Ivey Publishing

International Marketing: An Asian Perspective

Fletcher, R., Crawford, H.,5/e (Australia, Pearson, 2011)
Prepared By Michael J.D. Roberts, Ph.D. Candidate
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
The Rationale For International Marketing

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M107
Publication Date: 11/8/2011
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B11M107 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOYOTA: DRIVING THE MAINSTREAM MARKET TO PURCHASE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Jeff Saperstein, Jennifer Nelson

Product Number: 9B04A003
Publication Date: 1/16/2004
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 23 pages

Toyota is a large, international automobile manufacturer headquartered in Japan, with plans to become the largest worldwide automaker, striving for 15 per cent of global sales. Toyota is committing itself to be the leader of the hybrid-electric automotive industry, and is relying on changes in the industry and customer perceptions to bring its plan to fruition. Toyota's challenge is to develop consumer attitude and purchase intent, from an early adopter, niche market model into universal mainstream acceptance.

Teaching Note: 8B04A03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Product Design/Development; Multinational; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SELKIRK GROUP IN ASIA
Paul W. Beamish, Lambros Karavis

Product Number: 9A99M003
Publication Date: 2/20/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 16 pages

A family-owned brick manufacturer has built an export business to Japan and other Asian markets from zero to 10 per cent of its volume in seven years. The case examines the company's export strategy and organization in light of the recent Asian economic crisis and the reasons for their competitive success both in Australia and Asia. The managing director is raising the question of whether it is time to change their regional export strategy and organizational structure.

Teaching Note: 8A99M03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Organizational Structure; International Marketing; International Business; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Appreciating the International Economic and Financial Environment

SPLASH: READY TO MAKE WAVES?
Hari Bapuji, Niraj Dawar, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B06A033
Publication Date: 3/20/2007
Length: 19 pages

Splash Corporation has been dubbed the next Unilever - not bad for a consumer packaged goods company that was started in a garage in the Philippines no more than 20 years ago. As one of the largest consumer packaged goods companies in the Philippines, it is now considering international expansion options. Should the company tackle the nearby markets of Indonesia and Malaysia, or should it look farther afield at the lucrative markets of Europe and North America? The company is not short of ambition but resources are scarce.

Teaching Note: 8B06A33 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Consumer Goods; Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Internationalization; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CITIGROUP IN POST-WTO CHINA (A)
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B02M012
Publication Date: 6/21/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 18 pages

China's entry into the World Trade Organization at the end of 2001 brought promises that foreign financial institutions would be permitted to operate through China. In 1998, Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc. had merged to create the new Citigroup Inc. Travelers brought a vast array of financial services that added to Citibank's existing portfolio of consumer and commercial lending. Travelers had developed a very extensive business in investment banking, asset management, life insurance, property casualty insurance, as well as consumer lending. Citigroup now had to determine the business prospects for each of its activities in the growing China market. Fears of social and economic dislocation might lead China to impose regulatory restrictions limiting the pace of foreign expansion. Economic growth might be impeded by the existing political structure, and reforms might not occur in the near term. A myriad of other challenges included human resources difficulties, e-commerce limitations and regional disparities. The pace of privatization of state-owned enterprises and the societal preferences in regard to alternative insurance and investment products added to uncertainties. Citibank had a record of success in less developed countries, and had developed certain competitive advantages that might be the basis for success in China, but whether and how these could be extended to other Citigroup financial activities remained an important question.

Teaching Note: 8B02M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; Globalization; International Business; Business Policy; Financial Institutions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHAI-NA-TA (ASIA) LTD.
John R. Kennedy, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A98A022
Publication Date: 10/30/1998
Revision Date: 11/16/2017
Length: 13 pages

Chai-Na-Ta (Asia) Ltd. is the Hong Kong-based operating arm of Canada's Chai-Na-Ta Corporation, an integrated ginseng firm. The decision has been made to enter the mainland China market and the general manager must make decisions on the entry city, target market(s), product(s) focus, distribution and pricing. Although he has significant knowledge of the Hong Kong market, he is unsure of the degree to which this can be transferred to the mainland markets. The case pushes the student to develop a marketing strategy in a situation in which there is imperfect market information.

Teaching Note: 8A98A22 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Market Entry; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Catering for the Cultural and Social Environment of International Marketing

LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A SPEED RACE: BENELLI AND QJ COMPETE IN THE INTERNATIONAL MOTORBIKE ARENA
Francesca Spigarelli, Ilan Alon, William Wei

Product Number: 9B09M097
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Revision Date: 9/30/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the Qianjiang Group (QJ), a large-scale Chinese state-owned group, acquired the Italian company Benelli to expand its business in Western markets beyond Italy. Benelli's brand advantage was intended to provide the core competency for QJ to compete in the global motorbike markets; in addition, Benelli's capabilities and know-how in motorbike and scooter engineering also helped QJ complete its product portfolio. After a successful start, the many cultural differences related to an Italian business model and a Chinese company became problematic. Problems arose in integrating Chinese and Italian cultures and in coping with a completely different way of doing business, and the company was facing stiff competition from Japanese competitors. Despite excellent press and large industrial investments aimed at gaining efficiency and reducing prices, penetration of Western markets was difficult.

Teaching Note: 8B09M97 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Competitiveness; Mergers & Acquisitions; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELLEN MOORE (A): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA
Henry W. Lane, Chantell Nicholls, Gail Ellement

Product Number: 9A97G029
Publication Date: 6/3/1998
Revision Date: 2/23/2017
Length: 16 pages

Ellen Moore, a systems consultant, was sent to Korea to manage a project involving a team of North American and Korean consultants representing a joint venture between a major Korean conglomerate and a significant North American information technology company. The Americans were to be involved for the first seven months in order to transfer expertise and knowledge to the South Koreans, who had little experience in this area. Ellen's superior had played an integral part in securing the contract in Korea due to his depth of knowledge on the subject. He chose Ellen to be the key North American project manager because she had significant project management skills and impressive international experience. Upon Ellen's arrival, she discovered that the Korean consultants were far less skilled than she had expected. In addition, Ellen had understood that she and the Korean manager were to be co-managers, but immediately tensions arose regarding who was giving direction to the team, and the scope of the project. Tensions escalated until it was clear that the project was behind schedule and the Koreans were not taking direction from Ellen. The Koreans insisted that Ellen was the problem. Ellen’s superior disagreed; he and Ellen needed to decide how to proceed. The challenge was to balance strategic goals with individual action.

Teaching Note: 8A97G29 (5 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Group Behaviour; Cross-cultural Relations; Women in Management; Team Building; United States; Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Avoiding the Pitfalls of the International Political and Legal Environment

MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA
Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA (B)
Deborah Compeau, Yulin Fang, Majela Yin

Product Number: 9B10E011
Publication Date: 6/18/2010
Length: 11 pages

This case, a supplement to Google in China (A), details the search engine’s cyber attack from within China, as well as Google’s response.

Teaching Note: 8B10E11 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Management in a Global Environment; Information Systems; Government and Business; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
The Technology Environment and Contemporary Environmental Variables

FIRST ENERGY
Niraj Dawar, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B12A001
Publication Date: 2/17/2012
Revision Date: 2/17/2012
Length: 13 pages

In September 2011, the CEO of First Energy Private Ltd, a start-up enterprise in the alternative energy industry in India, is at a critical juncture. The company has commercialized the technology of biomass cook stoves and has been providing, since 2007, clean and affordable cooking solutions to customers in rural India. A marginal rise in the price of biomass fuel in early 2011 has, however, led to a steep fall in demand, making the continuance in the rural household market unsustainable. The company is at a disadvantage in the household segment because the competing product, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), enjoys a price subsidy provided by the federal government. First Energy has been quick to target a niche in the urban commercial market consisting of restaurants, eateries, and hostels. While the margins are high in this segment, the volumes are low. The company must therefore build scale to be able to service the investments in plant capacity, which is under-utilized. The case enables students to come up with strategies for the CEO for market expansion. They will also decide whether to exit from or hold on to the household segment, where the margins are low but the volumes, considering the imminent de-subsidization of LPG, will be high.

Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability; Alternative Energy; Business to Business Marketing; Customer Segmentation; Household Appliances; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CORRUPTION: THE INTERNATIONAL EVOLUTION OF NEW MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B09M065
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Many countries have become increasingly concerned with the subject of corruption, and managers today must deal with changes in ethical norms and laws. New laws and international agreements seek to create a worldwide shift towards the reduction of corruption, and so management responsibilities are continually evolving. Both Transparency International and the World Bank provide estimates of the relative pervasiveness of corruption in different countries. Yet this subject is ambiguous and complex, creating significant challenges for managers. Both Volkswagen and Siemens have recently experienced public criticism and legal prosecution over corruption issues, some relating to internal and inter-corporate relations. Some cultures appear to accept corrupt practices as part of normal business-government relations. In China, guanxi is widely seen as a requirement for business success with the establishment of personal relationships that include an ongoing exchange of gifts and personal favours. Some managers may argue that the giving of gifts is acceptable, that bribes to expedite decisions may be necessary, and that only certain types of bribes should be seen as inappropriate corruption. However, this perspective involves the difficulty of drawing a line to guide decisions of corporate employees, and for many managers it is now necessary to implement clear corporate guidelines in regard to what they consider to be corruption. In this context, some managers may decide to avoid investing in certain countries until the culture of corruption has changed.

Teaching Note: 8B09M65 (3 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Business and Society
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DO IT SHOW: A NEW MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE IN KOREA
Youngchan Kim, Changjo Yoo

Product Number: 9B08A012
Publication Date: 8/28/2008
Revision Date: 5/12/2010
Length: 18 pages

This case presents points of contention and issues in the brand launch of a new telecommunication service of KTF, one of Korea's mobile telecommunication companies. As the second-place player in the 2G service market, which offered voice and text-messaging services, KTF decided to be the number one player in the new 3G service market, which offered stable video communication and high-speed data transmission as well as voice and text-messaging services. To do so, KTF developed a new brand, called SHOW, and implemented various integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategies to attract customers. After only four months since its launch, KTF had successfully attracted more than one million members. Several critical points for successfully launching a new brand in the mobile telecommunication service can be determined from this case. The introduction highlights the success of KTF's new brand launch strategy. Then the mobile telecommunication service market situation in South Korea is summarized. The next section provides a brief explanation of KTF and its new brand launch strategy in the 3G service market, covering topics from the market survey for 3G service to the brand-building processes. This is followed by an examination of how KTF used marketing-integrated communication for its new SHOW 3G service brand. Finally, the competitor's reaction to KTF's successful brand launch is summarized.

Teaching Note: 8B08A12 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Mobile Communication Industry; Brands; New Brand Launching Strategy; Integrated Marketing Strategy; Ivey/Yonsei
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PHIL CHAN (B)
Paul W. Beamish, Jean-Louis Schaan

Product Number: 9B08M039
Publication Date: 4/18/2008
Length: 4 pages

En route to Nigeria the decision maker learns that he is walking into a scam and must decide whether to show up for the scheduled meetings or to return home immediately. The case illustrates ways of being drawn into unethical situations, and the severe implications for both the individual and organization if they do participate. This (B) case can be distributed part way through the class (with undergraduates) or at the same time as the (A) case(9B08M038) with more experienced students.

Teaching Note: 8B08M38 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Job Assignments; Personal Values; Ethical Issues; Crisis Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Researching International Markets

A CRACK IN THE MUG: CAN STARBUCKS MEND IT?
Michael Herriman, Motohiro Wanikawa, Ryoko Ichinose, Shobhana Darak, Yumana Chaivan

Product Number: 9B08A016
Publication Date: 11/28/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 15 pages

After 20 years of rapid expansion, the last six months of 2007 saw Starbucks jolted by a decline in share price of 50 per cent and a decrease in customer visits. Its share price was hovering around $19 to $20. By mid-2008, it had declined to $18. Its fiscal first-quarter profit in 2007 rose by less than two per cent, and in January 2008, it announced the closing of 100 U.S. stores. In July, the number was increased to 600. The case was written to encourage classroom discussion and research into the company policy and marketing practices in order to discover the means for a possible turnaround of the company.

Teaching Note: 8B08A16 (22 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Operations Management; Expansion; Management Decisions; Licensing; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KIDS MARKET CONSULTING
Paul W. Beamish, Stephanie Taylor, Oleksiy Vynogradov

Product Number: 9B04M065
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 8 pages

The founder of Kids Market Consulting, a market research firm dedicated to the kids, tweens and teens segment, was faced with increasing competition and slowing revenue, and was exploring a variety of possibilities for the future strategic direction of the business. In particular, she had to formulate the best plan for protecting the niche market and decide how aggressively to pursue expansion. In addition, there was the existing relationship with her business partner, and Kids Market Consulting was part of his group of marketing firms. Any changes the founder chose had to respect this relationship and she was therefore restricted to a limited number of options. The over-arching corporate objective for the company was to defend the market from larger businesses who were trying to increase their share of the market research industry.

Teaching Note: 8B04M65 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategic Change; Strategy Development; Strategic Planning; Market Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ASIA CITY PUBLISHING LTD.
John R. Kennedy, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A97A001
Publication Date: 4/18/1997
Revision Date: 2/2/2010
Length: 12 pages

HK Magazine was a Hong Kong magazine created by three expatriate Americans. It was launched as a monthly magazine after two years of planning. The editorial tone of the publication can best be described as irreverent. Four years later, HK Magazine is now published twice a month and is very successful financially. The three owners are looking at the decision to start a comparable publication in Singapore. There are four principal issues involved in this decision: consumer acceptance, editorial tone, financial risk, and cash flow considerations. At the same time, the trio must examine the potential changes they might have to make in the editorial policy of their Hong Kong publication after China assumes control of the colony on July 1, 1997.

Teaching Note: 8A97A01 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cash Flow; Consumer Analysis; Product Concept; Profit Planning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
International Market Selection and Entry

CHINESE FIREWORKS INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



QANTAS: WHICH ROUTE OUT OF THE TURBULENCE?
Nitin Pangarkar, Hari Bapuji, Braden Loader

Product Number: 9B11M068
Publication Date: 8/24/2011
Revision Date: 10/5/2011
Length: 24 pages

In May 2011, Alan Joyce, chief executive officer of Qantas Group, needed to think about the future strategy of the airline group. Over the past few years, it had launched a number of strategic initiatives to defend its current position and penetrate new markets and segments. Qantas had discontinued its first-class service on many flights, opting to bolster its business-class service instead. Its forays into the budget travel segment through Jetstar proved to be successful and contributed to the overall financial performance of the group. Qantas had also placed a bet on emerging economies such as China, despite experiencing adverse performance in its international routes. However, the financial performance of the company was far from healthy. Qantas was fighting hard to retain its Australian position in the face of attempts by Virgin Blue and Tiger Airways to compete aggressively and gain market share. Analysts wondered whether Qantas was trying to do too much and, in the process, spreading itself too thinly. Would the Qantas Group be better off simply prioritizing across its various alternatives, or did it have sufficient resources (financial as well as managerial) to pursue all the initiatives? And if a narrow focus was better, then which strategic alternatives should Qantas pursue aggressively?

Teaching Note: 8B11M068 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Business Policy; Emerging Markets; Environmental Analysis; Growth Strategy; Airline Industry; Australia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEST BUY INC. - DUAL BRANDING IN CHINA
Niraj Dawar, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B09A016
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Revision Date: 5/11/2010
Length: 17 pages

A month after Best Buy Inc. (Best Buy), the largest retailer of consumer electronics in the United States, acquired Five Star, the third largest retailer of appliances and consumer electronics in China in May 2006, the management of Best Buy is weighing in on a branding option. Should Five Star lose its identity and be marketed as Best Buy? Or should Best Buy retain the Five Star brand and let the two brands compete with each other in the Chinese market? The option has a sense of déjà vu because, when it first stepped out of its home turf in January of 2002 by acquiring Future Shop, the largest consumer electronics retailer in Canada, Best Buy was facing a similar dilemma. The company had decided, at the time, in favour of dual brand strategy. It had worked. There was no evidence of cannibalization, the single largest risk in dual branding. Best Buy and Future Shop had both grown together as independent brands in Canada. But, does dual brand strategy work in the vastly different retail environment of China?

Teaching Note: 8B09A16 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Brand Management; Retailing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Planning for International Marketing

HIMALAYA HERBAL TOOTHPASTE: CATEGORY AND BRAND INVOLVEMENT IN AN EMERGING MARKET
S. Ramesh Kumar, Nitya Guruvayurappan

Product Number: 9B11A032
Publication Date: 10/25/2011
Revision Date: 1/30/2012
Length: 16 pages

Ramesh Kumar was curious to determine whether consumers were loyal to toothpaste brands. Himalaya Herbal Toothpaste had herbal offerings in the retail and prescription segments, affording him the opportunity to conduct research. Were consumers loyal to a particular brand of toothpaste? Did they remember the functional brand benefits? Were consumers buying brands due to the social benefits reflected in ads? Did consumers continue to buy particular brands without switching? Were consumers interested in herbal toothpastes? How should Himalaya be perceived by consumers? This series of issues presented an opportunity to conceptualize consumer behaviour in the Indian context.

The concept of product involvement differentiates consumer segments based on the degrees of personal interest expressed by consumers with regard to products and services. High-involvement categories require consumers to be involved in extensive buying behaviour that leads to one or more of the following: risk reduction, enhancement of self-image, and gratification in having achieved an optimal choice after examining the alternatives. Low-involvement categories are those that are bought in a routine manner by consumers, with a lower degree of personal interest. Marketers always face competitive challenges in enhancing the degree of involvement even in low-involvement categories through appropriate branding initiatives, including in the toothpaste category.


Teaching Note: 8B11A032 (11 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services, Retail Trade
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Emerging Markets; Consumer Analysis; Consumer Research; Dental; India; IIM-Bangalore/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CANADA GOOSE: THE SOUTH KOREA OPPORTUNITY
June Cotte, Jesse Silvertown

Product Number: 9B11A036
Publication Date: 1/30/2012
Revision Date: 12/5/2012
Length: 17 pages

Canada Goose was a Canadian maker of high-end winter outdoor clothing that was available in 40 countries. The company’s CEO was considering entering the South Korean market, which would entail resolving several problems. There were distributor complications, and it was unclear which style of jacket to sell to the new customer groups. Finally, deciding how to position Canada Goose in order to reach the two target groups for Canada Goose in South Korea was something that had bothered the CEO ever since he had first received the market research. Those issues aside, the firm also had to consider how the current state of the company, both in North America and Western Europe, would impact the success of a full-scale entry into South Korea. The CEO was excited for the opportunity for Canada Goose in South Korea, yet he was unsure how to maximize growth while positioning the brand as strongly as possible.

Teaching Note: 8B11A036 (3 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: New Market Entry; Winter Outdoor Clothing; Canada; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



KTM - READY TO RACE
Charlene Zietsma, Rob Wong

Product Number: 9B05M036
Publication Date: 5/30/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 26 pages

KTM is a successful European off-road motorcycle manufacturer with sales in 72 countries. KTM has been experiencing impressive growth in both its top and bottom lines over the past several years, but it is facing significant growth pressure from its venture capitalist investor. The chief financial officer must determine how the company could achieve its growth objectives. Options include geographic expansion (increase U.S. emphasis, or expansion to new European Union countries) or product expansion. Implementation options include a merger, acquisition or internal growth. Several opportunities for geographic expansion and product diversification exist, and implementation options include make, buy or ally decisions.

Teaching Note: 8B05M36 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; New Products; International Business; Diversification
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BEN & JERRY'S - JAPAN
James M. Hagen

Product Number: 9A99A037
Publication Date: 4/13/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 17 pages

The CEO of Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. needed to give sales and profits a serious boost; despite the company's excellent brand equity, it was losing market share and struggling to make a profit. The company's product was on store shelves in all U.S. states, but efforts to enter foreign markets had only been haphazard with non-U.S. sales accounting for just three per cent of total sales. The CEO needed to focus serious attention on entering the world's second largest ice cream market, Japan. An objective of Ben & Jerry's was to use the excess manufacturing capacity it had in the U.S., and it found that exporting ice cream from Vermont to Japan was feasible from a logistics and cost perspective. The company identified two leading partnering options. One was to give a Japanese convenience store chain exclusive rights to the product for a limited time. The other was to give long-term rights for all sales of the product in Japan to a Japanese-American who would build the brand. For the company to enter Japan in time for the upcoming summer season, it would have to be through one of these two partnering arrangements.

Teaching Note: 8A99A37 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Alliances; Market Entry; International Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
International Competitive Strategy

SHER-WOOD HOCKEY STICKS: GLOBAL SOURCING
Paul W. Beamish, Megan (Min) Zhang

Product Number: 9B12M003
Publication Date: 2/13/2012
Revision Date: 11/17/2014
Length: 11 pages

In early 2011, the senior executives of the venerable Canadian hockey stick manufacturer Sher-Wood Hockey were considering whether to move the remainder of the company’s high-end composite hockey and goalie stick production to its suppliers in China. Sher-Wood had been losing market share as retail prices continued to fall. Would outsourcing the production of the iconic, Canadian-made hockey sticks to China help Sher-Wood to boost demand significantly? Was there any other choice?

Teaching Note: 8B12M003 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Insourcing; Nearshoring; R&D Interface; Labour Costs; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUNNAN BAIYAO: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE MEETS PRODUCT/MARKET DIVERSIFICATION
Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SANTA FE RELOCATION SERVICES: REGIONAL BRAND MANAGEMENT
Niraj Dawar, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05A029
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 15 pages

Sante Fe Relocation Services was a premium provider of relocation services based in Hong Kong. Founded in 1980, the company had built a reputation as a reliable, high-quality packer and mover of household goods. By 2000, the company also offered a full range of relocation support services including visa and immigration applications, home searching and cultural and language training. Santa Fe relocated expatriates and their families between Asian countries and between Asia and other regions. The company had its own staff and assets in Asia and managed its international operations through a network of partners. In 2005, the chief operating officer faced three key challenges: differentiating and positioning the brand in a crowded and often price-driven market; incorporating an expanded service line under the original brand and gaining market recognition for those additional services; and managing the brand across the Asian region with an effective balance of standardization versus local adaptation.

Teaching Note: 8B05A29 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: International Marketing; Competitor Analysis; Brand Positioning; Brand Extension; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLA WARS IN CHINA: THE FUTURE IS HERE
Niraj Dawar, Nancy Dai

Product Number: 9B03A006
Publication Date: 8/6/2003
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 18 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case won the Emerging Chinese Global Competitors, 2003 EFMD Case Writing Competition. The Wahaha Hangzhou Group Co. Ltd. is one of China's largest soft-drink producers. One of the company's products, Future Cola, was launched a few years ago to compete with Coca Cola and PepsiCo and has made significant progress in the soft-drink markets that were developed by these cola giants. The issue now is to maintain the momentum of growth in the face of major competition from the giant multinationals, and to achieve its goal of dominant market share.

Teaching Note: 8B03A06 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Market Strategy; Competition; Brand Management; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 10:
Globalisation

YUMCHA.COM.AU
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Rohan Belliappa

Product Number: 9B10M038
Publication Date: 6/16/2010
Length: 12 pages

Set in November 2007, the case is about a soon-to-launch social networking website (Yumcha) in Australia intended for the country's significant Asian population and diaspora. The case describes the process that Yumcha's founder went through in establishing the entity, including her initial motivations and business rationale. The case goes on to describe the dilemma facing the founder in choosing a web developer for the site, including whether to source the developer from new online bidding platforms. The challenges involved in this relatively new means of sourcing and bidding for technical talent are presented. The case also outlines the strategy questions facing the founder concerning expanding the social networking venture in an external environment that has seen the rapid development and expansion of numerous other social networking websites.

Teaching Note: 8B10M38 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Information System Design; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Internet; Startups; Entrepreneurial Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SWATCH AND THE GLOBAL WATCH INDUSTRY
Allen Morrison, Cyril Bouquet

Product Number: 9A99M023
Publication Date: 5/9/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The efforts of Swatch to reposition itself in the increasingly competitive global watch industry are reviewed in this case. Extensive information on the history and structure of the global watch industry is provided and the shrinking time horizons decision makers face in formulating strategy and in responding to changes in the industry are highlighted. In particular, the case discusses how technology and globalization have changed industry dynamics and have caused companies to reassess their sources of competitive advantage. Like other companies, Swatch faces the difficult task of deciding whether to emphasize product breadth, or focus on a few key global brands. It also must decide whether to shift manufacturing away from Switzerland to lower cost countries like India.

Teaching Note: 8A99M23 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Industry Analysis; Competing with Multinationals; Globalization
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 11:
Internationalisation, Relationships and Networks

CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SYNNEX INTERNATIONAL: TRANSFORMING DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS
Shih-Fen Chen, Lien-Ti Bei

Product Number: 9B08A019
Publication Date: 12/1/2008
Revision Date: 7/8/2014
Length: 22 pages

The case describes how Synnex Technology International Corporation (Synnex) in Taiwan transformed itself from a local distributor of electronic components into a global logistic conglomerate of communication and information products between 1985 and 2007. The case analyzes the channel structure of electronic product distribution and explains how Synnex introduced innovative practices to transform its operation. The case is designed for MBA students to grasp some fundamental issues related to distribution channel design and supply chain management in a marketing or logistic management course.

Teaching Note: 8B08A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Logistics; Distribution Channels; Supply Chain Management; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMBRIDGE LABORATORIES: PROTEOMICS
Henry W. Lane, Dennis Shaughnessy, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B04M013
Publication Date: 4/5/2004
Revision Date: 9/22/2006
Length: 24 pages

Cambridge Laboratories is essentially a fee-for-service provider of laboratory tests. It spends less than 0.5 per cent of revenues on research and development and holds relatively few patents for a biotech company. It now has an opportunity to invest $5 million to establish a joint venture with an Australian proteomics company that operates on a drug discovery (royalty) model. The founder of this company believed that his technology could eventually result in the discovery of new drugs that would generate significant royalties. While the proteomics firm has superb technology, some of the intellectual leaders in the field on its staff, and partnerships with some impressive companies, its technology is yet unproven. Cambridge Labs is also concerned that its existing relationships with big pharmaceutical companies could be jeopardized if it begins to take an intellectual property position in proteomics. In addition, the Australian company consists primarily of PhDs in molecular biology, while Cambridge Labs is dominated by business executives whose primary focus is generating strong financial returns for shareholders. The cultural differences between an Australian science-oriented laboratory and a publicly traded American outsourcing company become apparent during the negotiation phase of the joint venture proposal. Students are asked to evaluate the joint venture and consider whether the cultural and strategic differences can be reconciled.

Teaching Note: 8B04M13 (12 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Joint Ventures; Biotechnology Management; Cross Cultural Management; Patents; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Modifying Products for the International Markets

ARAVIND EYE CARE SYSTEM: PROVIDING TOTAL EYE CARE TO THE RURAL POPULATION
Sanal Kumar Velayudhan, R. Meenakshi Sundaram, R.D. Thulasiraj

Product Number: 9B11A028
Publication Date: 9/29/2011
Length: 17 pages

The case deals with poor acceptance of Aravind’s eye care service by the rural population in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. One of the factors causing poor acceptance is the lack of awareness among the rural population that many cases of blindness are curable. Fear of surgery and cost are the other major barriers to acceptance by these consumers. Aravind is the largest eye care provider in the world and has pioneered many process innovations that have reduced the cost of eye treatment substantially. The company has a culture that encourages responsive service by a trained and motivated staff. It has experimented with a number of options to educate and provide eye care service to rural consumers. The manager must examine options in the areas of promotion and service delivery to enhance the acceptance of eye care service by rural consumers.

Teaching Note: 8B11A028 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Emerging Markets; Services Marketing; Rural Marketing; Health Care; Eye Care; Distribution; Tamil Nadu, India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GROWING THE MAMAS & PAPAS BRAND
Michael Goldman, Jennifer Lindsey-Renton

Product Number: 9B11A044
Publication Date: 2/2/2012
Revision Date: 10/16/2012
Length: 17 pages

Nawaal Motlekar is the managing director of Kwenta Media and founding editor of Mamas & Papas, a recently launched parenting magazine in South Africa. From her early entrepreneurial experiences, Motlekar developed a personal and professional interest in parenting magazines. As a Black South African woman married to an Indian man in an increasingly multi-racial and multi-cultural society, Motlekar recognized a gap for a parenting magazine that would appeal to a wider and more racially and culturally inclusive target market. After extensive research and development, she launched the Mamas & Papas magazine in early 2009. The case charts Motlekar’s journey as an entrepreneur, as well as her efforts between 2006 and 2009 to bring the magazine to life. The case explores the quantitative and qualitative research approaches employed by Motlekar, as well as her marketing and branding initiatives towards building a Mamas & Papas brand beyond just the physical magazine. With the magazine having been on shelves for 12 months, Motlekar and her board faced a number of decisions. These included options to increase advertising revenues and circulation, as well as choosing how to extend the Mamas & Papas brand into related categories.

Teaching Note: 8B11A044 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Brand Extension; Brand Management; Brand Positioning; Consumer Research; Marketing Research; Magazines; South Africa; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MAJESTICA HOTEL IN SHANGHAI?
Paul W. Beamish, Jane W. Lu

Product Number: 9B05M035
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M35 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Market Entry; Negotiation; Control Systems; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NESTLE (PHILIPPINES)
Donald J. Lecraw

Product Number: 9A97G012
Publication Date: 10/24/1997
Revision Date: 2/4/2010
Length: 7 pages

In early 1996, the vice president of the instant drinks department of Nestle (Philippines), had to decide how to respond to a major change in Nestle's environment. Until January 1996, imports of coffee in any form - green beans, roasted, or ground and processed - were prohibited. As of January 1996, however, coffee within a specified quota could be imported over a 30 per cent tariff. Nestle was the only foreign-owned producer of coffee in the Philippines and had over 60 per cent of the market, up from 52 per cent seven years before. Over the same period, total coffee consumption in the Philippines doubled. Nestle produced its coffee from Philippine-grown robusta beans, since Philippine arabica beans were of inferior quality. Outside the Philippines, however, usually a mixture of robusta and arabica beans were used. There were rumors that both Procter and Gamble (Folgers) and Kraft General Goods (Maxwell House) were planning to enter the Philippine market, initially via imports, but possibly in the future with production facilities.

Teaching Note: 8A97G12 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Branding; International Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Marketing Services Internationally

WORLDSPACE SATELLITE DIGITAL RADIO SERVICE
Srinivasan Sunderasan

Product Number: 9B11M099
Publication Date: 11/22/2011
Length: 16 pages

Termination of WorldSpace India’s satellite radio operations in 2009 was part of the restructuring efforts of the Maryland, U.S.-based parent company that had filed for bankruptcy in October 2008. As of June 30, 2008, WorldSpace Inc. (later 1 WorldSpace) had listed debt of US$2.1 billion and assets of US$307.4 million and had sought bankruptcy protection to help repay its debts. The parent’s two regional satellites, AfriStar and AsiaStar, and related ground assets had been acquired by U.S.-based Liberty Media, which also owned 40 per cent of satellite radio service provider Sirius XM Radio. The termination of WorldSpace raised a series of questions regarding early-mover disadvantages, business ideas, and pricing strategy. Analysts further extended the arguments to draw parallels with the satellite telephone service provider Iridium to question strategic decisions relating to the service-hardware mix, service provision and pricing, power of complementary products, power of substitutes, and consumers’ willingness to pay for incremental choice.

Teaching Note: 8B11M099 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Service Pricing; Product-service Mix; Early-mover Advantage; Debt to Equity Ratio; Incremental Choice; Satellite Radio; United States; India
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



A CRACK IN THE MUG: CAN STARBUCKS MEND IT?
Michael Herriman, Motohiro Wanikawa, Ryoko Ichinose, Shobhana Darak, Yumana Chaivan

Product Number: 9B08A016
Publication Date: 11/28/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 15 pages

After 20 years of rapid expansion, the last six months of 2007 saw Starbucks jolted by a decline in share price of 50 per cent and a decrease in customer visits. Its share price was hovering around $19 to $20. By mid-2008, it had declined to $18. Its fiscal first-quarter profit in 2007 rose by less than two per cent, and in January 2008, it announced the closing of 100 U.S. stores. In July, the number was increased to 600. The case was written to encourage classroom discussion and research into the company policy and marketing practices in order to discover the means for a possible turnaround of the company.

Teaching Note: 8B08A16 (22 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Operations Management; Expansion; Management Decisions; Licensing; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RUTH'S CHRIS: THE HIGH STAKES OF INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
Ilan Alon, Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B06A034
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 8 pages

In 2006, Ruth's Chris Steak House was fresh off of a sizzling initial public offering and was now interested in growing their business internationally. With restaurants in just four countries outside the United States, a model to identify and rank new international markets was needed. This case provides a practical example for students to take quantitative and non-quantitative variables to create a short list of potential new markets.

Teaching Note: 8B06A34 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Strategy; International Business; International Strategy; Market Entry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Promotion in International Markets

GROUPON
Sayan Chatterjee, Alison Streiff, Sarah O'Keeffe

Product Number: 9B12M004
Publication Date: 2/14/2012
Revision Date: 2/13/2012
Length: 15 pages

The collective buying industry has grown by leaps and bounds over the past several years, and Groupon stands out as a major player that has revolutionized this market. The case describes the beginnings of Groupon, as well as the firm’s rise to power, the rise of its numerous competitors, its decisions and expansion strategies, and the collective buying industry as a whole. Key demographic data about Groupon’s customers (consumers and small businesses) are also described, along with recent developments at Groupon and within the industry. While Groupon has undoubtedly discovered a unique model that takes advantage of a “white space” in sales and marketing to local businesses, it is unclear what the future holds for the company. Will it be able to sustain its incredible growth rate, or is its business going to peak quickly and then fade?

Teaching Note: 8B12M004 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Business Model; Expansion; Retention of Customers; Loyal Customers; Collective Buying
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DECATHLON CHINA: USING SOCIAL MEDIA TO PENETRATE THE INTERNET MARKET
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Raymond Pirouz, Grace Geng

Product Number: 9B11A043
Publication Date: 11/16/2011
Length: 14 pages

After successfully establishing more than 33 retail stores in large cities across China, Decathlon, a large French sporting goods manufacturer and retailer, planned to open its official online shopping website in China. The marketing department head of Decathlon China had experimented with several new social media platforms in China in order to increase the brand awareness among online shoppers. At the upcoming executive meeting, the marketing department head wanted to persuade the chief executive officer to dedicate more resources to social media to both increase online sales in the short term and market share in the long term.

Teaching Note: 8B11A043 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Social Media Strategy; Retail Marketing Strategy; Emerging Technology; France; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BRAND IN THE HAND: MOBILE MARKETING AT ADIDAS
Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05A024
Publication Date: 9/26/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The Global Media manager for adidas International is responsible for developing and championing a new marketing strategy at adidas called brand in the hand that is based on the convergence of cell phones and wireless Internet. The case presents company background information, data on the penetration of mobile devices such as cell phones, the growth of global mobile marketing practices, and several mobile marketing communications campaigns that adidas launched in 2004, such as a mobile newsticker for the 2004 European soccer championship. The case then introduces a specific campaign - Respect M.E. - featuring Missy Elliott, a popular female hip-hop artist, and discusses the company's mobile marketing strategy to support MissyElliott's new line of sportswear. This case can be used to highlight the role of new technology in overall marketing strategy and integrated marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B05A24 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Marketing Communication; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEO BURNETT COMPANY LTD.: VIRTUAL TEAM MANAGEMENT
Joerg Dietz, Fernando Olivera, Elizabeth O'Neil

Product Number: 9B03M052
Publication Date: 11/28/2003
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 16 pages

Leo Burnett Company Ltd. is a global advertising agency. The company is working with one of its largest clients to launch a new line of hair care products into the Canadian and Taiwanese test markets in preparation for a global rollout. Normally, once a brand has been launched, it is customary for the global brand centre to turn over the responsibility for the brand and future campaigns to the local market offices. In this case, however, the brand launch was not successful. Team communications and the team dynamics have broken down in recent months and the relationships are strained. Further complicating matters are a number of client and agency staffing changes that could jeopardize the stability of the team and the agency/client relationship. The global account director must decide whether she should proceed with the expected decision to modify the global team structure to give one of the teams more autonomy, or whether she should maintain greater centralized control over the team. She must recommend how to move forward with the brand and determine what changes in team structure or management are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B03M52 (14 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
International Pricing for Profit

PARLE-G
Miranda R. Goode, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B10A022
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2009, Parle Products Pvt. Limited (Parle), a leading Indian biscuit manufacturer, had the distinction of producing the largest selling glucose biscuit brand by volume in the world, the Parle-G. Parle-G biscuits sold for approximately US$1 per kilogram and as very few processed and ready-to-eat foods were available at this price point, Parle-G was strongly associated with offering value for money (VFM). A looming problem in this brand category for Parle was that the input prices of two major raw materials for the Parle-G biscuits (which together accounted for 55 per cent of their input costs) had risen enough in the past 18 months to decrease margins from 15 per cent to less than 10 per cent. Pressure to restore margins led Parle to consider a price increase yet a previous attempt had caused dramatic reduction in sales. Parle subsequently addressed rising input costs by reducing the weight of the package, franchising production, reducing supply chain costs and reducing packaging costs. Parle could not ignore the deeply entrenched perception of VFM when devising both short- and long-term marketing plans to retain Parle-G's success in the marketplace. These plans needed to address segmentation, positioning and changing Indian demographics when considering a potential price increase for Parle-G biscuits.

Teaching Note: 8B10A22 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Planning; International Business; Positioning; Market Strategy; Pricing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARVEL ICE CREAM - DEVELOPING THE BEIJING MARKET
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Tom Gleave

Product Number: 9A99A017
Publication Date: 8/5/1999
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 12 pages

The manager of business development for Carvel Asia Limited is trying to determine how best to increase ice cream cake sales in Beijing. In doing so, he needs to develop a complete marketing program which includes decisions about product offerings, pricing, placement (distribution) and promotion - the 4 Ps. Carvel Asia was a 50-50 joint venture between Carvel (USA) and China's Ministry of Agriculture.

Teaching Note: 8A99A17 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Pricing Strategy; Product Concept; Marketing Communication; Distribution
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 16:
Effective International Distribution

MARKET STRETCH
Gavin Price, Margaret Sutherland

Product Number: 9B09M046
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 11 pages

Bio-Oil is a multi-purpose skin care product that has gone from being sold only in South Africa to being the No. 1 scar treatment product in 16 of the 17 countries in which it is distributed. Retail sales have jumped from R3 million per annum to R1 billion from 2000 to 2008. Justin and David Letschert made key decisions to eliminate all of the other 119 products that were being manufactured by the company that they took over in 2000, and focused on the mainstay product of Bio-Oil. Union-Swiss accomplished its successful sales through the use of a hybrid distribution model that compelled its distributors in each country to communicate and share knowledge with each other. Union-Swiss also ensured that it remained focused on building the brand through limiting its activities in the value chain to that of marketing. It did this to such an extent that it created a separate entity to run the distribution of Bio-Oil in South Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B09M46 (8 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Market Entry; International Business; Supply Chain Management; Strategic Positioning; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



LOUIS VUITTON IN INDIA
Shih-Fen Chen, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B08A020
Publication Date: 12/23/2008
Length: 16 pages

The case portrays a subtle situation in international marketing -- the marketing of a high-end brand into a low-income nation, or the expansion of Louis Vuitton into India. This luxury good marketer faced practical problems in India, such as the challenge of identifying potential customers, the lack of media to build its brand, and the absence of high streets to open stores. In Europe and the U.S., luxury goods are often sold through company-owned stores that cluster in a particular area of the city (i.e., luxury retail cluster). After opening a store each in New Delhi and Mumbai inside two luxury hotels, Louis Vuitton teamed up with other western brands to develop a shopping mall. The case is designed to explore the possibility of using a luxury mall as a replacement of luxury retail clusters.

Teaching Note: 8B08A20 (9 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Marketing; Store Formats; Retail Marketing; Marketing Channels
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TRICON LOGISTICS CHINA
Claude P. Lanfranconi, Michael Wang

Product Number: 9B01B037
Publication Date: 1/8/2002
Revision Date: 12/7/2009
Length: 10 pages

Tricon Logistics China is the logistics department of Tricon Restaurants International (China) and is responsible for supervising the operations and cost management of supplies to Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut restaurants from 12 distribution centres in China. The market manager of one of the regional companies is concerned about the performance of his company's affiliated distribution centre in Suzhou. The director of Tricon Logistics China must determine why the actual cost of the distribution centre have exceeded the targets by analysing performance, cost variance and internal price negotiation.

Teaching Note: 8B01B37 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Cost Systems; Cost Control; Control Systems
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA