Human Resource Development; Consumer Electronics; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
HRM in Multinational Companies

GORAN KAPICIC AT ACTAVIS CHINA
Joo Yong Lowe

Product Number: 9B13C001
Publication Date: 2/22/2013
Revision Date: 2/25/2013
Length: 14 pages

The managing director of a multinational company turns a loss-making business into a profit-making venture by using his unique brand of leadership to change the organizational culture and develop a responsible proactive attitude in his employees. Throughout this process, many difficult personnel decisions must be made, including the decision to remove some senior employees who resist the necessary changes.

Once under the new leadership team, recruitment and talent development become essential to the future growth of the company. The managing director wonders how to manage this challenge.


Teaching Note: 8B13C001 (6 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Leadership; change management; cross-cultural communication; pharmaceutics; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



OLYMPIC GROUP ACQUISITION OF IDEAL
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa

Product Number: 9B12M047
Publication Date: 5/9/2012
Revision Date: 4/23/2012
Length: 12 pages

Olympic Group (OG) was an Egyptian white goods giant that made products such as water heaters, fans, and cookers. In 1997, OG decided to buy IDEAL, a large state-owned white goods firm. Being a monopoly in its markets, IDEAL had a strong brand name and market share, which made it very attractive for OG. Also, the products that IDEAL produced — refrigerators and washing machines — complemented OG’s products. A year after the acquisition, OG had to deal with several issues such as integrating the employees of the two companies, boosting employees’ productivity, changing IDEAL’s brand image, and improving IDEAL’s products. Accordingly, within the next month, the CEO had to decide whether to start by changing IDEAL’s brand image or integrating the employees of the two companies. He also had to consider how and when to integrate the employees of the two companies without affecting overall performance. What methods should he use to boost the employees’ productivity, especially at IDEAL? What areas needed to be worked on in order to improve the IDEAL brand image without affecting its market share? What changes in IDEAL’s products were required to sustain its competitiveness and market share?

Teaching Note: 8B12M047 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Acquisition; Growth; Employee Integration; Brand Repositioning; HR Management; Home Appliances; Egypt
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HR AS TRANSFORMATION PARTNER IN MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.
Anita Ollapally, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B11C022
Publication Date: 7/27/2011
Length: 20 pages

The Indian business landscape is marked by uncertainty, turbulence, hyper-competition, and non-linear growth, as exemplified by the automobile sector. Increasing competition from foreign automobile organizations and homegrown ones such as Tata Motors are posing a threat to the market leader, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. A fierce battle for market share is ensuing among these automobile giants. However, Maruti Suzuki has succeeded in maintaining its leadership position. Yet with more companies venturing into the territory of Maruti Suzuki — the small car segment — the threat to Maruti Suzuki’s market share is looming larger than before.

This case illustrates Maruti Suzuki’s journey and depicts the changes in its organizational strategy, HR strategy, and work culture in response to new challenges. Maruti Suzuki had to change from a government-owned organization and a monopoly, to a firm capable of competing with world-class automobile companies. This case describes the various challenges faced by the organization and how HR has assisted in bringing about much-needed transformation. The challenges include having to create a performing workforce, changing the mindset of the employees, coping with cross-cultural issues and, most significantly, engaging in breakthrough innovation. HR needs to create an organizational culture that not only supports breakthrough innovation but also helps retain employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resource Management; Organizational Culture; Talent Management; Cultural Differences; Automobile Industry; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 7:
Competencies and Knowledge Transfer

HELLO HEALTHCARE: TAKING A COOPERATIVE BUSINESS INTO AFRICA
Albert Wöcke

Product Number: 9B13M076
Publication Date: 8/7/2013
Revision Date: 8/6/2013
Length: 13 pages

A retired Swiss banker has decided to bring primary healthcare to Africa by using a cooperative business model that brings together complementary firms. The model has proven successful in the United Arab Emirates, Zambia and Ghana. He now faces the decision of whether to expand into new African countries, and if so, which countries to enter, how to select partners and how to recruit country managers. The case also illustrates the challenges and misconceptions of doing business in Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B13M076 (9 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Start-up; cooperative; Africa
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



INFUSION'S GREENFIELD SUBSIDIARY IN POLAND
Christopher Williams, Wendelien van Eerde, Danielle The

Product Number: 9B12M076
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
Revision Date: 5/25/2017
Length: 12 pages

The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to global clients. The investment, a big success, had grown in size from eight to forty staff in one year, and there were plans to double that by the end of the following year. The issues facing the president were threefold. Firstly, how could he work with the country manager to continue to grow the subsidiary? Attracting the right talent was vital to Infusion’s culture and business model. Initial growth in Poland was based partly on local referrals in the community of .NET professionals in Krakow. It was also based on being a new start-up with an entrepreneurial culture. The president and country manager were concerned that there were limits to these factors. Secondly, what role should Infusion Poland have in the wider company in the future? Should it become a global centre of excellence and a pivotal hub for the company’s innovative capability? If so, how? Thirdly, what kind of succession planning should be put in place for the country manager in Poland? If he moved to another post at Infusion, as expected, should the company seek a local country manager instead of transferring one from headquarters?

Teaching Note: 8B12M076 (11 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Growth of a Subsidiary; Role of a New Subsidiary; Country Manager; Information Technology; Poland
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IMAX: LARGER THAN LIFE
Anil Nair

Product Number: 9B09M019
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 18 pages

IMAX was involved in several aspects of the large-format film business: production, distribution, theatre operations, system development and leasing. The case illustrates IMAX's use of its unique capabilities to pursue a focused differentiation strategy. IMAX was initially focused on large format films that were educational yet entertaining, and the theatres were located in institutions such as museums, aquariums and national parks. However, IMAX found that its growth and profitability were constrained by its niche strategy. In response, IMAX sought to grow by expanding into multiplexes. Additionally, IMAX expanded its film portfolio by converting Hollywood movies, such as Harry Potter and Superman, into the large film format. This shift in strategy was supported by the development of two technological capabilities - DMR for conversion of standard 35 mm film into large format, and DMX to convert standard multiplexes to IMAX systems. The shift in strategy was partially successful, but carried the risk of IMAX losing its unique reputation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Business Policy; Strategic Positioning; Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Expatriation and Repatriation

SOPHIA TANNIS: THE EUROPEAN TRANSFER
Gerard Seijts, Kanina Blanchard

Product Number: 9B13C027
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
Revision Date: 7/31/2013
Length: 9 pages

A multinational company’s first senior female leader is assigned to the European headquarters. The assignment is a professional coup, and she is primed to meet the challenge. However, her new colleagues’ predominant view is that she is a non-European woman who represents the corporate head office. She has the opportunity to fly high or fail.

Teaching Note: 8B13C027 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Leadership character; careers; job transition; derailment; Switzerland
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLLISION COURSE: SELLING EUROPEAN HIGH PERFORMANCE MOTORCYCLES IN JAPAN
Jeff Hicks, Derek Lehmberg

Product Number: 9B12M025
Publication Date: 4/3/2012
Revision Date: 4/3/2012
Length: 15 pages

In 2006, the Japanese subsidiary of Tommasi Motorcycles, an Italian manufacturer of high-end motorcycles, was implementing a new customer data application to help its motorcycle dealerships increase the effectiveness of their sales and marketing activities. Horizon LLP, a consulting firm, was Tommasi’s global implementation partner for the application. To identify any dealer concerns regarding the new system, Tommasi Japan had brought in additional consultants from Horizon to conduct interviews with the dealers. As the consultants soon discovered, the dealers’ concerns with Tomassi went far beyond the new application. An unannounced visit by an influential dealer set all the players on a collision course, and soon exposed their widely differing views and a number of fundamental problems in the relationship between Tommasi Motorcycles Japan and its dealer network.

The case begins with a series of separate dialogues involving the director of sales and marketing; the expatriate president of Tommasi Motorcycles Japan; an influential owner of multiple dealerships; and two non-Japanese consultants from Horizon. When they meet in the board room of Tommasi Motorcycles Japan, the ensuing conversation reveals a number of issues: opportunistic behaviour by the bilingual director of sales and marketing, who limits and shapes communications between the dealers and Tommasi’s Japanese National Office; a limited understanding of local market conditions by expatriate Tommasi management; frustration on the part of business-savvy dealers; and naiveté on the part of the consultants, who do not see the social hierarchies at work, nor realize that their cultural and language fluency, which has in past projects always been an asset, could also be a threat.


Teaching Note: 8B12M025 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Communications; Consulting; Expatriate Management; Motorcycles and Vehicles; Italy; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAL-MART CHINA: SUSTAINABLE OPERATIONS STRATEGY
David J. Robb, Ben Hopwood, Lei Wang, Jun Cheng

Product Number: 9B08D009
Publication Date: 5/5/2009
Length: 20 pages

A German expatriate had moved to China in 2005 to take up a merchandizing position at the Wal-Mart China headquarters in Shenzen. By 2008 he had been promoted to the new position of senior director for sustainability for Wal-Mart China (retail) and Global Procurement. His new position required that he lead the rapidly-approaching inaugural Wal-Mart Sustainability Summit. The senior director must ensure that Wal-Mart China's five Strategic Value Networks (SVNs), which were tasked with leading sustainability change within the organization, continued to engage stakeholders by implementing innovative solutions that not only cut costs but also lead to more sustainable operations. The case describes Wal-Mart China's operations (including purchasing, distribution and retail) in the context of the company's desire to improve sustainability in a manner appropriate to China. The immediate issue is to identify opportunities to improve the sustainability of Wal-Mart China's distribution systems and retail operations.

Teaching Note: 8B08D09 (14 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Distribution; Purchasing; Logistics; Supply Chain Management; Sustainability; Tsinghua/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Ethical, Social and Environmental Responsibilities in MNCs

NOVO NORDISK: MANAGING SUSTAINABILITY AT HOME AND ABROAD
Jette Steen Knudsen, Dana Brown

Product Number: 9B12M081
Publication Date: 9/7/2012
Revision Date: 2/14/2013
Length: 17 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case study deals with the opportunities and challenges faced by Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk with regard to its sustainability approach in China as of 2012. Novo Nordisk is well known for striving to integrate its business activities in a financially, environmentally, and socially responsible way, and many Novo Nordisk employees proudly refer to Novo Nordisk as a “triple bottom line (TBL) company.” Novo Nordisk has been active in China for more than 50 years; however, since the Chinese economy has expanded tremendously, this increase in wealth and a more sedentary Western lifestyle have led to growing problems with obesity. As a result, China’s insulin market is booming.

Novo Nordisk therefore faces new challenges concerning how best to organize its TBL program in a way that ensures a comprehensive approach throughout the organization, yet allows Novo Nordisk China to adopt initiatives that fit the Chinese business context. Furthermore, with ever-increasing competition for access to China’s lucrative insulin market, Novo Nordisk’s competitors are also engaging in sustainability, which means that Novo Nordisk must keep innovating to stand out, and must use sustainability as a source of competitive advantage.


Teaching Note: 8B12M081 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Non-market Strategy; China; Europe
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ETHICS OF OFFSHORING: NOVO NORDISK AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Global Industrial Relations

WALMART'S AFRICAN EXPANSION
Karen Robson, Stefanie Beninger, Sudheer Gupta

Product Number: 9B13M111
Publication Date: 11/19/2013
Revision Date: 11/19/2013
Length: 10 pages

Walmart has decided to expand into Africa through the acquisition of the South African consumer goods retailer Massmart. In doing so, the world’s largest retailer faces significant backlash from South Africa’s largest union. The company must also contend with price-sensitive consumers and a lack of supplier relationships on the African continent. Will Walmart appeal to South African consumers and achieve the volume of sales needed to make its first African presence a success.

Teaching Note: 8B13M111 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Globalization; cross-cultural management; emerging markets; South Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MCDONALD'S TWITTER CAMPAIGN: HYPE VERSUS REALITY
Jana Seijts, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B13M123
Publication Date: 11/15/2013
Revision Date: 1/3/2014
Length: 8 pages

In early January 2012, the director of social media for the McDonald’s Corporation (McDonald's) was challenged with a tall order. The corporation had just launched a large public relations campaign using the Twitter hashtag “#MeetTheFarmers” to promote connections with family farms and local suppliers. Maximizing a Twitter Promoted Trends expenditure, the director had switched the hashtag from “#MeetTheFarmers” to “#McDStories” halfway through the first day of the campaign. However, numerous detractors used the hashtag to express negative comments towards the corporation. A few days later, the media started to run negative coverage with mocking headlines and articles providing screenshots of the negative tweets but no statistics that explained or put proper context to the situation. The director needed to devise a better strategy for McDonald’s social media campaigns in order to prevent potential media fallouts.

Teaching Note: 8B13M123 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Social media; brand perception; communications; marketing; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PARTNERSHIP FOR LEBANON AND CISCO SYSTEMS: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT IN A POST-WAR CONTEXT
Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B11M050
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Revision Date: 11/21/2016
Length: 16 pages

The project manager of the Partnership for Lebanon (PFL) and Cisco Systems’s regional director of corporate affairs for the Middle East and Africa met in September 2009, three years after the PFL was first initiated. The meeting primarily revolved around the challenge of sustainability and what useful suggestions they could put forward to their partners to ensure that the projects initiated through the PFL were not dependent on the continuous investments of the partners.

The PFL, a major partnering initiative in a post-war context, was initiated in September 2006 after President George W. Bush called for the assistance of U.S. companies to help in the relief and reconstruction efforts in Lebanon after the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah. The five companies involved were Cisco Systems, Intel Corporation, Ghafari Inc., Occidental Petroleum, and Microsoft. They leveraged their core competence under five main work streams: emergency relief/response, job creation/private-sector revival, developing information and communication technology infrastructure, workforce training/education, and developing connected communities. Cisco took a leadership position within the PFL, establishing a management office in Beirut staffed by five senior full-time Cisco employees, and committed an investment of $10 million in the Lebanese private sector over a three-year period. The PFL’s corporate partners engaged closely with the Lebanese government as well as with various international and local NGOs to develop initiatives under the five work streams and yield a long-term sustainable impact.


Teaching Note: 8B11M050 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Information and Communication Technology; Lebanon; Middle East and United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Different Forms of Internationalization and Diverse HRM Practices: The Case of China

RANDOM HOUSE: SHIFTING TO E-BOOKS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD
Sarah Bickert, Volker Diestegge, Thorsten Knauer, Katja Möslang, Andrea Schroer, Friedrich Sommer

Product Number: 9B13M083
Publication Date: 9/25/2013
Revision Date: 9/24/2013
Length: 15 pages

The publisher Random House, a fully owned subsidiary of the German family company Bertelsmann SE & Co. KgaA, faces significant changes in its markets and internal structure. While printed books have been the company’s core competence from its earliest years, with the advent of the Internet, customers, especially in the West, are beginning to prefer electronic books. Will printed books be completely replaced by digital ones, or will e-books remain a niche market? How will this development affect production, distribution and marketing? Will Random House be able to compete for authors and sales with such online e-book giants as Amazon? The imminent merger with the U.K. publishing house Penguin also provides an opportunity and incentive to expand Random House’s operations into China as part of the internationalization strategy of the parent company. A post-merger integration plan must be established since the two publishers’ regional presences and product offerings are in part complementary. How can the new Penguin Random House strengthen its position as the world’s biggest and most successful publisher?

Teaching Note: 8B13M083 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Publishing; e-books; internationalization; strategic positioning; Germany; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LENOVO: A CHINESE DRAGON IN A GLOBAL VILLAGE
Pascal Vidal, Pierre-Xavier Meschi

Product Number: 9B13M029
Publication Date: 3/27/2013
Revision Date: 3/27/2013
Length: 16 pages

The fast rise of Lenovo among its competitors in the computer industry raised a series of questions regarding the sustainability of its competitive position, as well as the choices it had made in its efforts toward globalization. First, how could Lenovo establish and sustain a leadership role in an industry where competitive positions were increasingly unstable? Next, how could the Chinese firm build a solid competitive position in an industry characterized by smaller and smaller margins? Finally, after the acquisition of IBM’s PC business and the subsequent accelerated international expansion, could Lenovo still be considered an entirely Chinese entity or was it a truly global enterprise of Chinese origin?

A video interview with Lenovo's strategy and corporate development vice-president, Lenovo: A Chinese Dragon in the Global Village - DVD, is also available.


Teaching Note: 8B13M029 (13 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: International expansion; growth strategy; global; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RECRUITING FOR A MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE IN CHINA
Sarah Perchey, Diana E. Krause

Product Number: 9B12C026
Publication Date: 5/29/2012
Revision Date: 5/22/2012
Length: 12 pages

The CEO of a multinational company wanted the new human resource team of their subsidiary in Guangzhou, China, to recruit and select 85 individuals for different positions throughout the company. These positions included finance managers, production managers, factory workers, secretaries, and interns. The members of the human resource team were highly diverse in terms of educational backgrounds (marketing, law, human resources, public relations, general business administration) and countries of origin (Canada, China, Germany). The team had to deal with a series of challenges to ensure the project’s success. These included a decision about task-specific job requirements, methods to assess job requirements, strategies for recruitment, methods for personnel selection, and final decision-making. The team also had to deal with diversity within the team, cross-cultural issues, and the leadership behaviour of its CEO.

Teaching Note: 8B12C026 (10 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Recruitment; Personnel Selection; Leadership; Diversity; International Teams; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Future Challenges

GOJO INDUSTRIES: AIMING FOR GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY LEADERSHIP
Chris Laszlo, Anya Briggs, Jayesh Potdar

Product Number: 9B13M108
Publication Date: 10/21/2013
Revision Date: 10/18/2013
Length: 11 pages

GOJO Industries, a U.S.-based hand hygiene company, plans to use sustainability as a business strategy in its big hairy audacious goal of reaching one billion people every day by 2020. It has developed a six level framework to embed sustainability throughout every aspect of the company internally and to assess its successes in the following areas: mitigating risk; reducing energy, waste and materials; differentiation; entering new markets; protecting and enhancing brand; and influencing industry standards. The company has a long history of using sustainability to drive innovation and facilitate expansion into new markets and sees sustainability as a key differentiator from its competitors to achieve its goal. In order to so, the company must also consider the importance of employee engagement in order to further embed sustainability and increase the number of people it reaches with its products.

Teaching Note: 8B13M108 (6 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Growth strategy; competitive advantage; flourishing; social sustainability; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BARRICK GOLD CORPORATION - TANZANIA
Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B10M020
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 15 pages

This case examines the giant Canadian mining corporation, Barrick Gold Corporation (Barrick), (called Africa Barrick Gold plc since 2009), and the way it engages in sustainable community developments that surround its mining activities in Tanzania. Following recent organized tensions and heightened criticism from local communities, media, international social lobbyists and local not-for-profit organizations (NFOs), Barrick has attempted to deal with the local communities in a responsible manner. At issue for senior management was whether there was much more that it could reasonably do to resolve the tensions.

The case considers: how MNEs seek social license and local legitimacy; the relevance of hybrid institutional infrastructures; the evolving global roles for MNEs and their subsidiaries. The case is appropriate for use in courses in international management, global corporations and society, and international development and sustainable value creation.


Teaching Note: 8B10M20 (17 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Subsidiaries; Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Cross Sector Social Partnership; Government Relations
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA