Ivey Publishing

Competing for Advantage

Hoskisson, R.E., Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., and Harrison, J.S.,3/e (United States, South-Western/Cengage Learning, 2013)
Prepared By Majid Eghbali Zarch, Ph.D. Candidate, Strategy and International Business
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introduction to Strategic Management

BARRICK GOLD CORPORATION - TANZANIA
Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B10M020
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 15 pages

This case examines the giant Canadian mining corporation, Barrick Gold Corporation (Barrick), (called Africa Barrick Gold plc since 2009), and the way it engages in sustainable community developments that surround its mining activities in Tanzania. Following recent organized tensions and heightened criticism from local communities, media, international social lobbyists and local not-for-profit organizations (NFOs), Barrick has attempted to deal with the local communities in a responsible manner. At issue for senior management was whether there was much more that it could reasonably do to resolve the tensions.

The case considers: how MNEs seek social license and local legitimacy; the relevance of hybrid institutional infrastructures; the evolving global roles for MNEs and their subsidiaries. The case is appropriate for use in courses in international management, global corporations and society, and international development and sustainable value creation.


Teaching Note: 8B10M20 (18 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Subsidiaries; Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Cross Sector Social Partnership; Government Relations
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



APPLE INC.: IPODS AND ITUNES
Mary M. Crossan, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05M046
Publication Date: 8/2/2005
Revision Date: 4/15/2010
Length: 13 pages

Apple Computer, Inc. has enjoyed tremendous market success with its digital music initiative consisting of software (iTunes), hardware (iPods and Shuffles), and content (iTunes Music Store). Highlighted is the development of the online music industry within the context of the overall music industry, the major record labels, Napster, and the Recording Industry Association of America. Students will be able to conduct an industry analysis of the music industry and determine why Apple Computer has succeeded in profiting from digital music while others have failed.

Teaching Note: 8B05M46 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: New Economy; Strategy Implementation; Industry Analysis; Business and Society
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY LTD.
Mary M. Crossan, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B02M006
Publication Date: 4/25/2002
Revision Date: 12/1/2009
Length: 16 pages

The president and chief executive officer of a large food manufacturer is preparing his company's strategic agenda for the next five years. One of the top five food manufacturers in Canada, the company went public and restructured its management team six years ago. The efforts were successful, resulting in an increase in the company's market share. Recent food industry trends, however, added box stores and private label brands to the domestic competition. At the same time, the terms of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement are expected to abolish food-related tariffs within two years, opening up competition from across the border. While the company has experienced success in the past five years, the president and chief executive officer needs a strategic plan that will take the company to the next level.

Teaching Note: 8B02M06 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Communications; Crisis Management; Change Management; Strategy Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Strategic Leadership

THE GENERICS PHARMACY
Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B11M022
Publication Date: 4/29/2011
Revision Date: 4/11/2013
Length: 16 pages

The price of pharmaceuticals in the Philippines is second only to Japan within Asia and is among the highest in the world, despite the Philippines being a less developed country with nearly half of its population living on US$2 a day. The case illustrates how The Generics Pharmacy, a local pharmaceutical company, challenged the existing industry business model and became the largest pharmaceutical retailer in the country within a period of only three years. Under the strategic leadership of CEO Benjamin Liuson, The Generics Pharmacy succeeded in formulating a superior value proposal by focusing on the supply- and demand-side constructs at the bottom of the pyramid and bringing affordable high-quality medicines within reach of low-income individuals. Superior leadership, management, and strategic initiatives succeeded in integrating and balancing tenets of corporate social responsibility, entrepreneurial foresight, and resource-based strategy to catapult the company into a leadership position.

Teaching Note: 8B11M022 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Pharmaceuticals; Strategy Development; Strategic Change; Market Strategy; Leadership; Philippines
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PARAGON INFORMATION SYSTEMS
W. Glenn Rowe, John R. Phillips

Product Number: 9B02M038
Publication Date: 1/9/2003
Revision Date: 3/4/2011
Length: 9 pages

Paragon Information Systems is a small business unit owned by NewTel Enterprises Limited that manufacturers hardware for information technology and systems integration. The newly appointed chief executive officer is faced with a crisis. Days after his appointment, two vice-presidents resign and start a new company. The new company recruits the entire sales team, members of the technical unit and support staff from Paragon Information Systems, a loss of almost one third of Paragon's staff within two months. The new chief executive officer must meet short-term stakeholder needs, assess, formulate and implement long-term strategies, deal with the competitive threat of the new company, and consider the leadership style and control systems required to make the necessary level of change.

Teaching Note: 8B02M38 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Leadership; Strategy Development; Strategy Implementation; Organizational Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
The External Environment: Opportunities, Threats, Industry Competition, and Competitor Analysis

7-ELEVEN IN TAIWAN: ADAPTATION OF CONVENIENCE STORES TO NEW MARKET ENVIRONMENTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Aihwa Chang

Product Number: 9B12A011
Publication Date: 3/16/2012
Revision Date: 3/16/2012
Length: 24 pages

This case shows the expansion of 7-Eleven to Taiwan and the adaptation of the store format by its local franchisee to the new market environment. The core issue in this case is the balance between standardization and localization in business-format franchising across national borders. Despite keeping the store logo and convenience concept that was well established in the United States, the local franchisee of 7-Eleven in Taiwan re-formatted almost all aspects of the store chain, including its positioning, location, layout, and product offerings. In addition, 7-Eleven in Taiwan introduced a wide variety of new services for its customers, such as e-commerce (train or movie tickets), e-payment, mobile communications, pickup/delivery, and taxi services. The local franchisee, President Chain Store Corp. (PCSC), seemed to have struck the right balance between standardization and localization that allowed it to use service differentiation to gain competitive advantages over its rivals. In about three decades, it grew from zero to nearly 5,000 stores in Taiwan with over 50 per cent of the market, while expanding its reach to China and Thailand.

Teaching Note: 8B12A011 (7 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Service Standardization; Localization Across Borders; Service Differentiation; Service Marketing; International Franchising; Taiwan; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOBLAW COMPANIES LIMITED
Charlene Zietsma, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B04M082
Publication Date: 1/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 20 pages

The president of Loblaw Companies Limited must decide what to do in response to the rumoured introduction of Wal-Mart's SuperCenters (combining grocery and non-food items) in Canada. The potential launch of SuperCenters in Canada was seen by observers as a threat to Loblaw, the market leader in Canadian grocery. Wal-Mart is a vigorous competitor, and the Every Day Low Prices strategy of Wal-Mart's SuperCenters could wean away traffic from Loblaw's various banners.

Teaching Note: 8B04M82 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Food and Drug; Industry Analysis; Competition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMERICAN FAST FOOD IN KOREA
Paul W. Beamish, Jae C. Jung, Hun-Hee Kim

Product Number: 9B03M016
Publication Date: 4/2/2003
Revision Date: 10/22/2009
Length: 12 pages

A major U.S.-based fast food company with extensive operations around the world was contemplating whether or not they should enter the Korean market. The Korean fast food market was hit badly by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, but the economy was turning around. Thus, fast food demand in Korea was expected to increase. For the industry analysis, this case provides information on various competitors, substitute foods, new entrants, consumers and suppliers. In addition, social issues are included as potential forces.

Teaching Note: 8B03M16 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Industry Analysis; Market Entry; Fast Food; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
The Internal Organization: Resources, Capabilities, and Core Competencies

VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT: CARE KENYA’S CHALLENGE TO MAKE MARKETS WORK FOR THE POOR (A)
Kevin McKague

Product Number: 9B12M033
Publication Date: 4/17/2012
Revision Date: 4/17/2012
Length: 9 pages

This case examines how CARE, a non-profit international development organization, begins to pursue a market-based approach to meeting its poverty-reduction mission. Specifically, a CARE project manager explores how previous work with low-income livestock herders in drought-prone eastern Kenya might offer an opportunity to work with value chain actors to improve access to markets and increase farmers’ incomes.

With the Kenyan livestock project as the pilot for this new approach, Case (A)’s main decision point concerns a strategic choice on what role CARE should play in the value chain to support low-income pastoralists. Options include 1) becoming directly involved in value chain transactions, buying and selling livestock, and providing inputs to farmers or 2) acting as a value chain facilitator to provide the information and incentives to existing actors to make the value chain more efficient and inclusive for low-income producers. This strategic decision is part of a larger proposal that students are tasked to create for CARE’s market-based livestock project.


Teaching Note: 8B12M033 (13 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Value Chain; Social Entrepreneurship; Non-profit Organization; Agriculture; Market Analysis; Kenya; Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOKIA LIFE TOOLS: A STRATEGIC INNOVATION TO TAP INTO INDIA'S RURAL AND NEWLY URBAN POPULATION
Ariff Kachra, M.B. Sarkar, Kirti Madhok Sud

Product Number: 9B11M055
Publication Date: 5/24/2012
Revision Date: 10/19/2012
Length: 24 pages

The vice president and managing director of Nokia India needed to decide whether to undertake an all-India launch of Nokia’s newest service offering for emerging markets, called Nokia Lifetools (NLT). The NLT pilot was very successful, with consumer adoption and retention rates over 70 per cent. However, offering services and applications that came directly loaded onto a handset was new for Nokia, put it in direct competition with service providers, and required the company to develop a very different distribution strategy. It could not avoid the important stakeholders in the telecommunication value chain as they were also crucial partners whose cooperation was key to Nokia’s success. Successfully launching NLT in India could shift the telecommunications industry globally. The decision facing the vice president was likely one of the most important business decisions he would ever make.

Teaching Note: 8B11M055 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Value Chain; Industry Analysis; Financial Projections; Core Competence; Action Planning and Implementation; Telecommunications; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STARBUCKS
Mary M. Crossan, Ariff Kachra

Product Number: 9A98M006
Publication Date: 5/14/1998
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 23 pages

Starbucks is faced with the issue of how it should leverage its core competencies against various opportunities for growth, including introducing its coffee in McDonald’s, pursuing further expansion of its retail operations, and leveraging the brand into other product areas. The case is written so that students need to first identify where Starbucks competencies lie along the value chain, and assess how well those competencies can be leveraged across the various alternatives. It also provides an opportunity for students to assess what is driving growth in this company. Starbucks has a tremendous appetite for cash since all its stores are corporate, and investors are betting that it will be able to continue its phenomenal growth, so it needs to walk a fine line between leveraging its brand to achieve growth while not eroding it in the process. This is an exciting case that quickly captures the attention of students.

Teaching Note: 8A98M06 (13 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: competitiveness; industry analysis; growth strategy; core competence; coffee
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Business-Level Strategy

CUMI INDIA'S GLOBAL STRATEGY: THE CHINA PUZZLE
Subramaniam Ramnarayan, Charles Dhanaraj, Krithiga Sankaran

Product Number: 9B13M023
Publication Date: 4/24/2013
Revision Date: 4/23/2013
Length: 16 pages

Carborundum Universal Murugappa International (CUMI) was a leading abrasives manufacturing company based in India with global operations in Russia, South Africa and China. In the global abrasives business, China held 50 per cent of the raw materials for the industry. China was also the largest market for abrasives worldwide and was expected to contribute to one third of the global demand for abrasives. CUMI had the vision to become a global leader in the abrasives industry within 10 years. It had successfully expanded operations in Russia and South Africa, where it was seen more as a partner than a conqueror in its acquisition strategy. In 2006, the company entered China through a joint venture with a Chinese state company but subsequently bought out the partner. However, the company was facing several problems with its stand-alone operation there, especially in terms of maintaining its workforce and hiring local managers. It was clear that winning market share in China was necessary, but the complexity of the Chinese market had proven to be a challenge. The managing director had to present a strategy for working successfully in China to the board.

Teaching Note: 8B13M023 (22 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization strategy; mode of entry; joint venture; Russia; South Africa; China; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WESTJET LOOKS EAST
J. Nick Fry, Rod E. White

Product Number: 9B00M036
Publication Date: 9/25/2000
Revision Date: 1/11/2010
Length: 15 pages

The management team at WestJet was reviewing its growth plans in light of an anticipated merger of Air Canada and Canadian Airlines. The merger would result in a near monopoly of domestic air travel in Canada and a new set of opportunities and challenges for the handful of smaller airlines in the country. Under the circumstances, WestJet was considering whether it should shift from its focus of building on its success in Western Canada and expand into the East. The management team must analyze how fast and how significant an entry would be necessary from a competitive standpoint, how fast and how significant an entry the company could digest, and in the longer term, WestJet's prospects when competing against Air Canada and others.

Teaching Note: 8B00M36 (16 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Competition; Strategic Scope; Strategic Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WALL STREET JOURNAL: PRINT VS. INTERACTIVE
Amy J. Hillman

Product Number: 9A99M030
Publication Date: 10/28/1999
Revision Date: 1/18/2010
Length: 13 pages

One of Dow Jones & Company's most respected brands, The Wall Street Journal, is threatened by Internet news providers, including their own Interactive Edition. The company is unsure whether the Interactive Edition will be a substitute or a complement to the Print Edition. The case focuses on changing industry boundaries, new technology, potential cannibalization, and a threat to the company's traditional business model. Industry analysis of both print and interactive publishing is discussed, as is resource leveraging across the two formats.

Teaching Note: 8A99M30 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Product Strategy; Industry Analysis; Business Policy; Internet
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics

BEANZ VERSUS STARBUCKS: PERSONALITY IN A CUP!
Edward Gamble, Peter W. Moroz, Stewart Thornhill, Haley Beer

Product Number: 9B12M051
Publication Date: 5/15/2012
Revision Date: 5/14/2012
Length: 14 pages

Beanz Espresso Bar is located in downtown Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is operating in a market with high rivalry (11 other coffee businesses in a two-block radius). The economy in Prince Edward Island has seen several diners, restaurants, and coffee shops close their doors within the past few years, while simultaneously drawing in large corporate businesses such as Starbucks and Running Room. Beanz has thus far survived the major environmental changes and managed to keep its clientele and the owners, Lori and Doug, feel it is time to either sell Beanz and leave the industry, or exploit their competitive advantages to grow and capture more market share. Beanz specializes in high-quality, baked-from-scratch food and specialty coffee beverages. The café is known for its artistic vibe, warm atmosphere, and eccentric staff. After operating Beanz for 16 years, the couple has made few changes to the decor, menu, the set-up. Internally, the company faces several issues concerning management control systems, marketing, and strategic direction. Lori and Doug must choose between five different directions for the future of Beanz.

Teaching Note: 8B12M051 (7 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Business Valuation; Growth Strategy; Exit Strategy; Environmental Analysis; Service Industry; Small Business; Coffee; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COMPETITION AND CHANGE IN THE HONG KONG MOBILE TELECOM INDUSTRY
Tony S. Frost, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05M044
Publication Date: 7/15/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 12 pages

This note examines Hong Kong's deregulated telecommunications industry from both industry and public policy points of view in March 2005. In recent years, the industry had been viewed as a model of deregulation and free enterprise, offering high quality service to consumers at a low price. However, the industry conditions were exceedingly challenging for the operators. Cutthroat competition had resulted in low margins and a high degree of fragmentation. The operators faced new challenges in the form of disruptive technology, new market opportunities in mainland China and the possibility of new competition at home. This note allows students to examine the determinants of industry structure, the goals and mechanisms of industry regulation, and market and non-market strategies that firms may use to respond to market conditions.

Teaching Note: 8B05M44 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Managing Industry Change; Telecommunication Technology; Market Structure; Competition; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HEWLETT-PACKARD IN 2001
Charlene Zietsma, Ken Mark, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B04M083
Publication Date: 12/20/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 14 pages

Hewlett-Packard hired a new chief executive officer in 1999 to lead them into the future. The company, despite a strong legacy of success, had been faltering since the late 1990s, with slow sales growth and declining profitability. Industry observers felt that HP was not responding appropriately to competitive threats in its server, printer and personal computer markets. Industry conditions were also worsening, suggesting hard times ahead. The CEO felt a dramatic move was required to improve HP's position in the market. An attempt to expand HP's IT services business through the acquisition of PriceWaterhouseCoopers was unsuccessful. The CEO was considering a merger between HP and Compaq. With the help of four role plays supplements, 9B04M085 - Hewlett-Packard: Sun Microsystems in 2001, 9B04M086 - Hewlett-Packard: Dell in 2001, 9B04M087 - Hewlett-Packard: IBM in 2001 and 9B04M088 - Hewlett-Packard: Lexmark in 2001, student groups take on the roles of competitors in various segments and plan their competitive strategy while Hewlett-Packard is dealing with the merger. The supplement 9B04M084 - Hewlett-Packard in 2004 concludes the Hewlett-Packard in 2001 case series.

Teaching Note: 8B04M83 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Competition; Computer Industry; Mergers & Acquisitions; Strategic Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Cooperative Strategy

CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EURO-AIR (A)
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9A99M015
Publication Date: 6/24/1999
Revision Date: 1/18/2010
Length: 7 pages

A North America-based representative of a major European airline has just received a letter from an unhappy customer detailing a very large number of service problems. A quick check had revealed that this premium-paying customer's complaints were all valid. A meeting is planned with the customer. Before this, the airline representative must decide (A) what to say in response, and (B) what, if any, compensation should be offered. Internally, there was a need (C) to resolve what their organization should learn from this experience, both from a subsidiary and parent company perspective, and the implications on their participation in the Crown Alliance. This case raises many important questions regarding service recovery, communications, and non-equity alliances.

Teaching Note: 8A99M15 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Alliances; Service Quality; Compensation; Communications
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S - JAPAN
James M. Hagen

Product Number: 9A99A037
Publication Date: 4/13/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 17 pages

The CEO of Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. needed to give sales and profits a serious boost; despite the company's excellent brand equity, it was losing market share and struggling to make a profit. The company's product was on store shelves in all U.S. states, but efforts to enter foreign markets had only been haphazard with non-U.S. sales accounting for just three per cent of total sales. The CEO needed to focus serious attention on entering the world's second largest ice cream market, Japan. An objective of Ben & Jerry's was to use the excess manufacturing capacity it had in the U.S., and it found that exporting ice cream from Vermont to Japan was feasible from a logistics and cost perspective. The company identified two leading partnering options. One was to give a Japanese convenience store chain exclusive rights to the product for a limited time. The other was to give long-term rights for all sales of the product in Japan to a Japanese-American who would build the brand. For the company to enter Japan in time for the upcoming summer season, it would have to be through one of these two partnering arrangements.

Teaching Note: 8A99A37 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Alliances; Market Entry; International Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Corporate-Level Strategy

GREEN-TECH: BIO-FUELS HIGH GROWTH STRATEGY
Federico M. Berruti, Heng-Yih (Gordon) Liu

Product Number: 9B11M123
Publication Date: 1/20/2012
Length: 12 pages

Green-Tech Inc., a Canadian company founded in 2006, was dedicated to developing, manufacturing, and marketing portable and stationary systems for the production of bio-oils and bio-char from biomass residues and wastes. Green-Tech was a recent spinoff from a large university research centre with a very good reputation for providing bio-energy solutions. Although focused and well positioned, Green-Tech had to manage relationships with large companies such as Shell that controlled vast and complete supply chains of oil-related businesses, as well as small firms and clients that were unable to manage their waste effectively. Large firms could provide plenty of business opportunities for Green-Tech, but could also jeopardize the company’s autonomy. Small customers on their own might not bring in enough cash flow, but could give Green-Tech sufficient freedom to pursue its own strategic goals. Both relationships seemed to lead to a promising future for this entrepreneurial start-up company, but also created serious risks. At the time of the case in 2011, Fernando Bruteque, vice president and one of the principal engineers of Green-Tech, was seeking the appropriate growth approach for Green-Tech. Being in charge of business operations, Bruteque also had to maintain a balance between research and development (R&D), investor and client concerns, and business opportunities. What would be the appropriate growth strategies and business operation strategies for a resource-constrained firm such as Green-Tech? How should it proceed?

Teaching Note: 8B11M123 (10 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Bio-fuels; Renewable Energy; Research and Development; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KTM: QUEST FOR GROWTH
Charlene Zietsma, Iris Fischlmayr, Rob Wong

Product Number: 9B06M060
Publication Date: 5/12/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 18 pages

KTM was a leading sport motorcycle company based in Austria with sales internationally. In 2005, the company was considering expanding into all terrain vehicles (ATVs), a market which was experiencing mid to high double-digit sales growth with healthy operating margins. There were several options open to KTM to expand into the ATV market, including internal development, acquisition of another firm with capabilities in the area of allying with an ATV manufacturer. The chief executive officer had to consider the fit of the ATV business with KTM's core business as well as the implications of the various options for ATV market entry on maintaining control of KTM, achieving KTM's growth objectives, and effectively exploiting the ATV opportunity in an international context. This case allow students to determine how best to pursue a related market to maximize revenue and cost synergies, learning, and control of the firm. This case can be used with KTM: Ready to Race, product 9B05M036.

Teaching Note: 8B06M60 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Acquisitions; Alliances; Globalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SANDVIK AB (A)
Rod E. White, Robin Teigland, Julian M. Birkinshaw

Product Number: 9A98M012
Publication Date: 1/12/1999
Revision Date: 1/29/2010
Length: 25 pages

The CEO of the Sandvik Group is reviewing the initiatives he implemented to increase the synergies between the six disparate businesses of the Sandvik Group. Specific measures taken by Sandvik's management to increase the level of synergy between the businesses are outlined. In search for synergy, management has experienced many problems and challenges. The main challenge is how to avoid a re-centralization of power while at the same time encouraging employees to act with regard to both their business and the group. The case closes with the CEO wondering how further changes could be made to expand and sustain the search and exploitation of synergies within the Sandvik group. This case can be used as an advanced corporate strategy case, to illustrate concepts such as diversification, synergies, and parenting advantage. It can also be used as a management of change case by putting emphasis on the actions the CEO can take to achieve his stated goals. A follow-up case (9A98M013) is available.

Teaching Note: 8A98M12 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Change Management; Diversification; Strategic Scope; Synergy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 9:
Acquisition and Restructuring Strategies

REINVENTING THE SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION (B)
Roberto Galang, Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B12M079
Publication Date: 9/17/2012
Revision Date: 9/17/2012
Length: 9 pages

This supplement to Reinventing the San Miguel Corporation (A) provides a brief update on the diversification strategy pursued by the company.

Teaching Note: 8B09M74 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Diversification; Acquisition Strategy; International Strategy; Strategy Execution; Philippines; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARLSBERG IN EMERGING MARKETS
Michael W. Hansen, Torben Pedersen, Marcus Moller Larsen

Product Number: 9B11M009
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 12 pages

Risking becoming the target of a hostile takeover or being cornered as a small regional player in the global beer industry, the Danish brewery Carlsberg decided in the early 2000s to expand into rapidly growing emerging markets to pursue new arenas of growth. By 2008, this strategy had paid off, and Carlsberg was positioned among the five largest breweries in the world. In the Russian market — one of the fastest-growing markets in the world — Carlsberg had become the market leader. In China — the world’s largest beer market in terms of size and population — the company had achieved a 55 per cent market share in Western China, and operated 20 brewery plants with approximately 5,000 employees. The ambitious acquisition strategy applied in emerging markets had become essential to Carlsberg’s business in relation to future growth and profits. Accordingly, the case focuses on Carlsberg’s entry into China, which started as a commercial failure in the eastern part of the country, but subsequently developed successfully in the west.

Teaching Note: 8B11M009 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Acquisition Strategy; Global Strategy; Emerging Markets; Marketing Management; Beer Industry; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RAYOVAC CORPORATION: INTERNATIONAL GROWTH AND DIVERSIFICATION THROUGH ACQUISITIONS
Ravi Sarathy, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B06M025
Publication Date: 2/16/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 18 pages

The Rayovac case discusses the company's bold and risky acquisitions strategy as it diversifies into personal care and grooming, lawn and garden care, insecticides and pet foods. The company assumes it can successfully manage diverse product categories across diverse geographic markets in which it has limited experience. Success will depend on how well the acquired companies are integrated and managed under Rayovac's supervision. Increasingly, it will also depend on external conditions beyond Rayovac's control, such as macroeconomic conditions and foreign exchange fluctuations. Students should be able to analyze the case from the point of view of international business and strategy and perform a financial analysis of potential future returns using different assumptions for sales growth and margins of the various businesses acquired.

Teaching Note: 8B06M25 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Risk Analysis; Diversification; Acquisition Strategy; Globalization; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CEMEX: THE SOUTHDOWN OFFER
Ravi Sarathy, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B03M013
Publication Date: 4/2/2003
Revision Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Cemex, a cement multinational from Mexico, has become one of the three largest cement companies in the world, through internal growth and a series of global acquisitions over the 1999 to 2000 period. It is a relatively small player in the United States with insignificant market share. It has had conflicts with the U.S. cement industry over its cement exports to the United States, being the object of a successful anti-dumping suit brought by the U.S. cement industry before the International Trade Commission. One of its key opponents is Southdown which has testified before the USITC against Cemex. Southdown's chief executive officer is unhappy with his firm's stock price and frustrated by the lack of market recognition despite profitable operations and growth. He is considering selling his company and has talked with Cemex about being acquired. The case allows students to analyze the strategic rationale for an acquisition of Southdown by Cemex, and has information to allow students to probe questions of strategic fit and value.

Teaching Note: 8B03M13 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Developing Countries; International Business; Anti-Dumping Action; Acquisitions; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
International Strategy

MORITA'S LEGACY AND INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY AT SONY
Christopher Williams, Nicole Duncan, Gregoire Thomas, Christopher Held, Ami Lebendiker

Product Number: 9B12M082
Publication Date: 8/17/2012
Revision Date: 11/19/2012
Length: 19 pages

Two years after the death of Sony’s visionary founder, Akio Morita, chief executive officer Noboyuki Idei faced a major crisis. Sony had just posted its worst performance in years and had to figure out if its current strategy needed to change. In pursuit of Morita’s vision to bring entertainment to the masses through innovation and applied technology, Sony had grown from a small Japanese company to a US$50-billion-per-year global corporation. As it entered the new millennium without its founder, Idei realized that the success Sony had enjoyed in the 1990s was being challenged in the global marketplace. With increasing global competition and in the midst of a recession, the company’s net income was far below expectations. The situation would probably worsen if Sony failed to make immediate strategic changes, including changes to its international strategy. Idei had experienced firsthand the success Sony enjoyed in the 1990s as it expanded its product lines and international presence. By April 2001, after reviewing the previous year’s financial performance, Idei knew Sony was fighting an uphill battle. All that Morita had worked towards, particularly in the 1990s, was suddenly being threatened. Idei faced a critical decision going forward. Sony was a company that still strove to embody its founders’ vision, but could he dare go against his predecessor’s approach and pursue a new international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B12M082 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Financial Performance; Company's Vision; International Strategy; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUXLEY MAQUILADORA
Paul W. Beamish, Jae C. Jung, Joyce Miller

Product Number: 9B02M033
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 6/28/2011
Length: 14 pages

A senior manager in a U.S. manufacturing firm must make a recommendation about whether 57 labour intensive jobs should be moved from the existing California plant to a new facility in a Mexican maquiladora. If the Mexican opportunity is pursued, decisions are also required regarding the entry mode (subcontracting, shelter operator or wholly-owned subsidiary) and location (border or interior).

Teaching Note: 8B02M33 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Plant Location; Third World; Subsidiaries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Corporate Governance

KROHNE'S ENTRY INTO THE CHINESE MARKET
Taohua Ouyang, Meiying Yang, Zhi Xu, Ling Ding, Tang Yao, Miao Cui

Product Number: 9B13M039
Publication Date: 5/8/2013
Revision Date: 4/22/2013
Length: 8 pages

Krohne Inc. of Germany separately established a joint venture, a wholly owned sales company and a manufacturer in China. Unfortunately, although the sales channels were different, the product lines of the joint venture and the wholly owned manufacturer overlapped. The two companies were therefore competing and unsure about which company rightfully represented the parent enterprise. In addition, the two investment parties were battling for control of the joint venture.

Teaching Note: 8B13M039 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market entry; emerging market; equity recovery; China
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GOVERNANCE CHALLENGES AT GOOD HANDS HEALTHCARE (A)
Amy J. Hillman, Marilyn Seymann

Product Number: 9B04M019
Publication Date: 6/24/2004
Revision Date: 10/13/2009
Length: 12 pages

Good Hands Healthcare is a large nursing home provider with more than 400 facilities across the United States. This case series looks at the governance issues facing the board of a firm with declining performance set within the eldercare industry. The (A) case revolves around whether to replace the chief executive officer, who founded and built the firm, due to poor performance. The supplements, Governance Challenges at Good Hands Healthcare (B), (C) and (D), products 9B04M020, 9B04M021 and 9B04M022, discuss the replacement decision, the selection decision and the change in strategy brought on by the new CEO.

Teaching Note: 8B04M19 (7 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Corporate Governance; Succession Planning; Compensation; Strategic Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CCL INDUSTRIES INC.: BUILDING AND MAINTAINING AN EFFECTIVE BOARD
Lawrence G. Tapp, Trevor Hunter

Product Number: 9B02M045
Publication Date: 1/10/2003
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 11 pages

CCL Industries Inc. is one of the top packagers of consumer products in the world. Over its 50-year history the company had grown from a small room to a multinational firm employing 7,500 people with over $1.6 billon in sales. CCL faces an uncertain environment that had already led to a major strategic reorientation when its plan to sell its largest division was cancelled. A global economic slowdown and lower consumer confidence coupled with extensive international operations, significantly increased the risk to CCL's sales and already slim profits. In the past, the company prospered through product diversification gained through acquisition. The economic slowdown and increased uncertainty meant that this strategy may not be appropriate in the future. The chief executive officer recognizes the time, attention, advice, composition and operations of the board of directors would likely have to be altered to reflect this new reality.

Teaching Note: 8B02M45 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Board of Directors; Corporate Governance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Strategic Entrepreneurship

THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT EXPATICA.COM
Christopher Williams, Judith vanHerwaarden

Product Number: 9B11M085
Publication Date: 9/23/2011
Revision Date: 5/25/2017
Length: 11 pages

In April 2011, the management team at Expatica Communications B.V. was reviewing the progress of the company and the opportunities for future growth. The management team had to take stock: the external environment was rapidly changing, and threats from competitors were on the rise. Expatica had been founded 11 years earlier to provide English-language information and news to the expatriate community in Europe, delivering its services primarily over the Internet. One of the central issues Expatica faced was how to make its core business model effective across multiple markets. Recent launches of the online platform in new countries were not as successful as hoped and the performance of traditional “bricks and mortar” offerings was also mixed. The company had made tremendous progress over the years but needed to re-evaluate its position and decide which new opportunities for growth, if any, should be pursued.

Teaching Note: 8B11M085 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Company Expansion; Product Development; E-Business; Expatriate Community; the Netherlands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports; SME
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BELL CANADA: THE VOIP CHALLENGE
Rod E. White, Daniel Day

Product Number: 9B06M009
Publication Date: 2/16/2006
Revision Date: 3/19/2010
Length: 12 pages

Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is beginning to disrupt plain old telephone service (POTS). Ron Close has been offered the job of heading Bell Canada's nascent VoIP business. Bell is Canada's largest telco and supplier of POTS. The case provides a platform for discussing a disruptive innovation (VoIP) and its implications for an incumbent player. Ron Close explains how Bell addressed the technology challenge, and its managerial and organizational consequences in an available video, product 7B06M009.

Teaching Note: 8B06M09 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Technological Change; Strategy Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GE ENERGY MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE (A)
J. Nick Fry, Julian M. Birkinshaw

Product Number: 9A94G005
Publication Date: 10/12/1994
Revision Date: 2/4/2010
Length: 8 pages

The business development manager for General Electric (GE) Canada, met with executives from GE Supply, a US-based distribution arm of GE. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss new business opportunities in energy management and efficiency. The business development manager had identified some opportunities for business development in Canada, while leveraging GE's strategic capabilities did not fit well with GE's corporate structure. He was keen to work with GE Supply but wanted to retain a high level of operating autonomy. The challenge was to put together an appropriate organizational structure and find a home for the new development idea. (A sequel to this case is available, GE Energy Management Initiative (B). A 12-minute video may also be purchased with this case, GE Energy Management Initiative - Video.)

Teaching Note: 8A94G05 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Structure; International Business; Multinational
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RUSSKI ADVENTURES
Paul W. Beamish, Ian Sullivan

Product Number: 9A92G002
Publication Date: 7/9/1992
Revision Date: 3/22/2010
Length: 18 pages

The two major partners in Russki Adventures contemplated their next move. They had spent the last year and a half exploring the possibility of starting a helicopter skiing operation in Russia. Their plan was to bring clients from Europe, North America and Japan to the Caucasus Mountains to ski the vast areas of secluded mountain terrain made accessible by the use of helicopter and the recent business opportunities offered by 'glasnost'. Three options for proceeding were being considered. The first was to proceed with the venture on their own, in the Caucasus Mountains area that had been made available to them by a Soviet government agency. The second was to accept the offer of partnership with Extreme Dreams, a French tour operator that had recently begun operations in the Caucasus region. The final option was to wait, save their money and not proceed with the venture at this time. This is a good case to emphasize small-scale international ventures and the complexities of operating in a rapidly changing and politically unstable environment.

Teaching Note: 8A92G02 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Political environment; joint ventures; risk analysis; luxury services
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Strategic Flexibility and Real Options Analysis

ALLIANCE MANAGEMENT AT FORBES MARSHALL
Naga Lakshmi Damaraju, Harshdeep Singh Chowdhary, Dhruv Khanna, Dhruv Ahuja

Product Number: 9B11M108
Publication Date: 1/24/2012
Length: 20 pages

This case traces the history and growth of Forbes Marshall (FM), a family-owned company in India. FM provides steam engineering and control instrumentation solutions for the process industry. The company has evolved into a leader in process efficiency and energy conservation through technology tie-ups and focused investments in manufacturing and research. Its joint ventures with the world's leading firms enable it to deliver quality solutions in 14 countries. Forbes Marshall's business practices and processes have combined into a unified philosophy of being trusted partners who provide innovative solutions.

Teaching Note: 8B11M108 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Alliance Management; Corporate Strategy; Transaction Cost Economics; Real Options; Value Chain; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



STRATEGIC CROSSROADS AT MATAV: HUNGARY'S TELECOMMUNICATIONS POWERHOUSE
Michael J. Rouse, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05M033
Publication Date: 5/11/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 27 pages

In September 2004, four months after Hungary joined the European Union, the strategy group of Matav - Hungary's largest communications company - is working on its mid-term strategic plan. Since being privatized from state ownership in 1993, the company has seen several changes in its strategy, structure and culture. Nearly 15 years later, the company is a fully integrated telecommunications company involved in a broad range of services including fixed line telephony, mobile communications, Internet services, data transmission and outsourcing. The company's latest acquisition of a formerly state run telecommunications company is considered a success, and management believes that international expansion is necessary to realize dynamic growth as its domestic fixed line business is declining. As well, Hungary's mobile market is highly competitive and saturated with 80 per cent of the country having a mobile phone. The management team feels that Matav is at a crossroads with three main options: expansion in Hungary, regional expansion or focusing on organic growth in existing product lines. The team has to consider all of the lines of business in forming a strategy and whether Matav's resources and organization are suitable for a healthy future.

Teaching Note: 8B05M33 (16 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Growth Strategy; Strategy Development; International Business; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MESSAGETECH, INC.
Charlene L. Nicholls-Nixon, Ellen Jarmain

Product Number: 9B01M066
Publication Date: 12/6/2001
Revision Date: 12/22/2009
Length: 19 pages

MessageTech, Inc. provides digital media technology and solutions that help clients customize advertising to their specific needs. The company's proprietary technology has the potential to revolutionize the way large, geographically dispersed retailers approach advertising and promotion by allowing clients the flexibility to customize advertising content, in real-time, to suit the conditions of each individual site. Results of beta testing indicate that clients' sales increase significantly after installation of the messageTech system. Yet, the company has been unable to close on any major sales of the system. The newly appointed chief executive officer has a mandate to commercialize the new technology. He must develop a strategy that balances the company's needs for short-term performance against the actions that will ensure a viable competitive position over the long-term.

Teaching Note: 8B01M66 (11 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategy Development; New Venture; Generating Profit from New Technology
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA