Ivey Publishing

International Marketing

Forum for International Trade Training,5/e (Canada, Forum for International Trade Training, 2008)
Prepared By Professor Paul W. Beamish, Strategy/General Management
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Principles of Marketing

Raymond Pirouz, Neil Bendle, Taneem Khan

Product Number: 9B11A016
Publication Date: 6/30/2011
Revision Date: 1/22/2015
Length: 16 pages

Unlike traditional marketers who must wait days, if not weeks, to measure the effectiveness of their campaigns, online marketers are confronted with an abundance of data that can be tracked and measured almost in real-time. Despite the volume of data and powerful tools available to online marketers (for free or at low cost, making analytics as affordable for startups as Fortune 500 firms), online metrics are widely misunderstood and misapplied, and are often misused to say much more than they should. Understanding how online metrics work, what they measure, and which of them are most relevant based on specific marketing functions and campaign goals is a valuable skill for every marketer.

This note frames online metrics in the context of campaign goals (from search marketing to back-end analytics) while discussing the various marketing functions (from display advertising to brand management) that benefit as a result of access to specific metrics. Throughout the note, each metric is placed along a return on investment continuum designed to give insight into the role of each metric over time as it relates to a firm’s bottom line.

Issues: Online Metrics; Campaign Goals; Marketing Functions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10M028
Publication Date: 3/22/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 10 pages

Twitter has become an incredibly popular micro-blogging service since its launch in 2006. Its founders have ambitious plans for the service, and are backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital funding, which values the company at $3.7 billion in 2011. Twitter seems to attract a diverse audience of users, such as political organizers looking to disseminate information to their followers; businesses looking to reach out, in real time, to potential customers; and social users. The company charges consumers nothing for its service. By 2011, competitors have emerged, some of whom are financially strong. It remains unclear - at least to some observers - whether the company will ever make money from its service.

Teaching Note: 8B10M28 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Social Networking Media; Strategic Positioning; New Venture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Home and Abroad

Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M013
Publication Date: 2/11/2011
Revision Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one's exposure to the rest of the world's peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group's collective exposure to the world's people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one's business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.

Teaching Note: 8B11M013 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Francis Spital, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B10M040
Publication Date: 5/21/2010
Length: 20 pages

The case describes the challenges faced by Ford and other automobile manufacturers in an era of declining oil reserves and volatile fuel prices. The Ford diesel decision seems to reflect classic thinking constrained by mental models that were developed in a different world. Diesels constitute over 50 per cent of automobile sales in Europe, because fuel is extremely expensive there. If fuel gets extremely expensive in the United States, one would expect diesels to become more attractive. Yet Ford seems to be stuck in the old mental model that says Americans don't like diesels. Ford can't prove in a PowerPoint presentation that there is a big market for small diesels mostly because there are few small diesels available to U.S. consumers. But that traps them into a position where they will never lead the industry or innovate outside of current market and technology conditions.

Teaching Note: 8B10M40 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; Product Strategy; New Products; Automotive; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Target Market Research

Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Ilan Alon, Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B06A034
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 8 pages

In 2006, Ruth's Chris Steak House was fresh off of a sizzling initial public offering and was now interested in growing their business internationally. With restaurants in just four countries outside the United States, a model to identify and rank new international markets was needed. This case provides a practical example for students to take quantitative and non-quantitative variables to create a short list of potential new markets.

Teaching Note: 8B06A34 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Strategy; International Business; International Strategy; Market Entry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
Promotional Strategies

Sajjan Raj Singhvi, Rajat Gera

Product Number: 9B10A024
Publication Date: 12/17/2010
Length: 18 pages

The case illustrates the challenges faced by a marketing manager when designing, implementing and evaluating trade promotion schemes in a highly competitive, fast moving, consumer goods multinational company in the emerging Asian market of India. The purpose of the case is to provide exposure to the complexities and dynamic context of Asian consumer goods marketing and learn how to design, implement and evaluate trade promotion schemes that are aligned with the branding, marketing communication and marketing strategy of the product/brand. The case illustrates marketing decisions and their implementation in the Indian market for snack foods, where factors such as products at small price points, constant product and brand innovation, and effective design of trade promotion and merchandising schemes are critical in gaining and retaining market share.

Teaching Note: 8B10A024 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Branding; Sales Promotion; Sales Strategy; Trade Promotion Design; Trade Promotion Evaluation; Channel Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Matthew Thomson, Jesse Baker

Product Number: 9B10A012
Publication Date: 5/18/2010
Revision Date: 6/16/2010
Length: 16 pages

This case looks at the Ultimate Fighting Championships (UFC) and its parent company, Zuffa LLC (Zuffa), through the role of the recently hired chief marketing officer (CMO). As the CMO of the largest organization in the world's fastest growing sport, mixed martial arts, he faces many decisions about the future of the organization. The CMO must determine the best way to both manage the organization's ambitious international expansion initiatives and protect the UFC brand in new markets, while also preserving the experience for the league's core North American fan base. The CMO must evaluate the company's sponsorship relationships and develop a strategy to cope with increasing competition in both domestic and international markets.

Teaching Note: 8B10A12 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Brand Meanings; Equity; International Expansion; Celebrity CEO; Labour Relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Robert J. Fisher, Murray J. Bryant, Pankaj Shandilya

Product Number: 9B05A022
Publication Date: 9/1/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 11 pages

Boots Group PLC, one of the best known and respected retail names in the United Kingdom, provided health and beauty products and advice that enhanced personal well being. The marketing manager at Boots was planning his sales promotion strategy for a line of professional hair-care products. The professional hair-care line consisted primarily of shampoos, conditioners and styling products (gels, wax, mousse, etc.) developed in collaboration with United Kingdom's top celebrity hairdressers. The marketing manager's challenge was to select one of three promotional alternatives - get three for the price of two, receive a gift with purchase or an on-pack coupon - for the Christmas season. He realized that the alternative he selected would have both immediate effects on costs and sales, but also long-term implications for the brands involved. His primary objective was to drive sales volumes and trade-up consumers from lower-value brands, while retaining or building brand equity.

Teaching Note: 8B05A22 (6 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Sales Promotion; Advertising Management; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 5:

Simon Parker, Rocky Liu

Product Number: 9B10A013
Publication Date: 5/21/2010
Length: 6 pages

MusicJuice.net is a new website designed to bring together musicians and a fan-base in order to raise finance for new bands. It enables musicians to bypass the large established record companies and their high royalty takes, while giving fans direct contact and involvement with exciting new acts. It is an example of a venture idea transported from one country (the Netherlands) and applied in a new and larger geographical setting (North America). The case illustrates the novel crowd-sourcing business model, which is designed to raise finance from customers rather than the entrepreneur. Most importantly, the case illustrates the challenges of starting new Internet ventures and the early stage founding issues that are involved. After a long and costly delay in establishing their website, the two founders of MusicJuice.net have struggled to generate any interest or even awareness amongst online musicians and fans, despite only limited competition from other players in the marketplace - a situation, which is already beginning to change. Students are asked what the entrepreneurs behind MusicJuice.net can do to raise awareness of their service and to generate enough customers to survive.

Teaching Note: 8B10A13 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Internet; Competition; Dominant Designs; New Venture Challenges; Startups
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Deborah Compeau, Israr Qureshi

Product Number: 9B08A014
Publication Date: 10/23/2008
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 13 pages

This case describes Molson's experiment with social media for creating brand awareness. In November 2007, Molson, part of the Molson Coors Brewing Company, ended a social media promotion after facing criticism that it promoted binge drinking. Molson was faced with the difficulty of how quickly the contents of social media could spread to various audiences. The case encourages readers to ponder whether Molson's action was the only option available and to consider what its next steps might be.

Teaching Note: 8B08A14 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Privacy Issues; Internet Culture; Management Information Systems; Social Media; Facebook; Breweries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05A024
Publication Date: 9/26/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The Global Media manager for adidas International is responsible for developing and championing a new marketing strategy at adidas called brand in the hand that is based on the convergence of cell phones and wireless Internet. The case presents company background information, data on the penetration of mobile devices such as cell phones, the growth of global mobile marketing practices, and several mobile marketing communications campaigns that adidas launched in 2004, such as a mobile newsticker for the 2004 European soccer championship. The case then introduces a specific campaign - Respect M.E. - featuring Missy Elliott, a popular female hip-hop artist, and discusses the company's mobile marketing strategy to support MissyElliott's new line of sportswear. This case can be used to highlight the role of new technology in overall marketing strategy and integrated marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B05A24 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Marketing Communication; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:
Cultural Considerations

Allison Johnson, Natalie Mauro

Product Number: 9B11A001
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Revision Date: 3/8/2018
Length: 14 pages

The Canadian Pillsbury ready-baked goods cookie line is experiencing disappointing performance, and the marketing manager at General Mills Canada Corporation is under pressure to make strategic decisions that will help turn around the segment. The marketing manager has engaged the help of the consumer insight team to conduct market research studies that will shed light on consumers and their attitudes, behaviours, and preferences towards the product. The results from the market research studies have arrived, and the students, assuming the role of the marketing manager, must filter through them to determine how this information can be used to improve the performance of the cookie segment. More specifically, students will need to determine where the greatest opportunities lie, who the team should target, what brand messaging is the most relevant, and what type of communication plan would be most effective.

Teaching Note: 8B11A001 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cross-cultural Differences; Customer Segmentation; Brand Positioning; Value Proposition; Market Research
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Helena Barnard, Bryan Muir

Product Number: 9B10M031
Publication Date: 8/20/2010
Length: 15 pages

The South-African founder of Yola, a San Francisco-based company that provides simple website creation software, has developed a vibrant business that went from eight to more than 40 employees in only a year. He has secured two rounds of funding from a South African venture capitalist, and the growth in the Yola user base has been exceeding that predicted in the business plan. Yet the business faces multiple challenges. There are offices in both Cape Town (because of both personal ties and a substantial cost advantage) and San Francisco (because of the need to be connected to the heart of the industry), but managing across a 10-hour time difference is challenging. The rapid growth in employees is also placing demands on the company in terms of integrating people into the culture, and in finding an appropriate organization structure. The business model for online offerings is also not yet established, and Yola has to deal with substantial complexity in terms of its revenue models. In addition, the market place is heating up, and Yola may be losing its relative position in the market place.The case maps the challenges of managing a successful company in an emerging and fast-growing industry, and specifically focuses on the integrated decisions that an entrepreneur has to take.

Teaching Note: 8B10M31 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Location Strategy; Competition; Startups; Organizational Structure; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B09M016
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Length: 20 pages

The newly appointed country director of MIA Philippines, a non-profit organization with a mandate to alleviate poverty in developing countries, is faced with the challenge of designing and managing a development assistance project that would establish a go-to-market supply chain for a remote Filipino fishing village. The country director has to enter a new country, launch the project, deal with the constraints of a foreign culture, manage the expectations of major stakeholders whilst trying to manage a multi-cultural team and conclude the project on time. The value of the case lies in the realistic assessment of stakeholders' motivation, their capabilities and assets, and project constraints during the design and implementation stages. Value chain analysis, value added analysis and stakeholder analysis are used to assess the applicability of project design, impact and long term success.

Teaching Note: 8B09M16 (11 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Value Chain; Cross Cultural Management; Project Management; Project Design/Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:
Political, Legal and Regulatory Considerations

Ilan Alon, David M. Currie

Product Number: 9B11A026
Publication Date: 6/23/2011
Length: 10 pages

An executive must estimate the demand for Kodak Express outlets in various developing countries based on socioeconomic and demographic data about the countries. The case requires students to think about how to transform data on a national scale (GDP per capita, population, income distribution) into a form that is meaningful for a managerial decision — here, the number of outlets that could be supported by a country’s market demographics. In this instance, doing so can be accomplished effectively through modeling on a spreadsheet.

Teaching Note: 8B11A026 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Demand Analysis; Retailing; Franchising; Market Selection; Market Assessment; Microsoft Excel
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Michael Goldman

Product Number: 9B08A010
Publication Date: 8/18/2008
Revision Date: 1/29/2009
Length: 10 pages

The Blue Bulls rugby team enjoyed a fanatical fan base and had been performing well in local and international competitions recently. As a leading South African rugby franchise, the Blue Bulls faced a social and political environment that emphasized racial transformation. An up-and-coming Afrikaans musician had become best-seller with his De La Rey song, which was about a Boer soldier who calls on General De La Rey to lead the Afrikaner people to victory in the second South Africa War between the Boer Republic and colonial Britain. Given the emotive theme of the song and the response by some to view it as a reassertion of Afrikaner nationalism, the song had attracted significant media coverage and controversy. As part of the entertainment at the Vodacom Super 14 rugby game between Western Force and the Vodacom Blue Bulls, De La Rey was played over the stadium loudspeakers. This delighted most of the mainly White Afrikaans spectators. As the evening progressed, the acting head of the Blue Bulls Company, the organization that managed the Blue Bulls rugby team and the Loftus Versveld stadium, received a number of complaints from supporters about the playing of the De La Rey song and thus decided to remove the song from the official stadium playlist. By Monday morning, a media frenzy had erupted about this decision and the acting head was faced with a number of options of how to respond. The case is written for a first-year MBA module and is designed to explore the following themes: 1) race, identity and language as consumer behaviour variables 2) spectator, supporter and consumer processes within sports marketing 3) sports brand development and sponsorship relationships.

Teaching Note: 8B08A10 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Consumer Behaviour; Sports Marketing; Brand Positioning; Political Environment; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 8:
Adapting Your Products or Services

Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M029
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 12 pages

In December 2009, the management team at Expatica.com was undertaking a strategic review of the progress of the company and of the future opportunities for growth. The management team needed to take stock: the external environment was rapidly changing and threats from competitors were on the rise. Expatica.com was founded 10 years earlier to provide English language information and news to the expatriate community in Europe, delivering its services primarily over the Internet. Over the course of the 10 years, Expatica.com had experienced significant challenges in its organization and environment. The central issue was how to make its core business effective across multiple markets. The company had made tremendous progress over the decade but now needed to re-evaluate its position and identify new opportunities for growth. The management team realized that it needed to make a number of critical decisions, especially in the areas of internationalization and product development. 1) How should Expatica.com now internationalize into new markets? Which markets should it consider? How should it select new markets? Should it pull out of any existing markets? 2) What product development strategy should it adopt? What line extensions should it make to existing products? What kinds of more radical innovation could be appropriate? Should it phase out any existing products? 3) What else should the company do to drive success?

Teaching Note: 8B10M29 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Product Development; Media; Internet; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Carmen Rios Figueroa, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B09M085
Publication Date: 10/13/2010
Length: 16 pages

The president of Taino Construction has to make several strategic decisions that can guide the firm during very difficult times for the construction industry - globally and locally. He is trying to find ways to capitalize on the company's innovations and international advantages. At the same time, he is trying to adapt the company to the needs of the local market, which requires smaller volumes and simpler products. In order to do this, management must assess the level of risk inherent in the company's portfolio of innovations by estimating the potential of the markets for these products, determining how to strategically position the products in the markets and making a sober assessment of the company's financial strength.

The case can be used in a marketing strategy course. The objectives of the case are 1) to allow students an opportunity to analyze a company's innovation portfolio and, more specifically, the level of risk inherent in market opportunities 2) to explore how innovative international strategies can help a company survive adverse local market conditions, though it may add to the overall risk of the innovation portfolio of the company 3) to showcase a company committed to green products, allowing for a discussion on sustainability in the construction industry, as well as on how what is considered a green product by some stakeholders is not considered a green product by others 4) to showcase the complexity of the relationship between a company's clients/competitors/partners and the way in which government initiative can offer opportunities and challenges to a company 5) to offer an opportunity to conduct financial performance analysis.

Teaching Note: 8B09M85 (13 pages)
Industry: Construction
Issues: Managing Industry Change; Innovation; Family Business; Green Products
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 9:
Reaching the Market

Terry H. Deutscher, Michael R. Pearce, Diane Silva

Product Number: 9B11A008
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

A new line of chilled ready meals has been developed after significant technological breakthroughs in food processing by Maple Leaf Consumer Foods. The chilled ready meals category in Canada is expected to exceed $200 million by 2011, and plans call for Maple Leaf to own more than half the category by that time. In the (A) case in this four-part series, the vice president of innovation and brand development is convening a group meeting to finalize ambitious launch plans for Maple Leaf Simply Fresh.

Issues: New Products; Marketing Planning; Market Research; Innovation; Chilled Ready Meals; Supermarkets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allison Johnson, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10A019
Publication Date: 9/24/2010
Revision Date: 6/13/2017
Length: 9 pages

Matchstick Inc. (A) case introduces students to how brands are starting to put in place non-traditional advertising, such as word-of-mouth campaigns. The founder of Toronto-based Matchstick Inc. is working on a campaign for the Ketel One vodka brand. Ketel One, managed by Diageo, a global beverage firm, is trying to increase its awareness and sales in the Canadian market. Ketel One's brand manager has turned to Matchstick to generate awareness among its elusive target audience.

Teaching Note: 8B10A019 (11 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Marketing Communication; Marketing Research; Market Segmentation; Marketing Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gavin Price, Margaret Sutherland

Product Number: 9B09M046
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 11 pages

Bio-Oil is a multi-purpose skin care product that has gone from being sold only in South Africa to being the No. 1 scar treatment product in 16 of the 17 countries in which it is distributed. Retail sales have jumped from R3 million per annum to R1 billion from 2000 to 2008. Justin and David Letschert made key decisions to eliminate all of the other 119 products that were being manufactured by the company that they took over in 2000, and focused on the mainstay product of Bio-Oil. Union-Swiss accomplished its successful sales through the use of a hybrid distribution model that compelled its distributors in each country to communicate and share knowledge with each other. Union-Swiss also ensured that it remained focused on building the brand through limiting its activities in the value chain to that of marketing. It did this to such an extent that it created a separate entity to run the distribution of Bio-Oil in South Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B09M46 (8 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Market Entry; International Business; Supply Chain Management; Strategic Positioning; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 10:

June Cotte, Peter Famiglietti

Product Number: 9B10A011
Publication Date: 5/21/2010
Length: 14 pages

The president of production at Hanson Productions, an off-Broadway production company, was faced with the same situation for every Broadway production: where to locate, how many seats, what to charge and how to promote and market the production. There are three separate venues, with three separate value propositions to the studio, case and audience. While bigger means more seats and more revenue for each show, there is a capacity percentage that must be factored in to the decision due to the increased rental costs. Smaller venues may lead to higher capacity percentages, but ultimately leave money on the table. The ticket prices must be set for advance sales; any change in price after this period will effectively hurt future sales - more so if the price is discounted. Determining a promotion partner may lessen the risk of a potential failure, yet cost more profit and affect the recoup schedule.

Teaching Note: 8B10A11 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Sales Forecasting; Pricing; Pricing Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Miranda R. Goode, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B10A022
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2009, Parle Products Pvt. Limited (Parle), a leading Indian biscuit manufacturer, had the distinction of producing the largest selling glucose biscuit brand by volume in the world, the Parle-G. Parle-G biscuits sold for approximately US$1 per kilogram and as very few processed and ready-to-eat foods were available at this price point, Parle-G was strongly associated with offering value for money (VFM). A looming problem in this brand category for Parle was that the input prices of two major raw materials for the Parle-G biscuits (which together accounted for 55 per cent of their input costs) had risen enough in the past 18 months to decrease margins from 15 per cent to less than 10 per cent. Pressure to restore margins led Parle to consider a price increase yet a previous attempt had caused dramatic reduction in sales. Parle subsequently addressed rising input costs by reducing the weight of the package, franchising production, reducing supply chain costs and reducing packaging costs. Parle could not ignore the deeply entrenched perception of VFM when devising both short- and long-term marketing plans to retain Parle-G's success in the marketplace. These plans needed to address segmentation, positioning and changing Indian demographics when considering a potential price increase for Parle-G biscuits.

Teaching Note: 8B10A22 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Planning; International Business; Positioning; Market Strategy; Pricing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Niraj Dawar, Natasha Ebanks

Product Number: 9B00A008
Publication Date: 6/19/2000
Revision Date: 1/6/2010
Length: 23 pages

The economy segment in the market for mayonnaise in Venezuela has become extremely competitive. Mavesa, Venezuela's largest and most professional consumer goods firm, finds its pioneer Nelly brand under assault from large players such as Kraft, and small nimble regional players such as Albeca. In this competitive scenario, Nelly's managers decide to cut price on the brand. The managers must analyze the implications of cutting price, including both the profitability impact of a pricing decision, as well as strategic competitive considerations.

Teaching Note: 8B00A08 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Emerging Markets; Brand Management; Pricing; Competitiveness
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 11:
Penetrating the Market

Rosanna Garcia, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B10A021
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Length: 22 pages

Polar Challenge was a company that offered an annual 320 nautical-mile race to the magnetic North Pole organized by Arctic experts. It had been successful in the United Kingdom, establishing marketing partnerships with the BBC, Sony, Fujitsu and others. Polar Challenge saw the United States market as untapped potential for both sponsors and racers. In 2008, with the centennial of polar exploration approaching in 2009, the company decided to offer the race to Americans. The director of marketing is given responsibility for establishing a presence in the United States, but he soon finds that U.S. companies and media outlets do not have the level of interest he expected. In addition, companies worldwide were cutting back on advertising spending in response to the global economic crisis. This case examines a number of issues focused on expansion into new markets and resource commitments to such endeavours. It can be used to discuss the importance of understanding the target market, targeting the unique needs of different customer segments, adapting product offerings to international markets and establishing realistic goals.

Teaching Note: 8B10A21 (15 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Expansion; Target Marketing; Brand Positioning; International Marketing; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Victor Quiñones, Julia Sagebien, Marisol Perez-Savelli, Eva Perez, Jennifer Catinchi

Product Number: 9B09A020
Publication Date: 8/27/2009
Length: 10 pages

Two inexperienced, but strongly committed, entrepreneurs face the hassles of a new venture: exporting dough from Puerto Rico to cities in the United States with large numbers of Puerto Rican immigrants who are longing nostalgically for their beloved pan sobao (bread made with vegetable shortening). With thousands of Puerto Ricans living in and/or moving to the United States and after several incidents of fraud by partners of the entrepreneurs, they are thinking about how to take advantage of what seems to be an opportunity for doing business outside their Caribbean home. These entrepreneurs are confronting several challenges: 1) Preparing to detect opportunities and to get personally involved in a demanding export business 2) Differentiating and positioning the brand in a crowded market. Is a nostalgic feeling enough of a motivator to engage customers with the brand? 3) Deciding whether institution is a substitute for market data and feasibility determination.

Teaching Note: 8B09A20 (7 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Hispanic; Minority; Market Adaptation; New Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Stephanie Taylor, Oleksiy Vynogradov

Product Number: 9B04M065
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 8 pages

The founder of Kids Market Consulting, a market research firm dedicated to the kids, tweens and teens segment, was faced with increasing competition and slowing revenue, and was exploring a variety of possibilities for the future strategic direction of the business. In particular, she had to formulate the best plan for protecting the niche market and decide how aggressively to pursue expansion. In addition, there was the existing relationship with her business partner, and Kids Market Consulting was part of his group of marketing firms. Any changes the founder chose had to respect this relationship and she was therefore restricted to a limited number of options. The over-arching corporate objective for the company was to defend the market from larger businesses who were trying to increase their share of the market research industry.

Teaching Note: 8B04M65 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategic Change; Strategy Development; Strategic Planning; Market Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 12:
The International Marketing Plan

Christopher A. Ross

Product Number: 9B10A018
Publication Date: 10/20/2010
Length: 14 pages

Canada is becoming increasingly multi-ethnic and many members of these groups start small retail businesses. This case is an example of one such situation. Princessa sold beauty products to the English speaking black community in Montreal. In 2005 and 2006, sales were flat and, in 2007, sales fell by about 16 per cent. The owner was concerned and wondered what action, if any, he should take. While the issues were clearly marketing oriented, recommendations and their implementation were constrained by limited human and financial resources.

Demographic information and maps for Montreal are provided. The case is designed to familiarize students with issues related to marketing to ethnic groups, dealing with secondary data, defining a retail market and developing a strategic plan for a small business operating under severe resource constrictions.

Teaching Note: 8B10A18 (11 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Market Analysis; Marketing Planning; Marketing Defense Strategies; Retail Marketing; Small Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Gavin Chen, Derrick Deslandes

Product Number: 9B05A012
Publication Date: 6/22/2005
Revision Date: 9/24/2009
Length: 17 pages

FirstCaribbean International Bank was the new banking entity created from the combination of the Caribbean operations of two foreign banks, Barclays Bank plc of the United Kingdom and headquarters in London, England and CIBC - formally the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce - of Canada and headquartered in Toronto, Ontario. A marketing team was formed with the specific responsibility of developing the marketing function and the brand strategy, as well as guiding the branding process of the new entity. The head of the marketing team has a number of concerns: Would geography, history and commercial practices support or mitigate against a single, centralized marketing strategy for the entire region, what should the new brand be and how should it be articulated, should the new brand reflect one or both of the heritage banks or should the new brand break with the past and reflect a totally new identity, and how quickly could the new brand be rolled out? This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the five additional Cross-Enterprise cases that deal with various functional issues associated with the eventual merger: Human Resources - Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean, product 9B04C053; Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032; General Management - CIBC-Barclays: Should Their Caribbean Operations Be Merged?, product 9B04M067; Accounting and Finance - CIBC-Barclays: Accounting For Their Merger, product 9B04B022; FirstCaribbean International Bank: The Marketing and Branding Challenges for a Start-up, product 9B05A012; and technical note - Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B05A12 (7 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Brand Management; Brand Positioning; Market Strategy; Marketing Planning; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA