Ivey Publishing

International Business

Peng, M., Meyer, K. ,1/e (United Kingdom, Cengage Learning , 2011)
Prepared By Maya Kumar, PhD Student
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Globalizing Business

WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M107
Publication Date: 11/8/2011
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B11M107 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MICROSOFT’S GO-TO-MARKET STRATEGY FOR AZURE IN INDIA
Reema Gupta, Deepa Mani, Aditya Shah, Sujata Ramachandran, Vivek Vikram Singh

Product Number: 9B11E026
Publication Date: 7/19/2011
Length: 18 pages

The case is set in mid-2009, about six months before the scheduled worldwide launch of Microsoft Azure. The group director of cloud computing for Microsoft India was considering the pros and cons of launching Azure simultaneously in India with the rest of the world. Cloud computing was a paradigm shift in the information technology (IT) industry that fundamentally changed how software and services were delivered to an end-user’s desktop. Cloud computing enabled shared resources — software, hardware, and information — to be provided to consumers on demand, charging them based on usage. Azure was Microsoft’s offering in this space, providing software and infrastructure as a service, and was also a platform to develop new applications on a pay-per-use model. Microsoft had always made its products available to users in the traditional license model, and Azure would be a paradigm shift not only in terms of technology but also in terms of the business model.

The director had to decide whether the nascent Indian market was ready to adopt this new technology and business model, and which segments to target. There were many reasons why the Indian market looked very lucrative, including presence of a strong IT development community, increasing IT adoption across Indian industries, and presence of a very big potential customer base in terms of small and medium enterprises. Conversely, there were concerns such as poor current IT adoption, rampant piracy, low availability of infrastructure in India (such as electricity and broadband penetration), and the “do-it-for-me” attitude of Indian businesspeople, which meant significant initial costs in terms of time and effort required to increase awareness.


Teaching Note: 8B11E026 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Target Market; Licensing; Business Model; Cloud Computing; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DANIMAL IN SOUTH AFRICA: MANAGEMENT INNOVATION AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID
Verity Hawarden, Helena Barnard

Product Number: 9B10M099
Publication Date: 1/21/2011
Revision Date: 8/23/2012
Length: 15 pages

This case focuses on management innovation in the South African dairy industry, describing how an innovative new yoghurt product, Danimal, was created specifically for the market at the base of the pyramid. It explains how management of the product line embodied the various innovation opportunities and challenges presented. The concept was initially introduced in order to assess the feasibility of profitably servicing this market. However, the project was not simply about introducing a cheap brand to the poor but was more about creating brand awareness in the market at the base of the pyramid. The new product took into consideration the nutritional shortcomings in the diet of children in this market and also allowed for the lack of available infrastructure — electricity and refrigeration.

The case illustrates the importance of a product being affordable, relevant, and available to its market. Innovation went further than product design and also took into account the necessity of a lean distribution channel. This took the form of micro-distributors, referred to as Danimamas, who comprised township residents that were unemployed or part-time employed. The case offers insights into the complexity of doing business in developing countries. It concludes with the challenge of how to ensure that the project continued on its upward trajectory.


Teaching Note: 8B10M099 (17 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Positioning; Developing Countries; Innovation; Social Marketing; Brand Development; Dairy; South Africa; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 2:
Formal Institutions: Economic, Political and Legal Systems

WAL-MART PUERTO RICO: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Myrna Comas, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B10M024
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 14 pages

Sowing the Development of the Country (SDC) was a public-private partnership between Wal-Mart Puerto Rico (Wal-Mart PR), the island's Department of Agriculture as well as its Economic Development Bank (EDB), two NGOs Caborroje's Pro Salud y Ambiente (Caborroje's Pro Health and Environment) and ConectaRSE (a corporate social responsibility (CSR) promotion non-governmental organization(NGO)), and a group of local farmers. The objective of the project was to promote sustainable development on the island by encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurs by developing small agro-businesses. Wal-Mart acted as the primary buyer. The project faced many challenges, such as farmers' difficulties in meeting quality standards and delivery schedules, the lack of an existing vehicle through which to access funding from the EDB, and, most importantly, changes in the political party in power. Project partners had to develop a position from which to negotiate a new alliance with the incoming government administration. Since Wal-Mart was determined to guarantee the continuity and expansion of the SDC project, Wal-Mart had to step into the project champion role.

Teaching Note: 8B10M24 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade
Issues: Government and Business; Corporate Social Responsibility; Developing Countries; Partnership; Public Administration
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TROUBLE IN PARADISE: STAKEHOLDER CONFLICT IN THE PASEO CARIBE PROJECT
Gwendolyn Toro, Julia Sagebien, Victor Quiñones

Product Number: 9B10M018
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 16 pages

The case centres on the many controversies surrounding the Paseo Caribe real estate development project in San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico. The project developers had to contend with large demonstrations, civil disobedience, government intervention, legal proceedings and costly delays as a result of allegations that there had been multiple irregularities in the permit-granting processes and that the project had been built on public domain lands. The fact that Paseo Caribe was located in San Juan's prime tourist and convention area, as well as in a historically and culturally important zone, added significance and visibility to the debates. Jos' Antonio Moreno, president of the Puerto Rico Architects and Landscape Architects Association, is reflecting on the lessons learned by industry participants, as well as on ways the association can encourage industry actors to handle conflict in a less confrontational manner. The case illustrates the downside of not managing stakeholder relations proactively or effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B10M18 (9 pages)
Issues: ethical Issues; business and society; stakeholder analysis; conflict resolution; government and business; corruption; corporate social responsibility; developing countries; Puerto Rico
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS: QATAR TELECOM ACQUIRES WATANIYA TELECOM
Assem Safieddine, Zeigham Khokher, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B09M048
Publication Date: 11/9/2009
Length: 11 pages

This case focuses on the issue of corporate governance in the Middle East. A senior official at the Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE) is looking at a recent transaction in which Qatar Telecom (Qtel) acquired National Mobile Telecommunications Company KSC (Wataniya). The KSE official wondered whether, at the company level, inadequate corporate governance measures had allowed this alleged unequal treatment to pass unchallenged. More importantly, at the exchange level, the KSE official wondered what actions - if any - could have been taken to enhance the rights of minority shareholders.

Teaching Note: 8B09M48 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Government Regulation; Stakeholder Analysis; Government and Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Informal Institutions: Culture, Religion and Languages

RELIGION IN THE WORKPLACE: TYSON FOODS, INC.
Alexandra Roth, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B11C032
Publication Date: 7/27/2011
Revision Date: 6/11/2012
Length: 4 pages

The case discusses an American food processor that embraced faith in the workplace, which helped to increase employee satisfaction and reduce turnover. Recently, Tyson Foods had sought to broaden its religious accommodation to reflect the changing demographics of its employees. At the time of the case, Christian fundamentalism was the predominant religion of Tyson and many employees and community members reacted negatively to the company’s efforts to accommodate Islam in a factory that employed a significant number of Muslims. The company was faced with a decision of how to react to the backlash against its Muslim employees.

Teaching Note: 8B11C031 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resource Management; Employee Relations; Discrimination; Holidays; Islam; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



L’OREAL S.A.: ROLLING OUT THE GLOBAL DIVERSITY STRATEGY
Cara C. Maurer, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10C026
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Revision Date: 11/7/2011
Length: 14 pages

L’Oreal S.A. is in the process of implementing a global diversity strategy. The firm's Europe diversity director is working with various country units to roll out the strategy. The director faces obstacles such as cultural differences between countries and, generally, low awareness of the benefits a diversity strategy can bring.

Teaching Note: 8B10C026 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Behaviour; Communications; Cosmetics; France
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA (B)
Deborah Compeau, Yulin Fang, Majela Yin

Product Number: 9B10E011
Publication Date: 6/18/2010
Length: 11 pages

This case, a supplement to Google in China (A), details the search engine’s cyber attack from within China, as well as Google’s response.

Teaching Note: 8B10E11 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Ethical Issues; Management in a Global Environment; Information Systems; Government and Business; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE IN CHINA
Deborah Compeau, Prahar Shah

Product Number: 9B06E019
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 9 pages

The case describes the circumstances surrounding the introduction of www.google.cn. In order to comply with Chinese government requirements, google.cn censors web results. This appears to contradict Google’s stated philosophy and its mission to organize and make accessible the world’s information. A public outcry ensues and Google is forced to defend its controversial decision. The case presents both sides of the debate and asks students to consider what they feel is right.

Teaching Note: 8B06E19 (4 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Information Systems; Government and Business; Ethics; Censorship; Internet; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Firm Resources: Competitiveness and Growth

PILLSBURY COOKIE CHALLENGE
Allison Johnson, Natalie Mauro

Product Number: 9B11A001
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 14 pages

The Canadian Pillsbury ready-baked goods cookie line is experiencing disappointing performance, and the marketing manager at General Mills Canada Corporation is under pressure to make strategic decisions that will help turn around the segment. The marketing manager has engaged the help of the consumer insight team to conduct market research studies that will shed light on consumers and their attitudes, behaviours, and preferences towards the product. The results from the market research studies have arrived, and the students, assuming the role of the marketing manager, must filter through them to determine how this information can be used to improve the performance of the cookie segment. More specifically, students will need to determine where the greatest opportunities lie, who the team should target, what brand messaging is the most relevant, and what type of communication plan would be most effective.

Teaching Note: 8B11A001 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Differences; Customer Segmentation; Brand Positioning; Value Proposition; Market Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



3M TAIWAN: PRODUCT INNOVATION IN THE SUBSIDIARY
Christopher Williams, Emily Liaw

Product Number: 9B11M101
Publication Date: 11/3/2011
Revision Date: 9/28/2017
Length: 14 pages

On January 17, 2005, 3M Taiwan’s function head of its health care business division found himself in a meeting with the Acne Dressing project team. In 2004, the function head had initiated a project team to exploit local market needs for 3M hydrocolloid dressing, a technology that had existed in the company for many years without any practical applications. The local project team suggested applying the material for acne treatment. The product would be known as Acne Dressing. There was no standardized solution for acne treatment in Taiwan. If developed, Acne Dressing would be a brand new product in the local market.

The biggest challenge would be how to change local consumer behaviours on new acne treatment products. In addition, since there were no similar products in the market, the project team only had limited information and potential sales and volumes were uncertain. If the local development was launched, Acne Dressing would be 3M’s first product application of hydrocolloid dressing technology. With little previous experience in product development and no similar products existing in the market, the function head had to decide fast whether to proceed with this new product development. If so, what options did the local project team have? What kind of resources and support should the local health care business segment seek from headquarters for the product development? Should the local project team collaborate with other subsidiaries?


Teaching Note: 8B11M101 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Risky Innovations; Project Management; Project Development, Health Care; Taiwan
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEGO GROUP: AN OUTSOURCING JOURNEY
Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen, Dmitrij Slepniov

Product Number: 9B10M094
Publication Date: 12/1/2010
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 16 pages

The last year's rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would phase out the entire sourcing collaboration with Flextronics. This sudden change in its sourcing strategy posed LEGO management with a number of caveats. Despite the bright forecasts, the collaboration did not fulfill the initial expectations, and the company needed to understand why this had happened. Secondly, what could LEGO management have done differently?

Teaching Note: 8B10M94 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Outsourcing; Management Control; Global Strategy; Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLOPLAST A/S - ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES IN OFFSHORING
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

Product Number: 9B08M031
Publication Date: 7/25/2008
Length: 16 pages

Coloplast's future global manufacturing strategy was based on relocation of volume production of mature product lines to low cost countries like Hungary and China, whereas most creative and innovative activities (pilot production, ramp-up and range care) were retained in Denmark. The large scale project of offshoring, first volume production and later perhaps other activities, to Tatabanya, Hungary constituted a major shift in the operational strategy for Coloplast, which resulted in a series of organizational and managerial challenges. An important feature of the case is the surprise to the management team of how challenging it was to globalize the operations despite Coloplast's international experience operating a network of subsidiaries in more than 26 countries. The management team learned how important it is to have the structure, the organization and the mindset in place when offshoring production. Sourcing internationally is very different from selling internationally as it involves the entire organization. The learning process of the management team and the challenges they faced is unfolded in this case.

Teaching Note: 8B08M31 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Operations Management; Human Resources Management; Centralization; Management Science and Info. Systems; Management Information Systems; Organizational Behaviour; International Management; Change Management; Value Chain
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Trading Internationally

CHINESE FIREWORKS INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SOMPACK: IF YOU CAN'T BEAT THEM, JOIN THEM?
Sema Dube, Manu Dube

Product Number: 9B10M071
Publication Date: 10/22/2010
Length: 10 pages

This case considers attempts by a Turkish manufacturer of cosmetics packaging to trade off quality for cost, in order to compete with the influx of low-cost products from China. It describes the challenges faced by SomPack management in their effort to survive in the face of low-cost Chinese competition as well as the credit crisis. The company had grown because of its focus on quality and customer relations, but had to slash costs first in response to foreign competition and then again due to the global credit crisis. The case discusses many facets of the company's strategy: company efforts at automation to reduce labour costs in conjunction with their efforts to reduce product quality for parts that were to have automated assembly; use of cheaper raw material that required specialized equipment; use of cheaper costs in conjunction with their efforts to reduce product quality for parts that were to have automated assembly; use of cheaper raw material that required specialized equipment; use of cheaper machines that were not acceptable to customers who required high-quality manufacturing; implementation issues with a lower-cost ERP system; and attempts at outsourcing certain components. Decisions to reduce the quality of either processes or products must be made with great care: even though they are meant to be short-term survival measures, they can create significant short-term disruptions apart from potential long-term problems, such as making the company less attractive as a supplier to customers who may still prefer quality and service over cost.

Teaching Note: 8B10M71 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategic Change; Industry Globalization; Enterprise Resource Planning; Outsourcing; Quality; International Trade; Production Management/Control; Marketing Management; Information Systems; Cost Control; Automation; Competition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TRADE AND INVESTMENT SANCTIONS: SHERRITT INTERNATIONAL, THE UNITED STATES AND CUBA
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M073
Publication Date: 8/22/2006
Revision Date: 8/4/2006
Length: 15 pages

This case presents a summary of U.S. trade and investment sanctions in effect as of 2006. The case examines in detail the U.S. sanctions against Cuba, and it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these sanctions have created for Cuba's largest foreign investor, Sherritt International. The discussion concerning Sherritt presents the wide array of forces that impact a business that is contemplating trade or investment with a country against which sanctions have been imposed. In spite of U.S. sanctions, Sherritt International, based in Canada, developed profitable businesses in Cuba, in mining, oil and gas, hotels and food processing. The U.S. policies, while imposing costs, also reduced the competition that Sherritt would otherwise have faced. The ability to work with the Communist government gave Sherritt a strong competitive advantage and a protected market. Sherritt had positioned itself with a first mover advantage if sanctions were lifted.

Teaching Note: 8B06M73 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 6:
Investing Abroad Directly

RODAMAS GROUP: DESIGNING STRATEGIES FOR CHANGING REALITIES IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
Marleen Dieleman, Shawkat Kamal

Product Number: 9B09M049
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 16 pages

By 2008, Rodamas Group, owned by the ethnic Chinese Tan family, was one of the top-20 business groups in Indonesia. The company started as a trading firm in 1951 and, over time, became a joint venture partner in manufacturing businesses with a range of mainly Japanese partners. In the 1980s, the company transferred to the second generation leader. The businesses included glass manufacturing (with Asahi), personal care products (with Kao), packaging (with Dai Nippon) and MSG production. The role of Rodamas in these partnerships was to deal with local regulations, hire local personnel and distribute the products in Indonesia. When the then President Suharto was toppled in the Asian Crisis in 1998, Indonesia underwent several drastic changes, including the transition to democracy. Its economy became more open, and foreign firms were allowed to operate in the country without having a local partner. In addition, several global business developments, including the tendency of multinationals to rely on lawyers and consultants rather than local equity partners, threatened the Rodamas business model. In view of this, the current leader, Mucki Tan, is reconsidering the future of his company and weighing strategic options: 1) internationalize with existing partners; 2) develop own businesses that need little technology, such as property; 3) buy existing manufacturing firms; 4) focus on distribution of products for foreign multinationals; 5) focus on a traditional partnership role with a new wave of foreign direct investment (FDI) from developing market multinationals, more specifically, China. Students are asked to analyze the company and its environment, decide on a strategic direction and reflect on the consequences.

Rodamas Group: Designing the Portfolio (9B14M029) is available as a supplement to this case.


Teaching Note: 8B09M49 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; Strategic Scope; Strategic Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ARE WE READY FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE PLANT?
Yi-Chia Wu, Joo Y. Jung

Product Number: 9B09D014
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
Length: 15 pages

The city of McAllen, Texas and its partners have worked on attracting an automotive assembly plant to the region for over fifteen years. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provision, this region enjoys the advantages offered by both sides of the Mexican-U.S. border. Even during the economic downturn of 2007 to 2008, McAllen experienced a lower unemployment rate compared to other cities in the United States. One of the primary reasons was its close proximity and economic ties to Mexico. Lower labour cost, a right-to-work state and proximity to Mexico were some of this region's strengths, while a high illiteracy rate, limited numbers of automotive suppliers and small workforce were among its weaknesses. Based on publicly available data and aggregate score evaluation methods, McAllen is compared to other potential sites. The case addresses a wide range of issue regarding site selection factors within the automotive industry. Teaching objectives include: 1) to examine essential factors for site location of different industries, including the automotive industry 2) to evaluate the potential sites based on a quantitative method, such as the relative aggregate score 3) to understand other qualitative factors that can affect the decision. The case is suitable for courses and workshops concerning operations management, supply chain management, production management, project management, decision science and management science. Exhibits can be omitted for graduate and executive levels, requiring the students to research and come up with their own factors.

Teaching Note: 8B09D14 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Automotive; Site Selection; Global Strategy; Decision Making
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



INDIA'S FAILURE TO ATTRACT FDI
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M082
Publication Date: 8/29/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case uses several reports to compare China and India, and it encourages students to analyse the long list of public policies that have restrained India's economic growth and FDI inflows, and that have acted as barriers to liberalization reforms. Presented are the historical realities that supported India's political philosophy of autarky and government intervention. Finally, the case leads students to consider the future prospects for India, and potential foreign investors there, through comparisons with China.

Teaching Note: 8B06M82 (6 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Developing Countries; Government Regulation; International Business; Deregulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Exchange Rates

ACPANA BUSINESS SYSTEMS INC.: EFFECT OF CURRENCY EXPOSURE ON REVENUE
Colette Southam, Robert Schenkel

Product Number: 9B11N010
Publication Date: 7/20/2011
Length: 6 pages

The vice president of operations for Acpana Business Systems Inc., a Canadian software development and backup-as-a-service provider located in Toronto, Canada, is concerned that the recent appreciation of the Canadian dollar is significantly affecting Acpana’s revenue and undermining the company’s organic growth. The case focuses on understanding and quantifying the risks associated with exchange rate fluctuation and its impact on a firm’s revenues and costs. The case introduces instruments available to hedge risk, including forward contracts and put and call options.

Teaching Note: 8B11N010 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Foreign Exchange; Risk Management; Put and Call Options; Forward Contracts
Difficulty: 3 - Undergraduate



AIR CANADA - RISK MANAGEMENT
David Wood, Craig Dunbar

Product Number: 9B10N037
Publication Date: 12/13/2010
Length: 11 pages

The chief executive officer (CEO) of Air Canada was reviewing the company's risk management program with the intent to suggest changes to the policy. Risk management was a topic all corporate boards were dedicating time to since the financial collapse of 2008, and boards had come to realize that hard questions needed to be asked about the source of risk, how it was disclosed, how it was to be accounted for and how it was managed. The CEO knew that he needed to consider the impact of his view of the economy, interest rates, exchange rates and the commodity markets on how aggressive Air Canada should be with its appropriate hedges. He decided to start by identifying the most relevant sources of external risk that could materially affect Air Canada's short and long-term financial performance. He then wanted to understand how these risks were managed today and how they compared to West Jet, their main competitor. Finally, he wanted to determine what changes should be made to either eliminate the source of risk or better manage any significant risks that remained.

Teaching Note: 8B10N037 (16 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Operations Management; Corporate Strategy; Risk Exposure; Hedging Risk; Risk Management; Defining Financial Risk
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEVERAGED BUYOUT (LBO) OF BCE INC.: HEDGING CURRENCY RISK
Colette Southam, Ahsen Amir-Ali, Samir Meghji

Product Number: 9B08N023
Publication Date: 1/20/2009
Length: 7 pages

In 2007, an analyst in the derivatives group of investment bank Grenfeld & Co. was asked to devise a hedging strategy for Providence Equity Partners (Providence) in Bell Canada Enterprises (BCE Inc.). Providence was based in the United States and any strategy would involve significant foreign exchange rate risk due to the conversion of returns into U.S. dollars. The analyst needed to consider several long-term hedging strategies that Grenfeld & Co. could recommend to Providence. Her vice-president had asked that she create a hedging strategy by initially assuming a 25 per cent IRR for the investment and its performance, based on two outcomes at the end of the investment (investment horizon = five years): a zero per cent IRR and a 25 per cent IRR.

Teaching Note: 8B08N23 (5 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Options; Hedging; Derivatives
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
European Integration

BUDGET CRISIS: WHO SHOULD BEAR THE BURDEN OF REDUCING THE DEFICIT AND DEBT?
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B11M076
Publication Date: 8/16/2011
Length: 3 pages

By 2011, many nations had experienced an escalation in deficits and debt. It appeared that some might be unable to service their debt, and might have to default. The United States had a budget crisis in which “left-wing liberal” Democrats wanted to raise taxes on the wealthy while “right-wing conservative” Republicans wanted to cut expenditures. A philosophical divide existed over the role of personal responsibility versus the role of government. In the European Union, the “PIIGS” — Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain — seemed on the verge of default, and other members of the eurozone created new loan programs to assist them in their budget crises. However, these loans included a requirement to move towards balanced budgets. Citizens in the borrowing nations objected to the severe tax increases and expenditure cuts, while citizens of the successful nations asked why they should have to pay. It was not clear who would bear the burden of reducing the deficits and debt.

Teaching Note: 8B11M076 (4 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Government and Business; Business and Society; Economic Crisis; Loan Requirements; Eurozone; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT EXPATICA.COM
Christopher Williams, Judith vanHerwaarden

Product Number: 9B11M085
Publication Date: 9/23/2011
Revision Date: 5/25/2017
Length: 11 pages

In April 2011, the management team at Expatica Communications B.V. was reviewing the progress of the company and the opportunities for future growth. The management team had to take stock: the external environment was rapidly changing, and threats from competitors were on the rise. Expatica had been founded 11 years earlier to provide English-language information and news to the expatriate community in Europe, delivering its services primarily over the Internet. One of the central issues Expatica faced was how to make its core business model effective across multiple markets. Recent launches of the online platform in new countries were not as successful as hoped and the performance of traditional “bricks and mortar” offerings was also mixed. The company had made tremendous progress over the years but needed to re-evaluate its position and decide which new opportunities for growth, if any, should be pursued.

Teaching Note: 8B11M085 (8 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Company Expansion; Product Development; E-Business; Expatriate Community; the Netherlands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LYONBIOPÔLE: THE CHALLENGE OF BECOMING A WORLD-CLASS BIOTECHNOLOGY CLUSTER
Anthony Goerzen, Ana Colovic

Product Number: 9B09M075
Publication Date: 11/20/2009
Length: 13 pages

In December 2007, the Economics & International Affairs director of the competitiveness cluster, Lyonbiopôle, was responsible for the international development of the cluster. Lyonbiopôle was one of seven biotechnology clusters in France. Although Lyonbiopôle performed very well at the national level, its visibility as an international cluster in the biotechnology field was uncertain. Yet, for its member firms to thrive in the globalized world of biotechnology clusters, establishing international connections for the cluster was crucial. That is why the management team of Lyonbiopôle developed an internationalization program through alliances with foreign clusters (i.e. interclusteral alliances). By improving its international visibility and reputation through alliances with world-class biotechnology clusters, Lyonbiopôle hoped to create new technological partnerships, increase investment, and create other kinds of opportunities for member firms. After having successfully established alliance partnerships in Europe, Lyonbiopôle was preparing for the second stage in its internationalization process. The case highlights the questions - in the context of industrial clusters - whether or not a smaller organization can approach an industry leader to create a mutually beneficial alliance, and how it might accomplish this.

Teaching Note: 8B09M75 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Industry Globalization; Internationalization; Pharmaceuticals; Industry Clusters; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Global Integration and Multilateral Organizations

CHINA'S TRADE DISPUTES
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B09M018
Publication Date: 3/9/2009
Revision Date: 8/5/2009
Length: 17 pages

By 2009, China's exports had increased dramatically from $250 billion in 2000 to a projected $1,500 billion in 2009. This enormous growth of exports severely damaged competing businesses in the advanced nations, particularly the United States and Europe. China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 guaranteed China's right to export to these nations, but at the same time the WTO required China to adhere to certain rules that sought to support fair trade and create a level playing field. Several broad subjects each gave rise to a series of trade disputes: the protection of intellectual property, health and safety concerns about China's products, labour and environmental standards, China's manipulation of their currency, and costs and prices determined by the government rather than free markets. This case examines each set of trade disputes and China's attempts to resolve them. Many disputes were embedded in cultural practices and ideological positions and so they might not disappear quickly. Shortcomings in China's legal and judicial system hampered enforcement. In addition, many rested on the government's desire to protect the interests of Chinese businesses and their employees, and so China might alter its practices only if confronted with credible retalitory threats. China's central government experienced the principal-agent problem where its wishes and decisions could be ignored by local governments and firms. Meanwhile, changes in industry structure within the advanced nations were altering the negotiation positions of Western governments. The case examines the WTO dispute resolution procedures and enforcement mechanisms that have been directed at China's trade disputes.

Teaching Note: 8B09M18 (8 pages)
Issues: China; International Business; Government and Business; Globalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AIG AND CHINA'S ACCESSION TO THE WTO
Jean-Philippe Bonardi, Tony S. Frost

Product Number: 9B02M021
Publication Date: 10/29/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 5 pages

AIG is an American insurance company. A trade dispute between the United States and the European Union threatens to block the accession of China to the World Trade Organization, and AIG plays a role - it is the only foreign firm to own fully-controlled subsidiaries in China. The disagreement concerns what will happen to these existing subsidiaries, as well as potential new ones that AIG might seek to establish in China in the future. What are the issues from the perspective of each of the stakeholders and what options are available that will resolve this dispute?

Teaching Note: 8B02M21 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; International Management; Trade Agreements; Political Environment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL WARMING AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: IMPLICATIONS FOR BUSINESS
David W. Conklin, Darcy Jones, Alan Davenport

Product Number: 9B01M071
Publication Date: 2/12/2002
Revision Date: 12/22/2009
Length: 18 pages

The costs of global warming are enormous. The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases, as a result of growth in industrial activities worldwide, is directly related to the increased frequency of natural disasters. United Nations has estimated that the effects of global warming (namely natural disasters, loss of land due to rising sea levels and damages to fishing stocks, agriculture and water supplies) could cost over US$300 billion annually. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting out legally-binding levels of greenhouse gas emissions for 160 participating nations. The signatory nations approved the principles of the treaty, leaving the operation and enforcement details to be determined. While the intent of the protocol, to reduce worldwide greenhouse gas emissions to the benefit of all countries, is honorable, the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol are difficult to predict and will affect its stakeholder groups (the insurance industry, developed and developing nations, signatory and non-signatory countries, existing and potential industries) differently. Implementation issues, alternate approaches, the challenges of global environmental problems and possible solutions are discussed. The response of governments and businesses to global environmental issues, in general, and to the Kyoto Protocol, in particular, will determine the strengths and weaknesses of this global initiative.

Teaching Note: 8B01M71 (9 pages)
Issues: Sustainable Development; Business Policy; Globalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Corporate Social Responsibility

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE ARAB WORLD: THE ARAMEX WAY
Dima Jamali, Cedric Dawkins

Product Number: 9B11M060
Publication Date: 7/25/2011
Revision Date: 1/5/2017
Length: 16 pages

In 1982, Fadi Ghandour founded Aramex, a leading provider of logistics and transportation solutions with headquarters in Amman, Jordan. From its early inception, Ghandour strategically included principles and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in the company’s culture in order to align business interests and competence with stakeholders’ needs. The community and environment were regarded as key stakeholders driving Aramex to act as a responsible citizen. Since its inception, Aramex had been involved in sustainability activities grouped into six primary areas: education and youth empowerment; community development; entrepreneurship; sports; environment; and emergency relief. Committed to growth and opening new offices globally, Aramex faced the challenge of preserving CSR as an integral part of its expansion strategy. In late January 2011, Ghandour and Hattar began brainstorming ways to address the need to harmonize CSR and sustainability values and practices across operations and ensure that sustainability principles were firmly institutionalized across branches and subsidiaries.

Teaching Note: 8B11M060 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Logistics and Transportation; Jordan, Middle East
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PARTNERSHIP FOR LEBANON AND CISCO SYSTEMS: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT IN A POST-WAR CONTEXT
Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B11M050
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Revision Date: 11/21/2016
Length: 16 pages

The project manager of the Partnership for Lebanon (PFL) and Cisco Systems’s regional director of corporate affairs for the Middle East and Africa met in September 2009, three years after the PFL was first initiated. The meeting primarily revolved around the challenge of sustainability and what useful suggestions they could put forward to their partners to ensure that the projects initiated through the PFL were not dependent on the continuous investments of the partners.

The PFL, a major partnering initiative in a post-war context, was initiated in September 2006 after President George W. Bush called for the assistance of U.S. companies to help in the relief and reconstruction efforts in Lebanon after the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah. The five companies involved were Cisco Systems, Intel Corporation, Ghafari Inc., Occidental Petroleum, and Microsoft. They leveraged their core competence under five main work streams: emergency relief/response, job creation/private-sector revival, developing information and communication technology infrastructure, workforce training/education, and developing connected communities. Cisco took a leadership position within the PFL, establishing a management office in Beirut staffed by five senior full-time Cisco employees, and committed an investment of $10 million in the Lebanese private sector over a three-year period. The PFL’s corporate partners engaged closely with the Lebanese government as well as with various international and local NGOs to develop initiatives under the five work streams and yield a long-term sustainable impact.


Teaching Note: 8B11M050 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Information and Communication Technology; Lebanon; Middle East and United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA POWER: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Rama Deshmukh, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B10M013
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 18 pages

HIGHLY COMMENDED CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Runner-up, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case describes the strategic dilemma involved in making a decision on the method of operation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) department for one of the leading Indian multinational corporations, Tata Power Company (TPC) from Tata Group of Companies. TPC had undertaken the CSR activities for decades, reflecting the company's commitment towards sustainable energy generation without undue compromise to human and environmental development. These activities were undertaken as a voluntary initiative by the employees of TPC, and there was no separate CSR department. However, with large scale expansion, the need to have CSR as a separate entity was felt. The dilemma for the decision manager was whether to create a separate CSR department or continue with the existing set up. Other related issues needed to be addressed strategically as well as tactically to maintain a balance between shareholders' interest and other stakeholders.

Teaching Note: 8B10M13 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Sustainability; Opportunity Recognition; Corporate Social Responsibility; Stakeholders; Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WAL-MART PUERTO RICO: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Myrna Comas, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B10M024
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 14 pages

Sowing the Development of the Country (SDC) was a public-private partnership between Wal-Mart Puerto Rico (Wal-Mart PR), the island's Department of Agriculture as well as its Economic Development Bank (EDB), two NGOs Caborroje's Pro Salud y Ambiente (Caborroje's Pro Health and Environment) and ConectaRSE (a corporate social responsibility (CSR) promotion non-governmental organization(NGO)), and a group of local farmers. The objective of the project was to promote sustainable development on the island by encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurs by developing small agro-businesses. Wal-Mart acted as the primary buyer. The project faced many challenges, such as farmers' difficulties in meeting quality standards and delivery schedules, the lack of an existing vehicle through which to access funding from the EDB, and, most importantly, changes in the political party in power. Project partners had to develop a position from which to negotiate a new alliance with the incoming government administration. Since Wal-Mart was determined to guarantee the continuity and expansion of the SDC project, Wal-Mart had to step into the project champion role.

Teaching Note: 8B10M24 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade
Issues: Government and Business; Corporate Social Responsibility; Developing Countries; Partnership; Public Administration
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR "GREENWASHING"?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Starting International Business

DEVELOPING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH STRATEGY AT NEW YORK FRIES
W. Glenn Rowe, Christopher Williams, Sharda Prashad

Product Number: 9B11M082
Publication Date: 8/19/2011
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 10 pages

New York Fries’ president and executive vice president were preparing for the next biannual meeting of domestic and international franchisees. They planned to provide an update on all aspect of corporate strategy and planning for the year ahead, but they only had a few days to formulate a new international growth strategy. The president and executive vice president were hesitant to expand into new territories partly due to poor experiences in Australia and South Korea, yet international franchisees had encouraged them to investigate promising areas of expansion into China and India. Complicating matters was the future development of the company’s chain of premium hamburger restaurants. While New York Fries was a well-received brand in Canada, it had not yet decided if and how to internationalize the brand. How could the president and executive vice president pursue new opportunities while maintaining their premium brands of French fries and hamburgers?

Teaching Note: 8B11M082 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Location Selection; International Growth; Brand Management; Franchising; Fast Food; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



INTERNATIONALIZATION OF KOYO JEANS FROM HONG KONG
Kevin Au, Bernard Suen, Na Shen, Justine Tang

Product Number: 9B11M053
Publication Date: 9/26/2011
Length: 11 pages

William Cheung owned an apparel wholesaler and a boutique shop that sold his clothing designs in Hong Kong. After attending a fashion exhibition in France, he realized his products were lacking compared to European brands. This experience motivated him to improve his jeans designs, and he soon registered “Koyo” as an independent company. He went on to become the first Hong Kong designer embraced by the French department store Galeries Lafayette. While Cheung had had commendable success, including many franchises in mainland China, he faced challenges related to expansion and funding as Koyo Jeans strove for international success.

Teaching Note: 8B11M053 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Expansion; Brand Management; Franchising; Retail Marketing; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Hong Kong; Ivey/CUHK
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BLACK CANYON COFFEE
Brian K. Boyd

Product Number: 9B11M074
Publication Date: 9/28/2011
Revision Date: 4/27/2012
Length: 18 pages

This case focuses on Black Canyon Coffee, as it begins to develop its strategy for the firm’s second decade. Founded in 1993, Black Canyon had grown to become the largest chain of coffee houses in Thailand in 2003. Over its first decade, it grew from a single location to 78 retail outlets, serving a mix of hot and cold coffee beverages, as well as Asian cuisine. Thus far, the company had been profitable, and had managed the threat posed by local and foreign competitors, including Starbucks. The coffee house market in Thailand was an emerging industry segment that was expected to grow rapidly. While the company was in a strong position in 2003, competition in the industry was expected to become more intense. One key issue was determining what goals and markets the company should pursue in coming years. Managing director Pravit C. Pong believed that the company should strive for a total of 200 stores in the next decade, while business consultant Michael Holland suggested a more ambitious goal of 1,000 locations. Additionally, the company needed to consider the relative emphasis of domestic versus international expansion, as well as the potential to diversify into other markets. Access to capital and supply chain infrastructure were both tied to the growth targets that the firm pursued.

Teaching Note: 8B11M074 (12 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Growth Strategy; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Strategic Positioning; International Expansion; Thailand
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EL MAWARDY JEWELRY: EXPANSION DURING A RECESSION
Marina Apaydin, Hend Mostafa, Sherif Ashraf Salem, Ali Tawfik, Jylan Sekaly, Lila Mehrez

Product Number: 9B11M051
Publication Date: 7/7/2011
Length: 11 pages

El Mawardy Jewelry was an Egyptian jewelry company located in Cairo, Egypt. The company was able to attract many customers due to its variety of designs, high-quality products, and competitive prices. The friendly atmosphere and customized services provided by the salespeople helped the company gain a competitive advantage. The Mawardy family was able to build on its success and open different stores across Egypt. In 2009, the financial crisis hit Egypt and many businesses were negatively affected. Faced with this challenge and a goal to go international, the Mawardy family considered different possibilities. The company had many options, but decided to focus on Qatar and the United Kingdom. It needed to decide whether it was better to expand now or later. It also needed to consider where to expand first — Qatar or the United Kingdom.

Teaching Note: 8B11M051 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Expansion; Growth Opportunities; Gold; Jewelry; United Kingdom; Egypt; Qatar; Middle East
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE ULTIMATE FIGHTING CHAMPIONSHIP AND CULTURAL VIABILITY
Tara Ceranic

Product Number: 9B11M040
Publication Date: 6/9/2011
Length: 18 pages

The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) company based in Las Vegas, Nevada. The UFC is controlled by its parent company, Zuffa LLC, which is owned by Frank and Lorenzo Fertitta and Dana White. The UFC has seen a great deal of success since its purchase from its founders in 2001 for $2 million. The owners have made MMA a highly marketable product in terms of live event ticket sales, at-home pay-per-view purchases, and general popularity among their key demographic: men aged 18 to 34. However, this success has mainly occurred within the United States and Lorenzo, current UFC chief executive officer, wants to expand the organization’s reach across the globe. The UFC has held several successful international events in countries that are fairly culturally comparable to the United States (the United Kingdom, Germany, and Canada), and Lorenzo must decide if the organization can be culturally viable in several new international markets — specifically, China, India, and South Korea.

Teaching Note: 8B11M040 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: International Expansion; Ticket Sales; Pay-per-view; Mixed Martial Arts; Las Vegas, United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAVAZO CO.
Paul W. Beamish, Majid Eghbali-Zarch

Product Number: 9B10M093
Publication Date: 11/12/2010
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

In June 2010, Naser Tavazo, one of the three owner/manager brothers of both Tavazo Iran Co. and Tavazo Canada Co., was considering the company's future expansion opportunities, including further international market entry. Candidate cities of interest were Los Angeles, Dubai and other cities with a high Iranian diaspora. Another question facing the owners was where to focus on the value chain. Should the family business use its limited resources to expand its retailer business into more international markets, or to expand their current retailer/wholesale activities within Canada and Iran?

The objectives of this case are: (A) to discuss the typical problems that small companies confront when growing internationally and the implication of being a family business in this transition; (B) to provide a vehicle for developing criteria for market selection; (C) to highlight the importance of focus in the value chain regarding horizontal vs. vertical integration.

This case can be used in international business, strategic management or family business (entrepreneurship) courses. In international business, it may be used as an internationalization case and positioned early in the course. In a strategic management course, it might be positioned in sections dealing with managerial preferences, or diversification.


Teaching Note: 8B10M93 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Manufacturing
Issues: Market Selection; Family Business; Internationalization; Imports; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Foreign Entry Strategies

CARLSBERG IN EMERGING MARKETS
Michael W. Hansen, Torben Pedersen, Marcus Moller Larsen

Product Number: 9B11M009
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 12 pages

Risking becoming the target of a hostile takeover or being cornered as a small regional player in the global beer industry, the Danish brewery Carlsberg decided in the early 2000s to expand into rapidly growing emerging markets to pursue new arenas of growth. By 2008, this strategy had paid off, and Carlsberg was positioned among the five largest breweries in the world. In the Russian market — one of the fastest-growing markets in the world — Carlsberg had become the market leader. In China — the world’s largest beer market in terms of size and population — the company had achieved a 55 per cent market share in Western China, and operated 20 brewery plants with approximately 5,000 employees. The ambitious acquisition strategy applied in emerging markets had become essential to Carlsberg’s business in relation to future growth and profits. Accordingly, the case focuses on Carlsberg’s entry into China, which started as a commercial failure in the eastern part of the country, but subsequently developed successfully in the west.

Teaching Note: 8B11M009 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Acquisition Strategy; Global Strategy; Emerging Markets; Marketing Management; Beer Industry; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NTT DOCOMO — JOINT VENTURE WITH TATA IN INDIAN MOBILE TELECOM
Shih-Fen Chen, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B10M107
Publication Date: 2/1/2011
Length: 20 pages

In November 2008, NTT DoCoMo, the largest mobile telecom company in Japan, entered into a joint venture with Tata Tele Services Ltd (TTSL), the fifth-largest mobile telecom company in India. The two partners had come together because both had recognized that they could put complementary capabilities into play. NTT DoCoMo could build on TTSL’s knowledge of the local market and ownership of a telecom licence (given by the federal government only to domestic firms). TTSL could gain access to NTT DoCoMo’s core competence in 3G technology, which was soon being rolled out in India through a spectrum auction. As part of signing the deal, the two partners had to face issues other than business synergies — like the percentage of equity holding of each partner in the joint venture, the price at which NTT DoCoMo would buy its stake to be offloaded by TTSL, and the provision for veto rights that could make up for a minority holding. The case helps students understand the dynamics of the formation of an international joint venture. It also highlights the unique advantages of a joint venture over other forms of international collaboration, such as technology licensing and agency distribution.

Teaching Note: 8B10M107 (14 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: International Collaboration; Globalization; Joint Ventures; Strategic Management; Telecommunications; Japan; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAMING THE DRAGON: CUMMINS IN CHINA (CONDENSED)
Charles Dhanaraj, Maria Morgan, Jing Li, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B05M034
Publication Date: 9/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case documents more than 15 years of U.S.-based Cummins, a global leader in diesel and allied technology, and its investment activities in China. While the macro level indicators seem to suggest the possibility to hit $1 billion in revenues in China by 2005, there were several pressing problems that put into question Cummins' ability to realize this target. Students are presented with four specific situations and must develop an appropriate action plan. They are related to the respective streamlining and consolidation of several existing joint ventures, distribution and service, and staffing. The case presents the complexity of managing country level operations and the role of executive leadership of a country manager.

Teaching Note: 8B05M34 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Strategy; International Joint Venture; Country Manager; Global Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GORENJE D.D.: A SLOVENIAN MANUFACTURER CONFRONTS THE EUROPEAN MARKET
Gerald Zeitz, Ales Brglez, Irena Vodopivec

Product Number: 9B04M041
Publication Date: 6/24/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 12 pages

Gorenje D.D. is a kitchen appliance manufacturer located in the small town of Velenje, in Slovenia, a newly independent country that separated from Yugoslavia in 1991. Simultaneous with gaining independence, Slovenia also underwent a change from the unique market socialism that had characterized socialist Yugoslavia, to free enterprise capitalism. Furthermore, manufacturing firms in Slovenia had produced largely for the Yugoslav market, while after independence they were forced to compete in the wider European market. The company faces new challenges and key decisions in corporate culture, human resources and competitive strategy to face a turbulent environment.

Teaching Note: 8B04M41 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Strategic Positioning; Environmental Change; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Competitive Dynamics

BOMBARDIER AEROSPACE: THE CSERIES DILEMMA
Louis Hebert, Ali Taleb

Product Number: 9B11M072
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Revision Date: 3/29/2016
Length: 21 pages

In July 2004, Bombardier Aerospace announced its intention to develop a new family of aircraft called CSeries. In May 2007, three years after the initial announcement, the final decision on whether to proceed with the initiative was still pending. Moreover, during this period, the company released several confusing announcements that raised concerns among investors and industry analysts regarding the sustainability of the company’s long-term strategy. In the meantime, Brazilian Embraer had invested heavily in research and development and had taken the leadership position in the regional aircraft segment from Bombardier. Consequently, Bombardier was faced with a serious dilemma of whether or not to launch the CSeries project. The decision was expected to have a major impact on the future market positioning of Bombardier.

Students may be asked to act as advisors to Pierre Beaudoin, president and chief executive officer of Bombardier Aerospace, and recommend whether the company should proceed with the CSeries initiative. More specifically, students should do a full analysis of the company’s external environment, identify the alternatives available to Beaudoin, assess these options based on internal and external environments, and recommend a course of action. For Beaudoin, the recommendation was due before the annual meeting of shareholders, scheduled on May 29, 2007.


Teaching Note: 8B11M072 (16 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Strategic Positioning; Aerospace; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EMERGING MARKET MULTINATIONALS: MARCO POLO MARINE
Marleen Dieleman, Yue-Jer Lee

Product Number: 9B11M046
Publication Date: 7/7/2011
Length: 15 pages

Marco Polo Marine (MPM) Ltd was a medium-sized Singaporean shipping company listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange that was involved in regional shipping and shipbuilding. The company was part of a larger Indonesian family business group, and had been built from scratch by the CEO. MPM had started off providing barges to transport sand and mining products, initially for the group’s mining operations, but increasingly for third parties. It subsequently entered the shipbuilding industry by establishing a shipyard in Batam, Indonesia, an island near Singapore. As a next step to grow the company, the CEO intended to become an international player in the much more sophisticated offshore marine services sector, but he had yet to decide what strategy to take to achieve it. The case allows students to analyze a global industry and present recommendations to the CEO for positioning the company within this industry. MPM is an example of an aspiring emerging market multinational, and the case discusses the challenges such companies face in catching up with more advanced incumbents in global industries. In order to penetrate the offshore marine services sector, decisions were required as to what types of vessels to build or buy, which countries to target, and how to enter this market given financial constraints and limited technical expertise.

Teaching Note: 8B11M046 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Entrepreneurial Business Growth; International Expansion; Emerging Markets; Shipbuilding; Family Business; Indonesia; Singapore; Ivey/NUS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GREAT RECESSION, 2007-2010: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B10M008
Publication Date: 1/20/2010
Length: 11 pages

A recession in the U.S. economy began at the end of 2007. Concerns deepened as an epic financial crisis shattered business and consumer confidence. By the fall of 2008, the United States was in the midst of the worst recession since the 1930s, and major financial institutions were on the verge of bankruptcy. The financial crisis and recession spread around the world. Many saw a risk that the global financial system might collapse, perhaps precipitating a repetition of the lengthy economic devastation of the 1930s depression. Governments reacted by creating huge stimulus packages that greatly increased national deficits and debts, and by loosening monetary policies with interest rates close to zero and huge expansions of the money supply. In their efforts to save the financial system, governments also offered bail-out packages to banks, including loans, guarantees and equity. By the fall of 2009, the crisis had stabilized, and the appearance of green shoots gave promise of recovery. By 2010, it was possible to put the financial crisis in perspective, and to raise questions about the causes and consequences. Of particular concern was whether new regulations might be needed to prevent a recurrence, and whether some of the tighter regulations should be international in scope. A related concern was whether such regulations should be applied to non-bank financial institutions as well as banks. Governments were also trying to determine how to exit the unique fiscal and monetary positions that now seemed to put their economies at risk of ongoing deficits and future inflation.

Teaching Note: 8B10M08 (5 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Business and Society; Government and Business; Government Regulation; Financial Institutions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Building Global Strategies

DANFOSS — GLOBAL MANUFACTURING FOOTPRINT
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B11M049
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 19 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Supply Chain Management Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case examines the supply chain, managerial, and organizational challenges facing a large European industrial company competing in a mature industry with strong price pressure. Established in the 1930s in Denmark, Danfoss initially produced automatic valves for refrigeration plants. The company has since grown into a major industrial group. Until the mid-1990s, Danfoss had the majority of its sales and production in Europe. This changed, however, with the arrival of a new CEO, who initiated a process to change the company into a global player within all of its main business areas.

Following this process of internationalization, the company was facing three main issues which top management was concerned about: Danfoss’s manufacturing network; its continued global growth; and its highly engineering-based culture. The first issue stemmed from the fact that Danfoss had followed a strategy of one product, one plant. This had created a situation with a lot of highly specialized product lines and very few common features between them. On the other hand, the internationalization strategy had so far been quite successful in Eastern Europe and China. In the United States, however, the company was still experiencing difficulties despite heavy investments in its manufacturing capacity in Mexico. In China, the company had experienced success and wanted to secure long-term growth in the market. The third issue was the very engineering-based culture of the company, which among other things was manifested in the fact that Danfoss previously developed products at the expense of consumer demand and preferences.


Teaching Note: 8B11M049 (12 pages)
Issues: Family Business; Supply Chain Management; Organizational Design; Manufacturing Strategy; Internationalization; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BANK OF AMERICA AND THE CHINESE CREDIT CARD MARKET
Charles Dhanaraj, Jing Li, Justin W. Evans

Product Number: 9B10M055
Publication Date: 8/12/2010
Revision Date: 10/19/2010
Length: 11 pages

This case addresses Bank of America Corporation's contemplated joint venture with China Construction Bank to enter the Chinese credit card market. The case builds on the questions of strategic alliances in foreign markets and the state of the banking and credit industries in China generally.

Teaching Note: 8B10M55 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; Credit Card Business; Joint Ventures; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DOW'S ACQUISITION PROGRAM
Koen H. Heimeriks, Stephen Gates

Product Number: 9B10M058
Publication Date: 9/30/2010
Revision Date: 6/26/2014
Length: 23 pages

This case illustrates how Dow Chemical acquired and integrated Wolff Walsrode, a German specialty chemicals firm that was part of the Bayer Group. This acquisition, combined with Dow's existing cellulosics unit, helped it create a new specialty business with a forecasted $1.1 billion in annual sales and strengthen its footprint in Central and Eastern Europe.

The main challenge in this case concerns the complexities of acquisition integration, which are demanding in spite of Dow's extensive experience and track record. Dow is confronted with various integration challenges and faces several decisions concerning the degree and speed of integration of Wolff Walsrode and one of its units, Probis. The decisions pit considerations of rapid cost synergy capture via leveraging global systems platforms against process technology transfer and accommodating different customers and their requirements. Along with providing a review of the importance of a multitude of codified implementation templates and tacit integration mechanisms, this case illustrates how Dow's M&A integration personnel prove their worth by ensuring Wolff's successful integration.


Teaching Note: 8B10M58 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; Cross-border Merger & Acquisition Integration; Target Acquisition Integration; United States; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DR. REDDY'S LABORATORIES (A)
Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B08M064
Publication Date: 9/18/2008
Revision Date: 7/6/2009
Length: 18 pages

Dr. Reddy's Laboratories (Dr. Reddy's), a large pharmaceutical company in India, is trying to acquire the fourth largest generics manufacturer in Germany. Dr. Reddy's quoted $570 million in a competitive bidding situation. The company's chief negotiator is getting ready to close the deal if selected. Students will examine the issues for the chief negotiator, such as: is the price right, is the fit strategic, will the acquisition add value, how can the synergies be fully exploited and how should management proceed with the integration. The (A) case is positioned just before the acquisition and hints at the possible risks. The supplement case, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories (B), product # 9B08M065, is positioned two years post-acquisition and examines a major risk which, as it unfolded, brought the viability of the business model into question.

Teaching Note: 8B08M64 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Mergers & Acquisitions; Post-merger Integration; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Structuring and Organizing MNEs

VERTU: NOKIA’S LUXURY MOBILE PHONE FOR THE URBAN RICH
Ken Kwong-Kay Wong

Product Number: 9B11A040
Publication Date: 9/28/2011
Revision Date: 12/1/2011
Length: 22 pages

Nokia, headquartered in Finland, was a global telecommunications equipment manufacturer. It operated Vertu, a luxury mobile phone brand that had pioneered the luxury mobile phone market in the late 1990s by using precious materials such as diamonds, sapphires, titanium, and exotic leather for phone production. The company had enjoyed impressive growth in almost 70 countries and had sold hundreds of thousands of phones in the eight years since its launch. On February 11, 2011, Stephen Elop, the new CEO of Nokia, announced a new mobile strategy to adopt Microsoft’s new but unproven Windows Phone as its primary smartphone operating system. The market reacted poorly, and the company’s share price took a 14 per cent dive on the day of announcement. How should Vertu respond to this new Nokia mobile strategy? Was Vertu well positioned to take the brand forward under the new Nokia? Should this U.K.-based wholly owned subsidiary be left alone and continue to be managed at arm’s length from Nokia? Changes to Vertu were inevitable — it was not a matter of if, but when.

Teaching Note: 8B11A040 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Brand Positioning; Market Segmentation; Product Design; Telecommunications; Luxury Goods; United Kingdom; Finland
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAINTAINING THE “SINGLE SAMSUNG” SPIRIT: NEW CHALLENGES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Shaista E. Khilji, Chang Hwan Oh, Nisha Manikoth

Product Number: 9B11C010
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case examines how Samsung has grown to become one of the world’s leading companies. It presents a detailed description of Samsung’s “top priority to the people” philosophy and its strong cultural values, both of which have been instrumental in ensuring its continued success in recent decades. Since 1982, the Samsung Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) has played a critical role in supporting Samsung’s corporate strategy of achieving global competitiveness through programs that focus on maintaining Samsung values and developing a cadre of effective next-generation leaders. New Employee Orientation (NEO), an intensive four-week in-house program for all Samsung employees, is one example of an SHRD program. NEO aligns employees across Samsung affiliates to its strategic direction, thereby fostering a stronger “Single Samsung” culture.

In recent years, however, NEO has been faced with new challenges. First, Samsung’s pool of new employees has become more diverse, with the recruitment of more experienced and foreign (non-Korean) employees in addition to the fresh college graduates whom Samsung has always relied upon. Second, Samsung has become aware of stark value differences between the older employees, who are obedient and easily follow rules, and the younger “digital native” employees, who are more individualistic and prefer egalitarian and open policies. Managers at SHRDC are concerned that the “Single Samsung” spirit, which forms the core of Samsung culture, is being threatened from within.

Students must address issues related to the need for maintaining a unified organizational culture among diverse groups of employees with conflicting values, and propose ways for Samsung to effectively employ and utilize all of its employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C010 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Culture; Generational Differences; Human Resource Development; Consumer Electronics; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VESTAS WIND SYSTEMS A/S - EXPLOITING GLOBAL R&D SYNERGIES
Torben Pedersen, Marcus Moller Larsen

Product Number: 9B09M079
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Length: 17 pages

With a change in management in 2005 came a radical reorganization and the announcement of several new strategic initiatives. Among the initiatives was the establishment of the Vestas Technology research and development (R&D) business unit with an aim of achieving global leadership in all core technology areas and, consequently, strengthening the core competence for the company. By 2008, Vestas had succeeded in setting up a global R&D network with R&D centres in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore and India, and, in early 2009, a centre was opened in the United States. This transformed Vestas into a high-tech company and put a greater emphasis on its technological innovations.

Teaching Note: 8B09M79 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Research and Development; Global Strategy; Value Chain; Technology Transfer
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
International Human Resource Management

L’OSERAIE — TURNAROUND CHALLENGE
Justin Paul, Marc Chaix, Shruti Gupta

Product Number: 9B11C018
Publication Date: 7/11/2011
Length: 15 pages

This case deals with the challenges faced at L’Oseraie, a nursing home located in the northeast of France. The director of L’Oseraie had to meet her new boss and brief him on the organization’s challenges while offering suggestions. A key obstacle involved employee motivation and engagement, particularly after a recent absenteeism episode. Furthermore, the lack of health care staff in France meant that employees might need to be sourced from abroad, perhaps from Eastern Europe or the French-speaking countries of North Africa. How could the director implement a strategy that would alleviate the day-to-day problems of the nursing home?

Teaching Note: 8B11C018 (8 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Health Care Administration; Organizational Structure; Employee Retention; Human Resource Management; France
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL BANKS IN TANZANIA
Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

Product Number: 9B07C040
Publication Date: 10/30/2007
Length: 18 pages

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C40 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: International Management; Expatriate Management; Trade Unions; Management Training; Emerging Markets; Performance Evaluation; Recruiting; Subsidiaries; Career Development; Employee Selection
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAX GLOBAL LIMITED: STAFF TURNOVER IN MAINLAND CHINA
Jean-Louis Schaan, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05C035
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 13 pages

The human resources manager for logistics and supply chain management at BAX China must consider her company's high rate of staff turnover. In her monthly report to the managing director, the turnover had reached 12 per cent in the first eight months of the year. The human resources manager must evaluate the company's current methods of dealing with turnover and consider what additional action should be taken. Logistics was a complex and rapidly growing industry, particularly in mainland China. Many multinational and domestic service providers were entering the marketing and expanding their operations; however, these companies had to respond to complex operational challenges and escalating customer demands. The resulting demand for skilled workers led to high turnover rates across the industry and at all organizational levels, and created margin pressure and other management challenges. The case offers a uniquely Chinese perspective on workforce recruitment, management and retention. The industry and the broader economy were growing rapidly. Skilled workers were in short supply because logistics was a new and developing discipline in the former command economy. Also, in the human resources manager's opinion, cultural attitudes resulted in low loyalty among the workers.

Teaching Note: 8B05C35 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: China; Employee Retention; Recruiting; Compensation; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
International Marketing and Supply Chain Management

MGT GROUP: RECONSTRUCTING THE SUPPLY CHAIN AFTER A CROSS-BORDER FACTORY RELOCATION
Zhiduan Xu, Shi Yun, Xu Yong

Product Number: 9B11D009
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Length: 15 pages

Established in 1945, MGT Group was headquartered in France. Its LSD factory was a well-known global engineering provider specializing in the design and manufacture of high-precision valves. At the end of 2007, MGT decided to close the LSD factory in France and relocate it to Fuzhou, China. Two people were put in charge of this project: Kevin Lurton, vice chief operations officer of MGT Control Systems Division, and Jian Li, the general manager of MGT Fuzhou Company. Lurton and Li faced a series of challenges, ranging from the need for strategic planning to the need for an implementation policy for supply chain reconstruction during the cross-border factory relocation.

Teaching Note: 8B11D009 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-border Factory Relocation; Supply Chain Reconstruction; Supply Chain Strategy; France; China; Ivey/CMCC
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PAN BORICUA: DEVELOPING A MARKET STRATEGY FOR THE HISPANIC MARKET IN THE UNITED STATES
Victor Quiñones, Julia Sagebien, Marisol Perez-Savelli, Eva Perez, Jennifer Catinchi

Product Number: 9B09A020
Publication Date: 8/27/2009
Length: 10 pages

Two inexperienced, but strongly committed, entrepreneurs face the hassles of a new venture: exporting dough from Puerto Rico to cities in the United States with large numbers of Puerto Rican immigrants who are longing nostalgically for their beloved pan sobao (bread made with vegetable shortening). With thousands of Puerto Ricans living in and/or moving to the United States and after several incidents of fraud by partners of the entrepreneurs, they are thinking about how to take advantage of what seems to be an opportunity for doing business outside their Caribbean home. These entrepreneurs are confronting several challenges: 1) Preparing to detect opportunities and to get personally involved in a demanding export business 2) Differentiating and positioning the brand in a crowded market. Is a nostalgic feeling enough of a motivator to engage customers with the brand? 3) Deciding whether institution is a substitute for market data and feasibility determination.

Teaching Note: 8B09A20 (7 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Hispanic; Minority; Market Adaptation; New Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (B)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M011
Publication Date: 2/25/2008
Revision Date: 9/15/2014
Length: 9 pages

This case, which outlines the product recall, is a supplement to Mattel and the Toy Recalls (A).

Teaching Note: 8B08M11 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SANTA FE RELOCATION SERVICES: REGIONAL BRAND MANAGEMENT
Niraj Dawar, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05A029
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 15 pages

Sante Fe Relocation Services was a premium provider of relocation services based in Hong Kong. Founded in 1980, the company had built a reputation as a reliable, high-quality packer and mover of household goods. By 2000, the company also offered a full range of relocation support services including visa and immigration applications, home searching and cultural and language training. Santa Fe relocated expatriates and their families between Asian countries and between Asia and other regions. The company had its own staff and assets in Asia and managed its international operations through a network of partners. In 2005, the chief operating officer faced three key challenges: differentiating and positioning the brand in a crowded and often price-driven market; incorporating an expanded service line under the original brand and gaining market recognition for those additional services; and managing the brand across the Asian region with an effective balance of standardization versus local adaptation.

Teaching Note: 8B05A29 (6 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: International Marketing; Competitor Analysis; Brand Positioning; Brand Extension; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA