Ivey Publishing

Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages

Dess, G.G., Lumpkin, G.T., Eisner, A.B., Peridis, T.,3/e (Canada, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2012)
Prepared By Professor Paul W. Beamish, General Management/Strategy
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages: An Overview

Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (15 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Daina Mazutis

Product Number: 9B08M046
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 19 pages

Research in Motion (RIM) is a high technology firm that is experiencing explosive sales growth. David Yach, chief technology officer for software at RIM, has received notice of an impending meeting with the co-chief executive officer regarding his research and development (R&D) expenditures. Although RIM, makers of the very popular BlackBerry, spent almost $360 million in R&D in 2007, this number was low compared to its largest competitors, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of sales (e.g. Nokia spent $8.2 billion on R&D). This is problematic as it foreshadows the question of whether or not RIM is well positioned to continue to meet expectations, deliver award-winning products and services and maintain its lead in the smartphone market. Furthermore, in the very dynamic mobile telecommunications industry, investment analysts often look to a firm's commitment to R&D as a signal that product sales growth will be sustainable. Just to maintain the status quo, Yach will have to hire 1,400 software engineers in 2008 and is considering a number of alternative paths to managing the expansion. The options include: (1) doing what they are doing now, only more of it, (2) building on their existing and satellite R&D locations, (3) growing through acquisition or (4) going global.

Teaching Note: 8B08M46 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Telecommunication Technology; Change Management; Globalization; Staffing; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Analyzing the External Environment of the Firm

Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gregory Vit, Johnny Boghossian, Amrita Nain, Karl Moore

Product Number: 9B09M071
Publication Date: 12/8/2009
Length: 18 pages

In December 2006, Alcan was the second largest producer of aluminum in the world, but the industry was consolidating. The case traces the development of the aluminum industry since World War II to the recent emergence of China as an economic power and the accompanying rise in commodity prices. Alcan had to decide between two offers: to be acquired or to go it alone. The first offer was from Alcoa and the other from Rio Tinto. Alcoa was the world leader in the production of aluminum and, like Alcan, was engaged in significant technological research and development. Meanwhile, Rio Tinto was one of the largest mining companies in the world, but had minor aluminum operations and, in general, few downstream processing plants or technologies. Students are asked to identify Alcan's key resources and consider which strategy would make best use of them.

Teaching Note: 8B09M71 (6 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Government and Business; Strategy and Resources; Globalization; Mergers & Acquisitions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Michael Parent, Wilfred Cheung, Chris Ellison, Prarthana Kumar, Jeremy Kyle, Stacey Morrison

Product Number: 9B08M015
Publication Date: 3/6/2008
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 9 pages

PlentyofFish.com is the world's most profitable website on a per capita basis, the 96th most popular website in terms of page views, and the most popular online dating site in existence. Remarkably, it is managed by its owner and founder and only one other employee. It is a free dating site that generates $10 million in ad revenues per year, and a profit to the owner in excess of $9 million. The case describes PlentyofFish.com's stellar growth in the face of stringent competition, and asks students to consider whether it is sustainable. A number of possible alternatives are offered for analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B08M15 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategic Planning; Staffing; Decision Making; Sustainability; Growth
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Charlene Zietsma, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B04M082
Publication Date: 1/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 20 pages

The president of Loblaw Companies Limited must decide what to do in response to the rumoured introduction of Wal-Mart's SuperCenters (combining grocery and non-food items) in Canada. The potential launch of SuperCenters in Canada was seen by observers as a threat to Loblaw, the market leader in Canadian grocery. Wal-Mart is a vigorous competitor, and the Every Day Low Prices strategy of Wal-Mart's SuperCenters could wean away traffic from Loblaw's various banners.

Teaching Note: 8B04M82 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Food and Drug; Industry Analysis; Competition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Analyzing the Internal Environment of the Firm

Paul W. Beamish, Nathaniel C. Lupton

Product Number: 9B08M049
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 18 pages

In April 2008, Bruce MacNaughton, president of Prince Edward Island Preserve Co. Ltd. (P.E.I. Preserves), was focused on turnaround. The company he had founded in 1985 had gone into receivership in May 2007. Although this had resulted in losses for various mortgage holders and unsecured creditors, MacNaughton had been able to buy back his New Glasgow shop/cafe, the adjacent garden property and inventory, and restart the business. He now needed a viable product-market strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B08M49 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing, Retail Trade
Issues: Bankruptcy; Product Diversification; Growth Strategy; Exports; Tourism; SME
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9A88M010
Publication Date: 1/1/1988
Revision Date: 2/23/2000
Length: 14 pages

The mid-1986 Sears new catalogue contained a 20-page section called Elements. This section bore a striking resemblance to the format of an IKEA catalogue, and the furniture being offered was similar to IKEA'S knocked-down self-assembly line. The head of IKEA'S North American operations wondered how serious Sears was about its new initiative and what, if anything, IKEA should do in response.

Teaching Note: 8A88M10 (12 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Supplier Relations; Competition; Value Analysis; Subsidiaries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
Assessing the Intellectual Assets of the Firm

Ella Korets-Smith, Suhaib Riaz

Product Number: 9B10M072
Publication Date: 10/19/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 18 pages

The case describes the challenges faced by Immunovaccine (IMV), a small biotechnology company founded in Halifax, Canada. The company has seen early success in the effectiveness of its technology in animal health and is looking for ways to exploit the potential of its technology more broadly, particularly in human health. The company's challenges are presented in the context of the evolving relationship between the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The case describes the various issues the company faces around 2008, shortly after the new president and CEO has taken over. It then provides details on strategy formulation and execution under the new CEO.

Teaching Note: 8B10M72 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Pharmaceuticals; Strategy Development; Biotechnology; Strategy Execution; Strategy and Resources; Strategy Implementation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Jane W. Lu

Product Number: 9B05M035
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M35 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Market Entry; Negotiation; Control Systems; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, John Adamson

Product Number: 9B01M059
Publication Date: 1/29/2002
Revision Date: 8/28/2009
Length: 16 pages

Optical Recording Corporation (ORC) secured the rights to a technology known as digital optical audio recording. During the time it took to negotiate the final transfer of the technology ownership, it was rumored that some major electronics manufacturers were developing compact disc (CD) players that recorded digital optical audio signals. A patent lawyer advised ORC that the compact disc players and compact discs recently released by these companies might be infringing the claims of ORC's newly acquired patents. Based on this information, the company proceeded to successfully negotiate licensing agreements with the two largest CD manufacturers, Sony of Japan, and Philips of the Netherlands The third largest manufacturer, WEA Manufacturing, a subsidiary of Time Warner Inc., maintained a position of non-infringement and invalid patents. With the U.S. patent expiry date looming, ORC decided to sue Time Warner for patent infringement. When the defense counsel presented testimony that questioned the integrity of the licensing agreement, ORC's president realized that the entire licensing program was in jeopardy and must decide whether he should accept a settlement or proceed with the lawsuit.

Teaching Note: 8B01M59 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Business Law; Intellectual Capital; Licensing; Patents
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 5:
Business-Level Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantages

Jean-Louis Schaan, Huanglin Wang

Product Number: 9B09M057
Publication Date: 12/11/2009
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 19 pages

The president and chief executive officer (CEO) of Holey Soles - a developer, manufacturer and distributor of injected-molded footwear - was optimistic and upbeat. Sales had grown at 300 per cent in each of the past two years, it ranked number four in a leading publication's 2006 Canada's Emerging Growth Companies, and the CEO herself was a finalist for the 2007 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award. Sustaining the momentum that had been building since the company had been bought in 2004 was proving to be a challenge. Fast growth was stretching the capabilities of Holey Soles in all areas: securing financing, sourcing, developing new markets, maintaining high quality, expanding the product portfolio and management talent. The CEO wondered what the available options, priorities and next steps would be to continue to build a strong foundation for growth, and to reach her aggressive target of $40 million in sales by 2009.

Teaching Note: 8B09M57 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy; Planning; Corporate Strategy; Market Strategy; Growth
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Eric Morse, Vanessa M. Strike

Product Number: 9B05M011
Publication Date: 3/7/2005
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 14 pages

Ganong Bros. Limited is a fifth generation family chocolate company in New Brunswick that is facing financial difficulties. The firm has been spreading its resources too thinly and needs to develop a plan to not only return to profitability but also to grow the business while upholding its responsibility to the local community. This case helps students to develop an understanding of cutting costs in a turnaround situation and seeking out alternative lines of business for strategic growth.

Teaching Note: 8B05M11 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Change; Strategic Planning; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allen Morrison, Scott Hill

Product Number: 9B03M017
Publication Date: 5/28/2003
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

Maple Leaf Foods is Canada's largest and most dominant food processor. The recently appointed senior marketing director discovers on her first day on the job that the hot dog business at the company is completely broken: market share is down, profits are in free-fall, the products taste bad, there is a proliferation of brands and her team is a mess. To make matters worse, she inherits a job where there is little market data in the files and little to go by to help guide her decisions. She must prepare a short-term plan and a clear strategy for the future. The supplement to this case, Maple Leaf Consumer Foods - Fixing Hot Dogs (B), product 9B03M018, looks at the senior marketing director's short-term plans. Also available is the video, Maple Leaf Consumer Foods - Fixing Hot Dogs, product 7B03M017, that provides an update to what happened and a discussion with the senior marketing director.

Teaching Note: 8B03M17 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Change; Managing Implementation; Product Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:
Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value through Diversification

Robert E.M. Nourse, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B06M011
Publication Date: 5/12/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 20 pages

The chairman and chief executive officer of SunOpta, Inc., is wondering whether or not to unlock shareholder value. The company has grown at a rapid pace, with sales growing to more than $400 million in 2005. Its stock prices has tripled over five years, but has slumped recently. The case describes SunOpta's history as well as operations in its three business units: Stake Technology, Opta Mineral and the Food Group.

Teaching Note: 8B06M11 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Development; Price Tension; Value Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M001
Publication Date: 1/14/2004
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 17 pages

Vincor International Inc. was Canada's largest wine company and North America's fourth largest in 2002. The company had decided to internationalize and as the first step had entered the United States through two acquisitions.The company's chief executive officer felt that to be among the top 10 wineries in the world, Vincor needed to look beyond the region. To the end, he was considering the acquisition of an Australian company, Goundrey Wines. He must analyze thestrategic rationale for the acquisition of Goundrey as well as to probe questions of strategic fit and value.

Teaching Note: 8B04M01 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization; Market Entry; Acquisitions; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Don Wood, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M067
Publication Date: 1/10/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

At the end of 2001, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC were in advanced negotiations regarding the potential merger of their respective retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean. Some members of each board wondered whether this was the best direction to take. Would the combined company be able to deliver superior returns? Would it be possible to integrate, within budget, companies that had competed with each other in the region for decades? Would either firm be better off divesting regional operations instead? Should the two firms just continue to go-it-alone with emphasis on continual improvement? A decision needed to be made within the coming week. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the six additional Cross-Enterprise cases that deal with the various functional issues associated with the actual merger: Accounting and Finance - CIBC-Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022, Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032, Marketing and Branding - FirstCaribbean International Bank: The Marketing and Branding Challenges of a Start-up, product 9B05A012, Human Resources - Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean International Bank, product 9B04C053, Finance - FirstCaribbean Merger: The Proposed Merger, product 9B06N004, and technical note - Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Emerging Markets; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:
International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets

Paul W. Beamish, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B10M019
Publication Date: 4/5/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 18 pages

In late September 2009, the CEO of the Nasdaq-traded solar cell and module manufacturer, Canadian Solar, was at an inflection point in the formation of its international strategy. The company had experienced dynamic growth during the past five years buoyed largely by aggressive incentive schemes to install solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in Germany and Spain. The credit crunch, coupled with changes in government incentive programs, caused a major decline in the demand for solar PV technology and analysts were predicting that full year 2009 sales would decline. Furthermore, competition in the industry was fierce with diverse players ranging from Japanese electronic giants to low-cost Chinese producers. Canadian Solar had decided to focus on 10 major markets in the next two to three years where strong renewable policies existed. Students are challenged with deciding if any changes to the company's global strategy are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B10M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Business; Growth Strategy; Global Product; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Mario Koster, Rob Alkema, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M073
Publication Date: 9/23/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starbucks enjoyed tremendous growth over the previous two decades. In 2007, it had a global reach of over 17,000 stores in 56 countries. Between 2007 and 2009, however, Starbucks' relentless march was slowed by three forces: increasingly intense competition, rising coffee bean prices and a global economic recession. In order to remain profitable, the company started to scale back its overseas operations. In 2010, Starbucks was faced with a critical strategic decision: Should the company resume its international expansion and once again intensify its commitments in overseas markets? If so, what approach should the company take? Had the pace of Starbucks' internationalization (i.e. the rate of opening new stores abroad), the rhythm of its internationalization (i.e. the regularity by which stores were opened abroad) and geographical scope of its internationalization (i.e. number of new countries entered) had an impact on the company's performance in previous years? Could Starbucks learn from its prior internationalization within the coffee industry in order to guide its future international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B10M73 (10 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; International Strategy; Market Entry; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Laurie Milton, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B06M067
Publication Date: 7/27/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 17 pages

The chief executive officer of Calgary-based Guest-Tek Interactive Entertainment Ltd., a leading provider of high-speed Internet access to the hotel industry, must consider whether and how his company should grow its business overseas. Ninety-seven per cent of Guest-Tek's fiscal year 2003 revenue was derived from North American hotels - a market he knew would eventually become saturated. Guest-Tek had listed publicly in January 2004. Both internal and external investors now demanded results. Other geographic markets held the promise of new growth and competitors were already pursuing those opportunities.

Teaching Note: 8B06M67 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: International Marketing; Industry Globalization; Telecommunication Technology; Decision Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Jing'an Tang

Product Number: 9B04M005
Publication Date: 3/4/2004
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 12 pages

Palliser is Canada's second-largest furniture company. The company has production facilities in Canada, Mexico and Indonesia, and has experimented with cutting and sewing leather in China. The company is looking at further expanding the relationship with China. Ever since Palliser set up a plant in Mexico, the company has faced increasing competitive pressure from Asia, especially from China. The president of Palliser must decide what form this relationship should follow. Should it be an investment, either wholly or partly owned, or should it be through subcontracting?

Teaching Note: 8B04M05 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Expansion; Imports; Outsourcing; Plant Location
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 8:
Industry Change and Competitive Dynamics

Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.

Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports; SME
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Stewart Thornhill, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B08M093
Publication Date: 1/20/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 18 pages

The Dell story is well-known in the business world: a young Michael Dell, while attending the University of Texas in Austin, founds a computer sales company that eventually revolutionizes the industry. The case puts students in the position of a senior executive at Dell who is preparing for an investor relations meeting. As the senior executive reviews information on his company, he wonders how best to convey to skeptical investors that Dell's strategy will return the company to growth. In examining the Dell story, students learn about how Dell built up a set of competitive advantages that seemed unassailable until the early 2000s. The second part of the case illustrates the impermanence of competitive advantages - it describes how Dell is attempting to remake itself after falling behind its competitors.

Teaching Note: 8B08M93 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Development; Strategic Change; Globalization; Strategic Balance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Kent E. Neupert, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B08M041
Publication Date: 4/18/2008
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 19 pages

The owner of a small scuba diving operation in the Bahamas is reassessing his strategic direction in the light of declining revenues. Among the changes being considered are shark diving, family diving, exit, and shifting operations to another Caribbean location. These options are not easily combined, nor are they subtle. The case is intended to provide a work-out on the relationship between strategy, organization and performance, and how changes in strategy will dramatically affect the organization. The case also highlights the importance of understanding demographic changes as part of an environmental analysis. (A nine-minute video can be purchased with this case, video 7B08M041.)

Teaching Note: 8B08M41 (14 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategic Change; Services; Small Business; Industry Analysis; Tourism
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 9:
Creating Effective Organizational Designs

Bob Travica

Product Number: 9B10E004
Publication Date: 4/21/2010
Length: 14 pages

Protegra is a small company established in 1998 in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The company specializes in the area of computer software development and business performance consulting. Protegra features a unique organizational design, characterized by a lack of hierarchy and a collegial, professional culture centred on employee and customer values. Various information systems support Protegra's design. In the process of expanding into foreign markets and enlarging staff, Protegra has been concerned with preserving its way.

Teaching Note: 8B10E04 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Managing Growth; Organizational Change; Information Systems; Consulting
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allen Morrison, David Barrett

Product Number: 9B04M023
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 18 pages

Bombardier Transportation, one of the world's largest manufacturers of passenger rail cars, has successfully negotiated the purchase of Adtranz, a large European manufacturer of rail equipment. The newly appointed chief executive officer has been brought in to manage the acquisition. The new CEO faces many challenges including decisions about the pace of integration, location of headquarters, organization structure, personnel retention and personal management style. Students may use this case to discuss post-acquisition strategy and how fast companies should move to integrate acquisitions.

Teaching Note: 8B04M23 (13 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Management Decisions; Management in a Global Environment; Mergers & Acquisitions; Change Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 10:
Strategic Controls and Corporate Governance

Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M001
Publication Date: 1/7/2011
Revision Date: 11/20/2014
Length: 13 pages

A successful Canadian road construction and maintenance company is contemplating U.S. market entry via a subsidiary in Texas. The case deals with market entry considerations: speed of entry, the need to invest in learning about a market, and the importance of staying focused on what is a reasonable, original strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B11M001 (8 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: International Business; Corporate Strategy; Market Analysis; Location Strategy; United States and Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Lawrence G. Tapp, Trevor Hunter

Product Number: 9B02M045
Publication Date: 1/10/2003
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 11 pages

CCL Industries Inc. is one of the top packagers of consumer products in the world. Over its 50-year history the company had grown from a small room to a multinational firm employing 7,500 people with over $1.6 billon in sales. CCL faces an uncertain environment that had already led to a major strategic reorientation when its plan to sell its largest division was cancelled. A global economic slowdown and lower consumer confidence coupled with extensive international operations, significantly increased the risk to CCL's sales and already slim profits. In the past, the company prospered through product diversification gained through acquisition. The economic slowdown and increased uncertainty meant that this strategy may not be appropriate in the future. The chief executive officer recognizes the time, attention, advice, composition and operations of the board of directors would likely have to be altered to reflect this new reality.

Teaching Note: 8B02M45 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Board of Directors; Corporate Governance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 11:
Strategic Leadership: Creating a Learning and Socially Responsible Organization

Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B10M020
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 15 pages

This case examines the giant Canadian mining corporation, Barrick Gold Corporation (Barrick), (called Africa Barrick Gold plc since 2009), and the way it engages in sustainable community developments that surround its mining activities in Tanzania. Following recent organized tensions and heightened criticism from local communities, media, international social lobbyists and local not-for-profit organizations (NFOs), Barrick has attempted to deal with the local communities in a responsible manner. At issue for senior management was whether there was much more that it could reasonably do to resolve the tensions.

The case considers: how MNEs seek social license and local legitimacy; the relevance of hybrid institutional infrastructures; the evolving global roles for MNEs and their subsidiaries. The case is appropriate for use in courses in international management, global corporations and society, and international development and sustainable value creation.

Teaching Note: 8B10M20 (18 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Subsidiaries; Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Cross Sector Social Partnership; Government Relations
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alex Beamish, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B09C018
Publication Date: 9/18/2009
Revision Date: 3/24/2010
Length: 8 pages

In September 2009, Brian Lee purchased a computer game developed by a major company and, like other customers, he was experiencing difficulty running it. The source of the problems was a highly restrictive system of digital rights management (DRM), which, while more or less universally disliked, was causing serious technical problems for a minority of users. Lee began to share his experience on the company's message board and was engaging in a debate about online piracy with a company representative. He was curious about piracy in the file-sharing age and wondered why it would be wrong to download a pirated version of the game with the DRM circumvented. The case deals with an issue which resonates with students. Although the context is simple, the problem is complex, thus giving instructors wide latitude on how to teach the case. It is suitable for modules or courses focused on ethics, service operations, intellectual property rights and information technology.

Teaching Note: 8B09C18 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Service Recovery; Intellectual Property; Internet; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

W. Glenn Rowe, Suhaib Riaz

Product Number: 9B08M040
Publication Date: 11/4/2008
Length: 15 pages

Muhtar Kent had just been promoted to the CEO position in Coca-Cola. He was reflecting upon the past leadership of the company, in particular the success that Coca-Cola enjoyed during Robert Goizueta's leadership. The CEOs that had followed Goizueta were not able to have as positive an impact on the stock value. When his promotion was announced, Kent mentioned that he did not have immediate plans to change any management roles but that some fine-tuning might be necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B08M40 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Performance Evaluation; Management Style; Leadership; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 12:
Managing Innovation and Fostering Entrepreneurship

Anil Nair

Product Number: 9B09M019
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 18 pages

IMAX was involved in several aspects of the large-format film business: production, distribution, theatre operations, system development and leasing. The case illustrates IMAX's use of its unique capabilities to pursue a focused differentiation strategy. IMAX was initially focused on large format films that were educational yet entertaining, and the theatres were located in institutions such as museums, aquariums and national parks. However, IMAX found that its growth and profitability were constrained by its niche strategy. In response, IMAX sought to grow by expanding into multiplexes. Additionally, IMAX expanded its film portfolio by converting Hollywood movies, such as Harry Potter and Superman, into the large film format. This shift in strategy was supported by the development of two technological capabilities - DMR for conversion of standard 35 mm film into large format, and DMX to convert standard multiplexes to IMAX systems. The shift in strategy was partially successful, but carried the risk of IMAX losing its unique reputation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Business Policy; Strategic Positioning; Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

J. Nick Fry, Julian M. Birkinshaw

Product Number: 9A94G005
Publication Date: 10/12/1994
Revision Date: 2/4/2010
Length: 8 pages

The business development manager for General Electric (GE) Canada, met with executives from GE Supply, a US-based distribution arm of GE. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss new business opportunities in energy management and efficiency. The business development manager had identified some opportunities for business development in Canada, while leveraging GE's strategic capabilities did not fit well with GE's corporate structure. He was keen to work with GE Supply but wanted to retain a high level of operating autonomy. The challenge was to put together an appropriate organizational structure and find a home for the new development idea. (A sequel to this case is available, GE Energy Management Initiative (B). A 12-minute video may also be purchased with this case, GE Energy Management Initiative - Video.)

Teaching Note: 8A94G05 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Structure; International Business; Multinational
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA