Ivey Publishing

Management Across Cultures: Developing Global Competencies

Steers, R.M., Sanchez-Runde, C.J., Nardon, L.,2/e (United States, Cambridge University Press, 2013)
Prepared By Paul W. Beamish, Professor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
The New Global Realities

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M107
Publication Date: 11/8/2011
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B11M107 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



L’OREAL S.A.: ROLLING OUT THE GLOBAL DIVERSITY STRATEGY
Cara C. Maurer, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10C026
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Revision Date: 11/7/2011
Length: 14 pages

L’Oreal S.A. is in the process of implementing a global diversity strategy. The firm's Europe diversity director is working with various country units to roll out the strategy. The director faces obstacles such as cultural differences between countries and, generally, low awareness of the benefits a diversity strategy can bring.

Teaching Note: 8B10C026 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Behaviour; Communications; Cosmetics; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAMING THE DRAGON: CUMMINS IN CHINA (CONDENSED)
Charles Dhanaraj, Maria Morgan, Jing Li, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B05M034
Publication Date: 9/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case documents more than 15 years of U.S.-based Cummins, a global leader in diesel and allied technology, and its investment activities in China. While the macro level indicators seem to suggest the possibility to hit $1 billion in revenues in China by 2005, there were several pressing problems that put into question Cummins' ability to realize this target. Students are presented with four specific situations and must develop an appropriate action plan. They are related to the respective streamlining and consolidation of several existing joint ventures, distribution and service, and staffing. The case presents the complexity of managing country level operations and the role of executive leadership of a country manager.

Teaching Note: 8B05M34 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Strategy; International Joint Venture; Country Manager; Global Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
The New Global Managers

GROWING THE MAMAS & PAPAS BRAND
Michael Goldman, Jennifer Lindsey-Renton

Product Number: 9B11A044
Publication Date: 2/2/2012
Revision Date: 10/16/2012
Length: 17 pages

Nawaal Motlekar is the managing director of Kwenta Media and founding editor of Mamas & Papas, a recently launched parenting magazine in South Africa. From her early entrepreneurial experiences, Motlekar developed a personal and professional interest in parenting magazines. As a Black South African woman married to an Indian man in an increasingly multi-racial and multi-cultural society, Motlekar recognized a gap for a parenting magazine that would appeal to a wider and more racially and culturally inclusive target market. After extensive research and development, she launched the Mamas & Papas magazine in early 2009. The case charts Motlekar’s journey as an entrepreneur, as well as her efforts between 2006 and 2009 to bring the magazine to life. The case explores the quantitative and qualitative research approaches employed by Motlekar, as well as her marketing and branding initiatives towards building a Mamas & Papas brand beyond just the physical magazine. With the magazine having been on shelves for 12 months, Motlekar and her board faced a number of decisions. These included options to increase advertising revenues and circulation, as well as choosing how to extend the Mamas & Papas brand into related categories.

Teaching Note: 8B11A044 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Brand Extension; Brand Management; Brand Positioning; Consumer Research; Marketing Research; Magazines; South Africa; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



COLOPLAST A/S - ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES IN OFFSHORING
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

Product Number: 9B08M031
Publication Date: 7/25/2008
Length: 16 pages

Coloplast's future global manufacturing strategy was based on relocation of volume production of mature product lines to low cost countries like Hungary and China, whereas most creative and innovative activities (pilot production, ramp-up and range care) were retained in Denmark. The large scale project of offshoring, first volume production and later perhaps other activities, to Tatabanya, Hungary constituted a major shift in the operational strategy for Coloplast, which resulted in a series of organizational and managerial challenges. An important feature of the case is the surprise to the management team of how challenging it was to globalize the operations despite Coloplast's international experience operating a network of subsidiaries in more than 26 countries. The management team learned how important it is to have the structure, the organization and the mindset in place when offshoring production. Sourcing internationally is very different from selling internationally as it involves the entire organization. The learning process of the management team and the challenges they faced is unfolded in this case.

Teaching Note: 8B08M31 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Operations Management; Human Resources Management; Centralization; Management Science and Info. Systems; Management Information Systems; Organizational Behaviour; International Management; Change Management; Value Chain
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL BANKS IN TANZANIA
Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

Product Number: 9B07C040
Publication Date: 10/30/2007
Length: 18 pages

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C40 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: International Management; Expatriate Management; Trade Unions; Management Training; Emerging Markets; Performance Evaluation; Recruiting; Subsidiaries; Career Development; Employee Selection
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ASIAN PAINTS LTD. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE
Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07M056
Publication Date: 10/24/2007
Length: 13 pages

The president of Asian Paints Ltd., India's largest paint manufacturer, was wondering how he could improve the way the company's International Business division was managing its team of 120 global managers. The company had operations throughout Asia in various locations such as China, Singapore and Thailand; throughout Africa in countries such as Oman, Egypt and Mauritius; and in the Americas in Jamaica. The team of global management was critical to the success of the company's globalization endeavour, which was expected to gather momentum once the ongoing consolidation was complete. The president must decide how to structure the management of this global team.

Teaching Note: 8B07M56 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Manager; Growth; Management Systems; Organizational Structure
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
The Cultural Environment

EBIO - WHAT VALUE ARE SOCIAL PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTH AFRICA?
Albert Wöcke, Christine Yiannakis

Product Number: 9B10M059
Publication Date: 7/29/2010
Length: 15 pages

The case deals with the evolution of a socially based business that provides education and work-preparedness to underprivileged people in South Africa. The case takes place in South African townships and involves the formation of a firm that provides poor African people with tools to help them become ready for and gain employment, or start their own business. The Ebio business model requires close community involvement and an understanding of African culture. The entrepreneur and his team have proven the concept works but now have to scale up the enterprise. He has to decide how to expand his team, what the cost of attracting additional team members will be and whether they will fit into his unique business model.This case has been used in MBA entrepreneur courses and executive education courses for social entrepreneurs to illustrate the difficulties in commercializing a socially based firm.

Teaching Note: 8B10M59 (8 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Partnership; Cross Cultural Management; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Social Entrepreneurship; GIBS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HONEY CARE AFRICA: A TRIPARTITE MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE BEEKEEPING
Oana Branzei, Mike Valente

Product Number: 9B07M060
Publication Date: 8/30/2007
Revision Date: 1/8/2009
Length: 19 pages

The director and co-founder of Honey Care Africa (Honey Care) looks back over the six years of operations and describes the original business model and several sequential changes based on feedback from rural communities, partner organizations, and learning by doing through field operations. Increasing international recognition highlights the potential impact of the model on inspiring sustainable grassroots ventures in the agriculture sector in Kenya. For Tanzania and other developing countries, he ponders the potential opportunities and challenges in replicating the Honey Care model elsewhere. The case also tackles alternative routes for scaling up the model in East Africa. Students are presented with several specific challenges which illustrate the growing tension between Honey Care's original commitment to the farmers and its prospects for international take-off, and are asked to propose alternative model reconfigurations to resolve this tension.

Teaching Note: 8B07M22 (15 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Social Entrepreneurship; International Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Sustainable Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
The Organizational Environment

HR AS TRANSFORMATION PARTNER IN MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.
Anita Ollapally, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B11C022
Publication Date: 7/27/2011
Length: 20 pages

The Indian business landscape is marked by uncertainty, turbulence, hyper-competition, and non-linear growth, as exemplified by the automobile sector. Increasing competition from foreign automobile organizations and homegrown ones such as Tata Motors are posing a threat to the market leader, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. A fierce battle for market share is ensuing among these automobile giants. However, Maruti Suzuki has succeeded in maintaining its leadership position. Yet with more companies venturing into the territory of Maruti Suzuki — the small car segment — the threat to Maruti Suzuki’s market share is looming larger than before.

This case illustrates Maruti Suzuki’s journey and depicts the changes in its organizational strategy, HR strategy, and work culture in response to new challenges. Maruti Suzuki had to change from a government-owned organization and a monopoly, to a firm capable of competing with world-class automobile companies. This case describes the various challenges faced by the organization and how HR has assisted in bringing about much-needed transformation. The challenges include having to create a performing workforce, changing the mindset of the employees, coping with cross-cultural issues and, most significantly, engaging in breakthrough innovation. HR needs to create an organizational culture that not only supports breakthrough innovation but also helps retain employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resource Management; Organizational Culture; Talent Management; Cultural Differences; Automobile Industry; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



YOLA: MANAGING MULTIPLE CHALLENGES
Helena Barnard, Bryan Muir

Product Number: 9B10M031
Publication Date: 8/20/2010
Length: 15 pages

The South-African founder of Yola, a San Francisco-based company that provides simple website creation software, has developed a vibrant business that went from eight to more than 40 employees in only a year. He has secured two rounds of funding from a South African venture capitalist, and the growth in the Yola user base has been exceeding that predicted in the business plan. Yet the business faces multiple challenges. There are offices in both Cape Town (because of both personal ties and a substantial cost advantage) and San Francisco (because of the need to be connected to the heart of the industry), but managing across a 10-hour time difference is challenging. The rapid growth in employees is also placing demands on the company in terms of integrating people into the culture, and in finding an appropriate organization structure. The business model for online offerings is also not yet established, and Yola has to deal with substantial complexity in terms of its revenue models. In addition, the market place is heating up, and Yola may be losing its relative position in the market place.The case maps the challenges of managing a successful company in an emerging and fast-growing industry, and specifically focuses on the integrated decisions that an entrepreneur has to take.

Teaching Note: 8B10M31 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Location Strategy; Competition; Startups; Organizational Structure; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JACQUES KEMP: TOWARDS PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE
Rod E. White, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M084
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 19 pages

Over the past two years, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific had successfully implemented a new organizational and operational framework called Towards Performance Excellence (TPE), which was developed with inputs from functional heads, senior management and staff at the business unit level. TPE detailed and organized everything ING Asia/Pacific needed to execute its strategy effectively. TPE divided ING's business processes into six core categories: portfolio, marketing, organizational, operational, reputation and financial. Each category included aspects of execution known as drivers, which required managers to identify specific objectives and key performance indicators (KPIs) for each driver or sub-driver. The case includes many original exhibits and is ideally taught as the follow up case of the ING Insurance Asia/Pacific, Ivey product #9B06M083 or as a standalone case, which illustrates a real example of regional versus local organizational management.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
The Situational Environment

MANAGING CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS IN OFFSHORE OUTSOURCING: B2BCS, AN ISRAELI CONSULTING FIRM
Arup Kumar Das, Sangeeta Shah Bharadwaj, Kate M. Kaiser

Product Number: 9B11E024
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 10 pages

This case examines an Israeli firm, B2Bcs, which provides end-to-end services in establishing offshore project development teams and helping firms in their decisions to outsource projects offshore. An interesting aspect of B2Bcs’s work involves cross-cultural partnering, and interfacing Israel-based client organizations with service provider organizations in India and Eastern Europe. However, the recent economic downturn has made B2Bcs’s customers very cautious about the decision to set up offshore development centres. Recently, Israeli firms have been looking for less expensive outsourcing solutions as part of their various cost-reduction initiatives. They expect low-rate quotes from offshore service providers of low-cost destinations such as India and Eastern Europe. However, India has not been hit very hard by the recession, unlike the West, and hence the prices quoted by Indian service providers are still very high.

Recently, B2Bcs has been facing stiff competition from similar consulting firms. The key to getting business in this area is based on one’s past relationships with key executives in client and vendor firms. Increasingly, other consulting firms have started exploiting these relationships to get new business, thus affecting B2Bcs’s growth plans severely. In such a scenario, two broad questions need to be answered: 1) What is the new value proposition that B2Bcs should now offer to its clients? 2) How can B2Bcs help its clients find the right service provider at a competitive price?


Teaching Note: 8B11E024 (9 pages)
Issues: Business Development; Retention Marketing; Value-based Management; Eastern Europe; India; Israel; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PRIVATIZATION OF THE TIGER LEAPING GUEST HOUSE IN NANJING, PRC
Stephen Grainger

Product Number: 9B10C029
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 6 pages

The Liang family, experienced family hoteliers in China, had to leave the mainland under the pressure of the forces of Chairman Mao and the Communist Party of China in 1949. They resettled in Taiwan, resumed their hospitality business and now, two generations later, have returned to Nanjing to find that their family’s old guest house has been allowed to run down and deteriorate as a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SoE). They repurchase the old guest house with the intention to redevelop it. How will they deal with this privatization and the inevitable bureaucracy of purchasing, demolishing, and rebuilding the old guest house? How will they convert the existing SoE human resources (trained under planned-economy conditions) into dynamic employees operating in the market economy, while being sensitive to the cultural characteristics and challenges of this mainland Chinese workplace? With more than 6,000 Chinese SoEs still being targeted for privatization, this case is very relevant and provides a real-world opportunity for students to exercise their research, analytical, international management, entrepreneurial, and cross-cultural management skills.

Teaching Note: 8B10C029 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Cultural Customs; Privatization; Cross-cultural Management; Human Resource Management; Hotel China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOIVONEN PAPER IN THE U.S.: HUMAN RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS OF FOREIGN CORPORATE OWNERSHIP
Jannifer David, Ahmed Maamoun

Product Number: 9B08C019
Publication Date: 10/20/2008
Length: 5 pages

The growing globalization of many industries has led many U.S.-based companies to open facilities overseas. In the process, researchers have counselled U.S. companies to adopt many local customs and policies to increase their probability of success in these new locations. During this same time period, many foreign-owned companies have moved into the United States and either purchased existing facilities or started new operations. The purpose of this case is to investigate how a non-American company (Toivonen) has adapted to the U.S. environment. It assesses the role of the parent company culture in the day-to-day operations of the American subsidiary.

Teaching Note: 8B08C19 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cultural Customs; Acquisition Strategy; Management in a Global Environment; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A FEW TIPS ABOUT CORRUPTION IN THE U.S.
Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B06M089
Publication Date: 11/6/2006
Length: 7 pages

This case presents the situation faced by three people in the United States as they exit a restaurant in California. They are discussing whether tipping is a form of private sector corruption, similar to public sector corruption that pervades many countries worldwide. Discussion ensues on what constitutes corruption, and whether private and public sector corruption are required and ethical business practices.

Teaching Note: 8B06M89 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Ethical Issues; Political Environment; International Business; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Communicating Across Cultures

COLLISION COURSE: SELLING EUROPEAN HIGH PERFORMANCE MOTORCYCLES IN JAPAN
Jeff Hicks, Derek Lehmberg

Product Number: 9B12M025
Publication Date: 4/3/2012
Revision Date: 4/3/2012
Length: 15 pages

In 2006, the Japanese subsidiary of Tommasi Motorcycles, an Italian manufacturer of high-end motorcycles, was implementing a new customer data application to help its motorcycle dealerships increase the effectiveness of their sales and marketing activities. Horizon LLP, a consulting firm, was Tommasi’s global implementation partner for the application. To identify any dealer concerns regarding the new system, Tommasi Japan had brought in additional consultants from Horizon to conduct interviews with the dealers. As the consultants soon discovered, the dealers’ concerns with Tomassi went far beyond the new application. An unannounced visit by an influential dealer set all the players on a collision course, and soon exposed their widely differing views and a number of fundamental problems in the relationship between Tommasi Motorcycles Japan and its dealer network.



The case begins with a series of separate dialogues involving the director of sales and marketing; the expatriate president of Tommasi Motorcycles Japan; an influential owner of multiple dealerships; and two non-Japanese consultants from Horizon. When they meet in the board room of Tommasi Motorcycles Japan, the ensuing conversation reveals a number of issues: opportunistic behaviour by the bilingual director of sales and marketing, who limits and shapes communications between the dealers and Tommasi’s Japanese National Office; a limited understanding of local market conditions by expatriate Tommasi management; frustration on the part of business-savvy dealers; and naiveté on the part of the consultants, who do not see the social hierarchies at work, nor realize that their cultural and language fluency, which has in past projects always been an asset, could also be a threat.


Teaching Note: 8B12M025 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Communications; Consulting; Expatriate Management; Motorcycles and Vehicles; Italy; Japan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT EXPATICA.COM
Christopher Williams, Judith vanHerwaarden

Product Number: 9B11M085
Publication Date: 9/23/2011
Revision Date: 5/25/2017
Length: 11 pages

In April 2011, the management team at Expatica Communications B.V. was reviewing the progress of the company and the opportunities for future growth. The management team had to take stock: the external environment was rapidly changing, and threats from competitors were on the rise. Expatica had been founded 11 years earlier to provide English-language information and news to the expatriate community in Europe, delivering its services primarily over the Internet. One of the central issues Expatica faced was how to make its core business model effective across multiple markets. Recent launches of the online platform in new countries were not as successful as hoped and the performance of traditional “bricks and mortar” offerings was also mixed. The company had made tremendous progress over the years but needed to re-evaluate its position and decide which new opportunities for growth, if any, should be pursued.

Teaching Note: 8B11M085 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Company Expansion; Product Development; E-Business; Expatriate Community; the Netherlands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ETHICS OF OFFSHORING: NOVO NORDISK AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A SPEED RACE: BENELLI AND QJ COMPETE IN THE INTERNATIONAL MOTORBIKE ARENA
Francesca Spigarelli, Ilan Alon, William Wei

Product Number: 9B09M097
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Revision Date: 9/30/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the Qianjiang Group (QJ), a large-scale Chinese state-owned group, acquired the Italian company Benelli to expand its business in Western markets beyond Italy. Benelli's brand advantage was intended to provide the core competency for QJ to compete in the global motorbike markets; in addition, Benelli's capabilities and know-how in motorbike and scooter engineering also helped QJ complete its product portfolio. After a successful start, the many cultural differences related to an Italian business model and a Chinese company became problematic. Problems arose in integrating Chinese and Italian cultures and in coping with a completely different way of doing business, and the company was facing stiff competition from Japanese competitors. Despite excellent press and large industrial investments aimed at gaining efficiency and reducing prices, penetration of Western markets was difficult.

Teaching Note: 8B09M97 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Competitiveness; Mergers & Acquisitions; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ARLA FOODS AND THE CARTOON CRISIS (A)
Henry W. Lane, Mikael Sondergaard, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B08M005
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 12 pages

After a Danish newspaper publishes cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad, consumers across the Middle East decide to boycott Danish goods. Arla Foods (Arla) is one of Europe's largest dairy companies. Suddenly, it finds itself caught in the middle of a crisis that appears to be beyond its control. Prior to the boycott, the Middle East was Arla's fastest growing region and represented an important component of the company's long-term growth strategy. As the largest Danish company in the region, it stands to lose up to $550 million in annual revenues. Students are asked to take the role of the communication director for Arla, who, along with other members of the newly formed Crisis and Communication Group, must decide on a course of action to deal with the crisis. The case addresses a variety of topics, including culture and religion, international management, risk management, crisis communications, and managing in a boycott situation. It also creates an opportunity to discuss doing business in the Middle East and management in an Islamic context.

Teaching Note: 8B08M05 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Boycott; Crisis Management; Women in Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Negotiating Global Agreements

NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAJESTICA HOTEL IN SHANGHAI?
Paul W. Beamish, Jane W. Lu

Product Number: 9B05M035
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M35 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Market Entry; Negotiation; Control Systems; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Leading Global Organizations

INFUSION'S GREENFIELD SUBSIDIARY IN POLAND
Christopher Williams, Wendelien van Eerde, Danielle The

Product Number: 9B12M076
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
Revision Date: 5/25/2017
Length: 12 pages

The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to global clients. The investment, a big success, had grown in size from eight to forty staff in one year, and there were plans to double that by the end of the following year. The issues facing the president were threefold. Firstly, how could he work with the country manager to continue to grow the subsidiary? Attracting the right talent was vital to Infusion’s culture and business model. Initial growth in Poland was based partly on local referrals in the community of .NET professionals in Krakow. It was also based on being a new start-up with an entrepreneurial culture. The president and country manager were concerned that there were limits to these factors. Secondly, what role should Infusion Poland have in the wider company in the future? Should it become a global centre of excellence and a pivotal hub for the company’s innovative capability? If so, how? Thirdly, what kind of succession planning should be put in place for the country manager in Poland? If he moved to another post at Infusion, as expected, should the company seek a local country manager instead of transferring one from headquarters?

Teaching Note: 8B12M076 (11 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Growth of a Subsidiary; Role of a New Subsidiary; Country Manager; Information Technology; Poland
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LAUNCH OF DURRA: WOMEN IN ISLAMIC BANKING
Alexandra Roth, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B10M035
Publication Date: 4/19/2010
Length: 9 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Euro-Mediterranean Managerial Practices and Issues Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case focuses on the vice-president and regional head of corporate banking for Noor Islamic Bank in Dubai as she arrives in the United States to promote the first global network for women in Islamic banking and finance, known as Durra. As a result, Islamic banks have been growing at a rate of 15 per cent per year, and have assets approaching $1 trillion, despite the recent banking crisis. Islamic banks also have a hard time filling the 30,000 new jobs created each year because of the specialized training required. One of the purposes of Durra is to help more women fill critical positions in Islamic banking and to help them manage their careers in order to assume leadership positions. The case also raises questions about how best to build a non-profit organization. Issues include how to attract new members and financial backers and how to build a useful and robust website that fulfills the needs of the organization.

Teaching Note: 8B10M35 (5 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Cultural Customs; Non-Profit Organization; Women in Management; International Finance; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA: LEADERSHIP WITH TRUST
Oana Branzei

Product Number: 9B10M025
Publication Date: 5/11/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2010
Length: 24 pages

The case illustrates the opportunities, challenges and trade-offs involved in the design, evolution and institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate sustainability (CS) within the Tata Group, an India-based indigenous multinational enterprise (MNE) with a unique 140-year old commitment to the community as the key stakeholder of business. Despite the 2008-2009 global recession, the Tata Group topped the economic value creation charts. In 2008-2009, the Group had grossed US$70.8 billion in revenues; 64.7 per cent of the Group's revenues were now coming from outside India. Its 96 independent companies spanned seven sectors: information systems and communications, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals. Economic turbulence had put a break on social and environmental investing for many other companies, but renewed Tata Group's commitment: the Group had recently revised its charitable giving, adopted a group-wide climate change policy, and separated its mandatory and voluntary initiatives. The case deals with the intricate connections between the Group's profitability and competitiveness on the one hand and its long-standing tradition of social responsibility on the other. It explores value-creation, leadership, ethics and sustainable development on the backdrop of rapid internationalizations and shifting stakeholders' expectations for corporate social responsibility.

Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Finance and Insurance, Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Ethical Issues; Sustainable Development; Value Analysis; Leadership; Corporate Social Responsibility; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ING INSURANCE ASIA/PACIFIC
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M083
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Length: 15 pages

The new chief executive officer (CEO) of ING Insurance Asia/Pacific wants to improve the regional operation of the company. ING Group was a global financial services company of Dutch origin with more than 150 years of experience. As part of ING International, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific was responsible for life insurance and asset/wealth management activities throughout the region. The company was doing well, but the new CEO believed that there were still important strategic and operational improvements possible. This case can be used to discuss the local versus regional or global management issue and will yield best results if the class has already been introduced to different strategic and organizational alternatives in the international business context.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Subsidiaries; Organization; Leadership; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Managing a Global Workforce

SARA TSIEN
Jeffrey Gandz, Elizabeth Spracklin

Product Number: 9B10C007
Publication Date: 4/15/2010
Revision Date: 9/4/2013
Length: 7 pages

Sara Tsien must decide what performance assessment to give one of her employees who has, uncharacteristically, failed to meet one of her key objectives for the year. The situation is difficult for several reasons; the causes of the unacceptable performance are not clear; the employee has previously received excellent appraisals, including a recent one by the vice-president; and the employee was absent for a good part of the year on maternity leave. The various factors that influence sustained performance (ability, motivation, resources, role clarity, reinforcement) are examined, as well as steps leaders can take in improving performance of those for whom they are responsible.

Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Management Behaviour; Performance Evaluation; Motivation; Management Performance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MIA, PHILIPPINES
Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B09M016
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Length: 20 pages

The newly appointed country director of MIA Philippines, a non-profit organization with a mandate to alleviate poverty in developing countries, is faced with the challenge of designing and managing a development assistance project that would establish a go-to-market supply chain for a remote Filipino fishing village. The country director has to enter a new country, launch the project, deal with the constraints of a foreign culture, manage the expectations of major stakeholders whilst trying to manage a multi-cultural team and conclude the project on time. The value of the case lies in the realistic assessment of stakeholders' motivation, their capabilities and assets, and project constraints during the design and implementation stages. Value chain analysis, value added analysis and stakeholder analysis are used to assess the applicability of project design, impact and long term success.

Teaching Note: 8B09M16 (11 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Value Chain; Cross Cultural Management; Project Management; Project Design/Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JINJIAN GARMENT FACTORY: MOTIVATING GO-SLOW WORKERS
Tieying Huang, Junping Liang, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M033
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 6 pages

Jinjian Garment Factory is a large clothing manufacturer based in Shenzhen with distribution to Hong Kong and overseas. Although Shenzhen had become one of the most advanced garment manufacturing centres in the world, managers in this industry still had few effective ways of dealing with the collective and deliberate slow pace of work by the employees, of motivating workers, and of resolving the problem between seasonal production requirements and retention of skilled workers. However, the owner and managing director of the company must determine the reasons behind the deliberately slow pace of the workers, the pros and cons of the piecework system and the methods he could adopt to motivate the workers effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B04M33 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Productivity; Employee Attitude; Piece Work; Performance Measurement; Work-Force Management; Peking University
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Working with Global Teams

ELLEN MOORE (B): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA
Henry W. Lane, Gail Ellement, Jeanne McNett

Product Number: 9B12C011
Publication Date: 2/21/2012
Revision Date: 2/21/2012
Length: 5 pages

This case is a supplement to Ellen Moore (A): Living and Working in Korea. In this follow-up case, Ellen discusses how a major crisis was averted and reflects on what she learned during her assignment in Korea.

Teaching Note: 8A97G29 (5 pages)
Issues: Group Behaviour; Cross-cultural Relations; Women in Management; Team Building; United States; Korea; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RECRUITING FOR A MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE IN CHINA
Sarah Perchey, Diana E. Krause

Product Number: 9B12C026
Publication Date: 5/29/2012
Revision Date: 5/22/2012
Length: 12 pages

The CEO of a multinational company wanted the new human resource team of their subsidiary in Guangzhou, China, to recruit and select 85 individuals for different positions throughout the company. These positions included finance managers, production managers, factory workers, secretaries, and interns. The members of the human resource team were highly diverse in terms of educational backgrounds (marketing, law, human resources, public relations, general business administration) and countries of origin (Canada, China, Germany). The team had to deal with a series of challenges to ensure the project’s success. These included a decision about task-specific job requirements, methods to assess job requirements, strategies for recruitment, methods for personnel selection, and final decision-making. The team also had to deal with diversity within the team, cross-cultural issues, and the leadership behaviour of its CEO.

Teaching Note: 8B12C026 (10 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Recruitment; Personnel Selection; Leadership; Diversity; International Teams; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELLEN MOORE (A): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA
Henry W. Lane, Chantell Nicholls, Gail Ellement

Product Number: 9A97G029
Publication Date: 6/3/1998
Revision Date: 2/23/2017
Length: 16 pages

Ellen Moore, a systems consultant, was sent to Korea to manage a project involving a team of North American and Korean consultants representing a joint venture between a major Korean conglomerate and a significant North American information technology company. The Americans were to be involved for the first seven months in order to transfer expertise and knowledge to the South Koreans, who had little experience in this area. Ellen's superior had played an integral part in securing the contract in Korea due to his depth of knowledge on the subject. He chose Ellen to be the key North American project manager because she had significant project management skills and impressive international experience. Upon Ellen's arrival, she discovered that the Korean consultants were far less skilled than she had expected. In addition, Ellen had understood that she and the Korean manager were to be co-managers, but immediately tensions arose regarding who was giving direction to the team, and the scope of the project. Tensions escalated until it was clear that the project was behind schedule and the Koreans were not taking direction from Ellen. The Koreans insisted that Ellen was the problem. Ellen’s superior disagreed; he and Ellen needed to decide how to proceed. The challenge was to balance strategic goals with individual action.

Teaching Note: 8A97G29 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Group Behaviour; Cross-cultural Relations; Women in Management; Team Building; United States; Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Living and Working Globally

VIETNAM HANDICRAFT INITIATIVE: MOVING TOWARD SUSTAINABLE OPERATIONS
Sarah Easter, Mary Conway Dato-on

Product Number: 9B12M089
Publication Date: 10/1/2012
Revision Date: 10/2/2012
Length: 11 pages

A recent MBA graduate has just received a one-year business assignment as a business development and marketing advisor to work with the Vietnam Handicraft Initiative (VHI), a vocational training and employment center for people with disabilities, located in Central Vietnam. Her job is to assist the VHI to increase its productivity, become sustainable and strengthen the capacity of the organization through improved business and marketing plans. Within the first four weeks of her arrival, she needs to detail her assessment of the VHI and provide key recommendations and focused work objectives for the remaining 11 months of her placement. She expects that the many cultural differences encountered along the way will provide a real challenge in accurately assessing the VHI and developing a detailed work plan.

Teaching Note: 8B12M089 (15 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Cross-cultural management; business development; Vietnam
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AN ENGLISH TEACHER IN SOUTH KOREA
Stacey R. Fitzsimmons, Paul Shantz

Product Number: 9B10C027
Publication Date: 1/21/2011
Length: 5 pages

Bert took a position to teach English in South Korea after graduating with his business degree from a Canadian university. It was his second time teaching English in South Korea, and because he had a fantastic experience the first time, he took a second position without doing a lot of due diligence before arrival. Soon, however, he realized that a city tax was being deducted from his pay, and he had suspicions that his boss was making up the city tax, in order to deduct money from the English teachers’ pay. Since Bert’s visa to stay in the country was tied to his employer, he could not look for a new employer, nor could he effectively find legal recourse against his employer, because foreign teachers had few rights in South Korea.

Teaching Note: 8B10C027 (12 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Organizational Culture; International Management; Ethical Issues; Teachers; Expatriates; South Korea
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



SARAH JAMES IN MEXICO: OFTEN WRONG BUT NEVER IN DOUBT?
William A. Andrews

Product Number: 9B09C006
Publication Date: 1/27/2009
Revision Date: 9/5/2019
Length: 4 pages

A college student, Sarah James, attends a Mexican university (INI) for the summer to develop her language and cross-cultural capabilities. At the end of a successful semester, she e-mails the director of international recruitment for the Mexican University - with a copy to her major professor back in the United States - complaining about the treatment she received from her host family. She appears to have alienated all parties involved as she makes her exodus. The reader must decide how Professor McGill should respond. McGill had been attempting to build a relationship with the administration at INI in hopes of sending more students there for cross-cultural and language training. The reader must also evaluate Sarah's complaints to determine if they are a result of her own inflexibility or whether the host family was inappropriately screened or prepared. Will the remedy be found in having better policies governing host families or in having more culturally-attuned students?

Teaching Note: 8B09C06 (5 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Partnership; Cultural Customs; Conflict Resolution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



OLLY RACELA IN BANGKOK
Hemant Merchant

Product Number: 9B04C010
Publication Date: 8/18/2004
Revision Date: 10/6/2009
Length: 15 pages

A recent MBA graduate describes the joys and frustrations of an expatriate life - both at personal and professional levels - as experienced by a young, single woman. She has been living in Bangkok for three years and is slowly adjusting to the local way of life when she receives a job offer that will relocate her back to her home in Hawaii. Reaching a decision, however, is not easy given career-related uncertainties in both countries as well as the array of conflicting emotions that confront her. She must decide how to sort through these issues. Should she remain in Bangkok or return home? Her decision is complicated by the fact that she had not entertained the idea of returning to the United States.

Teaching Note: 8B04C10 (15 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Women in Management; Expatriate Management; Emerging Markets; Global Manager
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA