Ivey Publishing

Contemporary Strategy Analysis

Grant, R. M.,7e (United States, Wiley, 2010)
Prepared By Mehdi H Nejad, Ph.D. Student (Strategy)
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
The Concept of Strategy

PACIFICLINK IMEDIA: BECOMING A FULL SERVICE INTERACTIVE AGENCY
Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B09M023
Publication Date: 8/27/2009
Length: 13 pages

This case presents the decisions facing the managing director/executive director of PacificLink iMedia (PacificLink), more than 10 years after he founded the company. The company had experienced periods of growth and decline since its founding and was facing a period of uncertain growth given the turmoil in world markets in 2009, following several years of strong growth and expansion. The director anticipated that the company could continue to grow into new geographic or product markets, or perhaps become fundamentally altered in its governance structure and financial resource base, through an initial public offering. The case involves analysis of these alternatives for growth. It can be used to teach about sources of competitive advantage and evaluations of growth alternatives. See also the first and third cases in the three-part series, 9B00M024 and 9B16M202.

Teaching Note: 8B09M23 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Internet Marketing; International Business; Growth Strategy; Strategy Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BCE INC.: FACING THE FUTURE
Stephen R. Foerster, W. Glenn Rowe, Heather Tobin

Product Number: 9B09N015
Publication Date: 9/24/2009
Revision Date: 5/11/2010
Length: 25 pages

BCE Inc. (BCE), one of Canada's leading integrated communications companies, faced numerous challenges. In the key wireless communications market, BCE was trailing its competitors on growth and revenue. BCE's share price was underperforming and shareholders, including the powerful Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, were becoming concerned. In addition there were regulatory changes on the horizon that could have a serious impact on BCE's wireless division. BCE's chief executive officer (CEO) was faced with the task of improving BCE's competitiveness and shareholder value in a dynamic industry. What options did the CEO and his leadership team have, which ones were better for BCE and how could the better ones be executed in order to satisfy BCE's shareholders? The case provides a good opportunity to assess financial performance and assist in understanding the interaction of strategy and finance.

Teaching Note: 8B09N15 (13 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Value Enhancement; Strategy Development; Strategy Implementation; Financial Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESEARCH IN MOTION: MANAGING EXPLOSIVE GROWTH
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Daina Mazutis

Product Number: 9B08M046
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 19 pages

Research in Motion (RIM) is a high technology firm that is experiencing explosive sales growth. David Yach, chief technology officer for software at RIM, has received notice of an impending meeting with the co-chief executive officer regarding his research and development (R&D) expenditures. Although RIM, makers of the very popular BlackBerry, spent almost $360 million in R&D in 2007, this number was low compared to its largest competitors, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of sales (e.g. Nokia spent $8.2 billion on R&D). This is problematic as it foreshadows the question of whether or not RIM is well positioned to continue to meet expectations, deliver award-winning products and services and maintain its lead in the smartphone market. Furthermore, in the very dynamic mobile telecommunications industry, investment analysts often look to a firm's commitment to R&D as a signal that product sales growth will be sustainable. Just to maintain the status quo, Yach will have to hire 1,400 software engineers in 2008 and is considering a number of alternative paths to managing the expansion. The options include: (1) doing what they are doing now, only more of it, (2) building on their existing and satellite R&D locations, (3) growing through acquisition or (4) going global.

Teaching Note: 8B08M46 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Telecommunication Technology; Change Management; Globalization; Staffing; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STARBUCKS
Mary M. Crossan, Ariff Kachra

Product Number: 9A98M006
Publication Date: 5/14/1998
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 23 pages

Starbucks is faced with the issue of how it should leverage its core competencies against various opportunities for growth, including introducing its coffee in McDonald’s, pursuing further expansion of its retail operations, and leveraging the brand into other product areas. The case is written so that students need to first identify where Starbucks competencies lie along the value chain, and assess how well those competencies can be leveraged across the various alternatives. It also provides an opportunity for students to assess what is driving growth in this company. Starbucks has a tremendous appetite for cash since all its stores are corporate, and investors are betting that it will be able to continue its phenomenal growth, so it needs to walk a fine line between leveraging its brand to achieve growth while not eroding it in the process. This is an exciting case that quickly captures the attention of students.

Teaching Note: 8A98M06 (13 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: competitiveness; industry analysis; growth strategy; core competence; coffee
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Goals, Values, and Performance

NEW BALANCE: DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CSR STRATEGY
Vesela Veleva

Product Number: 9B10M011
Publication Date: 1/28/2010
Length: 21 pages

This case focuses on New Balance, a privately held company and the fourth largest athletic footwear manufacturer in the world. Founded over 100 years ago, New Balance has a strong social responsibility culture and mission established by its owners. Its commitment to employees, for example, was expressed through maintaining domestic manufacturing in the United States (the only large footwear manufacturer to do so presently) and avoiding layoffs in the deep recession of 2007-2009. In the late 1990s, the company established the Responsible Leadership Steering Committee to address human rights issues in overseas factories. Throughout the years, private ownership had allowed New Balance to take risks and make choices that publicly held companies might not have been able to do; at the same time, private ownership also meant lower pressures to disclose social and environmental performance. The owners were also very humble and hesitant to talk aloud about social responsibility. As a global player, the present challenge for the company has become to move corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the next level from doing what's right to fully integrating CSR into the business strategy. The overall goal of the case is to use the provided information from a comprehensive company assessment to identify a few key areas where New Balance can focus on and demonstrate industry leadership while also supporting the bottom line. A set of key questions is included at the end of the paper to guide student's discussion around critical issues for building an integrated CSR strategy for New Balance, considering its culture, structure and present level of corporate citizenship management.

Teaching Note: 8B10M11 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Social Responsibility; Strategy Development; Business Sustainability; Performance Assessment
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONTARIO SCIENCE CENTRE: AGENTS OF CHANGE AND BEYOND
Charlene Zietsma, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05M049
Publication Date: 9/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 22 pages

In June 2005, the Ontario Science Centre (OSC) was in the midst of the Agents of Change renewal plan - a $45 million, five-year project aimed at refreshing a third of the centre's exhibit halls. With more than 600 exhibits in 11,000 square metres of exhibit space, the OSC has been communicating science and technological ideas in an interactive way since it opened in 1969. Throughout its history, the OSC has conceived, designed and built its own exhibits. In the mid-1980s, this led to consulting, selling and renting out its exhibit design and construction to other science centres around the world. Funded 50 per cent by the Ontario government, the OSC faced the challenge of raising private funds and generating enough earned revenues to cover its operating expenses and continue innovating and renewing its facilities. To avoid getting stuck in the status quo once the Agents of Change renewal plan was complete, the OSC's chief executive officer and her management team set high goals: to double the visitor count and generate $10 million in operating profit by 2010. The CEO must determine how to reach these goals while maintaining its primary mission.

Teaching Note: 8B05M49 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Growth Strategy; Strategy Development; Mission Statements; Non-Profit Organization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NEWFOUNDLAND CENTRE FOR THE ARTS
Charlene Zietsma, Gillian Rowe

Product Number: 9B05M038
Publication Date: 5/30/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 17 pages

The Newfoundland Centre for the Arts (NCA) was a theatre, dance and visual arts organization with a long history of promoting indigenous Newfoundland and Labrador arts. The centre was a democratic, member-driven organization, and stakeholders disagreed over aspects of the centre's mandate and operations. NCA had also experienced financial difficulties, including a crisis in 2002 that almost resulted in closure. Funding came through, and the general manager undertook a strategic review of the organization. She must now present her recommendations to ensure the long term viability and success of NCA to the board of directors.

Teaching Note: 8B05M38 (13 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Arts Administration; Strategy Implementation; Strategic Planning; Non-Profit Organization, Indigenous Peoples
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ACADEMY OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
Gevork Papiryan, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B05M042
Publication Date: 5/11/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 20 pages

In 1989, the government of the USSR appointed Academician Abel Aganbegyan to the Academy of National Economy as rector. Since its foundation by the Soviet government in 1977, this educational institution educated several top managers for the Soviet economy. Since 1992, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the start of democratic reforms, the Academy started its own transformation to the business university. The Academy is in the process of finding a new strategy choice for its further evolution, and the school's leadership must resolve both internal and external problems and stand up to the challenge of a competitive Russian business education market. The most significant issue for the Academy's leadership during the strategy development process is to redefine its mission and status-quo. There are three basic alternatives: to continue being affiliated with the government elite state educational and scientific centre with the group of relatively independent business schools; separate from these independent schools and restate its mission as a state educational and research institution affiliated with the government; or encourage the separation of the business schools and try to transform it into a Western style business school.

Teaching Note: 8B05M42 (7 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Educational Administration; Corporate Strategy; Synergy; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Industry Analysis: The Fundamentals

COOPERS BREWERY
Graham Hubbard

Product Number: 9B08M016
Publication Date: 5/6/2008
Revision Date: 9/15/2008
Length: 11 pages

This case is about how Coopers Brewery, a very small family-owned fourth generation family business, fought off a determined takeover bid by an international brewer. Although the takeover bid formally began in 2005, it had its origins in 1983, so the case illustrates how and why organizations get involved with each other and how that can play out in unexpected ways later on. Although the case detail is about the takeover bid, it is designed primarily for use as a business strategy analysis case for use in the early part of a strategic management course. It also contains sufficient competitor analysis to conduct a rudimentary industry analysis. It could separately be used for mergers and acquisitions analysis but this is seen as the background material.

Teaching Note: 8B08M16 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Industry Analysis; Strategy; Mergers & Acquisitions
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MICHELIN IN THE LAND OF THE MAHARAJAHS (A): NOTE ON THE TIRE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Pierre-Xavier Meschi

Product Number: 9B07M030
Publication Date: 4/2/2007
Length: 20 pages

As opposed to other emerging countries, the tire market in India was almost exclusively dominated by local players: 90 per cent of all tires on the Indian market were made and sold by local Indian companies. It is important to note that the big names of the world tire industry - Michelin, Bridgestone, Goodyear and Continental - were hardly visible in India. Michelin was absent from the Indian tire market and it is very surprising that the world leader of the tire industry had neither a production facility nor a distribution network in India. Why such an absence? Why did Michelin have so little presence in Asian emerging countries and especially in India? This case presents the main features of the tire industry in India. The case allows students to carry out a comprehensive strategic evaluation of the industry's attractiveness as well as an in-depth analysis of the structure of competition. Students will also conduct performance analysis for each company.

Teaching Note: 8B07M30 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Industry Analysis; International Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STRATEGIZING AT MONARCHIA MATT INTERNATIONAL (MMI)
Michael J. Rouse, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B07M014
Publication Date: 3/16/2007
Revision Date: 8/14/2007
Length: 24 pages

As of late 2004, the chief executive officer (CEO) of New York-based wine distributor Monarchia Matt International (MMI) is looking at his portfolio of wines and wondering what advantage Hungarian wine could provide in becoming a powerful niche player in the highly fragmented and complicated U.S. wine industry. The CEO is cognizant of Hungarian wine's reputation in the United States as an inexpensive, mass-quantity produced and low quality drink. At the same time, the CEO is aware of Hungary's rich wine making tradition and is confident that the country's wine varieties could prove to be a key differentiator and help him grow revenues from $6 million in 2004 to $50 million by 2010. This case serves as an introduction to many of the core course frameworks in strategy, and can be used to cover the following topics: PEST (political, economic, social and technological factors); Porter's five forces; resource-based view of the firm using VRIO framework; value proposition; SWOT; and value frontier.

Teaching Note: 8B07M14 (13 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Growth Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Product Mix; Industry Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TPV TECHNOLOGY LIMITED: THE COMPUTER MONITOR BUSINESS
Stewart Thornhill, Terry Wang

Product Number: 9B05M062
Publication Date: 1/13/2006
Revision Date: 10/3/2009
Length: 20 pages

TPV Technology Limited is a worldwide computer monitor manufacturer. In this case, the general manager is reviewing the annual performance result. During the past year, sales of original equipment manufacturer monitors and self-branded monitors dominated the market but the profit margin had decreased sharply, and flat-panel TVs were becoming more popular. The general manager must determine if TPV Technology should enter the flat-panel TV market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M62 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Industry Analysis; Diversification; Competitive Advantage; Environmental Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMERICAN FAST FOOD IN KOREA
Paul W. Beamish, Jae C. Jung, Hun-Hee Kim

Product Number: 9B03M016
Publication Date: 4/2/2003
Revision Date: 10/22/2009
Length: 12 pages

A major U.S.-based fast food company with extensive operations around the world was contemplating whether or not they should enter the Korean market. The Korean fast food market was hit badly by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, but the economy was turning around. Thus, fast food demand in Korea was expected to increase. For the industry analysis, this case provides information on various competitors, substitute foods, new entrants, consumers and suppliers. In addition, social issues are included as potential forces.

Teaching Note: 8B03M16 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Industry Analysis; Market Entry; Fast Food; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Further Topics in Industry and Competitive Analysis

NETFLIX
Sayan Chatterjee, Elizabeth Carroll, David M. Spencer

Product Number: 9B09M093
Publication Date: 2/3/2010
Length: 20 pages

This case describes how Netflix created the business model of delivering DVDs using mail services. Essentially, Netflix exploited a whitespace that other players, such as Blockbuster, could not engage in primarily because they were constrained by their own business models. The case allows the instructor to develop the details of the capabilities that have allowed Netflix to deliver the values its customers desire. The case can then explore the competitive dynamics between Blockbuster, Netflix and Wal-Mart, a new entrant, in this space. Finally, the case describes future technologies, such as Video on Demand (VOD), that in turn pose a threat to Netflix's business model.

There are two follow-up cases: Netflix Inc.: The Second Act - Moving into Streaming, 9B16M080 and Netflix: Proving the Skeptics Wrongs, 9B16M081.


Teaching Note: 8B09M93 (19 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Planning; Business Model Design; Competitive Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PETS.COM INC.: THE RISE AND DECLINE OF A PET SUPPLY RETAILER
Omar Merlo

Product Number: 9B09A021
Publication Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 16 pages

The case follows the rise and decline of Pets.com from its inception in 1994 until 2000. It starts with a look at the birth of Pets.com, followed by a discussion of the market, consumer behaviour and key competitors. It then focuses on Pets.com's business strategy and marketing mix. The case study provides the basis for class discussion of a number of key issues, including but not limited to a) the decision whether to enter a strategic partnership, b) the pursuit of an aggressive growth strategy, c) the design and management of the marketing mix, d) the use of aggressive communication and pricing strategies, and e) brand-building decisions. Pets.com is often cited alongside the Edsel, New Coke, Betamax and others as one of the biggest marketing blunders of all times. As such, students find it a fascinating story. The case study also asks students to reflect on some common challenges faced by organizations, such as entry and survival in a highly competitive market, how to deal with a dominant player, venture capital and entrepreneurial issues, business model design, brand management, marketing mix decisions, and the benefits and perils of a growth strategy. The case has been used successfully in the following courses: a) an MBA elective course dealing with popular marketing mistakes and failures, b) a postgraduate strategic marketing course dealing with growth strategies, c) a marketing management course at the undergraduate level focused on the design and management of the marketing mix, and d) a services marketing module at the undergraduate level on the topic of online marketing.

Teaching Note: 8B09A21 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Marketing Mix; Business Growth; Online Retail; Market Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LOBLAW COMPANIES LIMITED
Charlene Zietsma, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B04M082
Publication Date: 1/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 20 pages

The president of Loblaw Companies Limited must decide what to do in response to the rumoured introduction of Wal-Mart's SuperCenters (combining grocery and non-food items) in Canada. The potential launch of SuperCenters in Canada was seen by observers as a threat to Loblaw, the market leader in Canadian grocery. Wal-Mart is a vigorous competitor, and the Every Day Low Prices strategy of Wal-Mart's SuperCenters could wean away traffic from Loblaw's various banners.

Teaching Note: 8B04M82 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Food and Drug; Industry Analysis; Competition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Analyzing Resources and Capabilities

HARLEQUIN ENTERPRISES LTD.: THE MIRA DECISION (CONDENSED)
Rod E. White, Mary M. Crossan, Will Mitchell, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05M037
Publication Date: 6/14/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 13 pages

Harlequin Enterprises is a well-known publisher of series romantic fiction. The company is facing threats to its leading position as the world's largest romance publisher. While Harlequin was the dominant and very profitable producer of series of romance novels, research indicated that many customers were reading as many single-title romance and women's fiction as series romances. Facing a steady loss of share, Harlequin convened a task force to study the possibility of re-launching a single title women's fiction program. Students must analyze the organization's capabilities and resources as it considers the launch of this new business line.

Teaching Note: 8B03M07 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Development; Product Design/Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MCDONALD'S AND THE MCCAFE COFFEE INITIATIVE
Pratima Bansal, Lindsay Sgro

Product Number: 9B04M008
Publication Date: 1/15/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 9 pages

While McDonald's breakfast and snack sales have been increasing, they have not kept pace with industry growth. The primary barrier to this sales growth in the Canadian market, according to a franchise owner, is the quality of the coffee. McDonald's in Canada has been attempting to build its coffee brand equity for many years. They had switched to the Higgins and Burke coffee but had little success changing customers' negative perceptions. To truly change customer perceptions, McDonald's needed to revolutionize their coffee program. McCafe was introduced in response to this coffee issue. McCafe was full service coffee bar, located in a McDonald's restaurant as an extension to the front counter or located as a stand-alone restaurant. Over 300 McCafes existed worldwide. While McDonald's would like to get a piece of the lucrative coffee market, McCafe's main objective was to eliminate coffee as a barrier to breakfast and snack sales. The question for one franchise owner is whether McCafe's strong initial sales can be sustained.

Teaching Note: 8B04M08 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Diversification; Corporate Strategy; Strategy Development; Strategy and Resources
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MEUBLES CANADEL: LOOKING TOWARDS THE FUTURE
Louis Hébert, Mary M. Crossan, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B01M019
Publication Date: 4/30/2001
Revision Date: 9/18/2009
Length: 10 pages

Canadel is Canada's leading manufacturer of casual dining room furniture. Following Canadel's entry into the U.S. market in 1992, sales had multiplied eight-fold and were expected to reach $125 million in 2000. The three brothers that made up the company's top management team were discussing recent sales results and future orientation of the firm. Questions that surfaced included growth in existing and new markets, and competition from established industry giants and new upstarts. The brothers were determined to assess these opportunities and threats in the upcoming weeks.

Teaching Note: 8B01M19 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Competition; Strategy Development; Core Competence; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Developing Resources and Capabilities

AFRICAN TIGER (A)
Rajinder Raina

Product Number: 9B10M009
Publication Date: 4/21/2010
Length: 26 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case series won top prize in the 2010 Association of African Business Schools (AABS)/EMERALD case competition. In early 2005, South African company Tiger Wheels Limited (Tiger) had established a global footprint in the manufacture of aluminum alloy wheels with customers comprising several high-end automotive producers. It was the 10th largest alloy wheel company in the world with a solid balance sheet and net current assets of $42 million. Tiger had a chance to expand and grow with the potential purchase of a new world-class alloy wheel facility in Kentucky, United States for half of its estimated value. The Kentucky plant came with a significant long-term Ford contract to supply aluminum wheels at attractive prices. To Tiger's chairman, it seemed an attractive offer, but the pros and cons of purchasing the plant would have to be carefully evaluated by the board of directors. An African Tiger Case A is a part of An African Tiger case series, which includes A and B cases.

Teaching Note: 8B10M09 (34 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Strategy; Global Strategy; Strategic Scope; Core Competence; Developing Countries; Planning; Growth Strategy; Diversification; Corporate Strategy; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GPS-TO-GO TAKES ON GARMIN
Donald A. Pillittere

Product Number: 9B09A027
Publication Date: 1/25/2010
Length: 9 pages

GPS-to-GO is a successful company that has a wealth of brilliant researchers and scientists who have created advanced global positioning systems (GPSs) for complex air-traffic control and logistics systems. Now, the vision of one of the up and coming managers is to use GPS-to-GO's knowledge to dominate the consumer market with premium-priced and feature-rich GPS units. Even though GPS-to-GO is far ahead in terms of GPS technology, the consumer market demands low-cost units and yearly follow-on products, which requires drastically different skills than GPS-to-GO's typical five- to 10-year cost-plus government projects. One of the managers is tasked with how to meet the cost target and market window for the new product, while working with the same engineering group that caused the unit manufacturing problem and launch delays in the first place. The key issues concern 1) engineering-centric companies and their culture, business strategies and processes for managing new product development 2) the implications these strategies and processes have on addressing the needs of customers, shareholders and employees in a totally new market segment 3) the role managers can play in making critical decisions with a keen eye on roadblocks to success, such as culture, inadequate skills and overly optimistic and myopic visionaries. The case includes an Excel spreadsheet with break-even scenarios that professors can use to complement the teaching note. The case is intended for courses in managing new product commercialization, managing technology and innovation, strategic thinking, operations management and leadership.

Teaching Note: 8B09A27 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Costs; Break-Even Analysis; Management Behaviour; Manufacturing Strategy; Corporate Culture; New Product Development; Change Management; Management Style
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VESTAS WIND SYSTEMS A/S - EXPLOITING GLOBAL R&D SYNERGIES
Torben Pedersen, Marcus Moller Larsen

Product Number: 9B09M079
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Length: 17 pages

With a change in management in 2005 came a radical reorganization and the announcement of several new strategic initiatives. Among the initiatives was the establishment of the Vestas Technology research and development (R&D) business unit with an aim of achieving global leadership in all core technology areas and, consequently, strengthening the core competence for the company. By 2008, Vestas had succeeded in setting up a global R&D network with R&D centres in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore and India, and, in early 2009, a centre was opened in the United States. This transformed Vestas into a high-tech company and put a greater emphasis on its technological innovations.

Teaching Note: 8B09M79 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Research and Development; Global Strategy; Value Chain; Technology Transfer
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Organizational Structure and Managerial Systems: The Fundamentals of Strategy Implementation

NATIONAL AUSTRALIA BANK (A)
Graham Hubbard, Judy Hubbard

Product Number: 9B08M035
Publication Date: 8/29/2008
Length: 10 pages

This is a chronological series of two cases. The (A) case is about the fall from grace of a revered, high-performing Australian company that had gone international in its quest for growth. The (B) case is about the turnaround that followed. The (A) case covers the period 2000 to 2004. It includes the National Australia Bank (NAB) 2000 corporate/business strategy, the MLC acquisition, the sale of Michigan National, the HomeSide financial disaster and consequent sale, and the 2003 foreign exchange trading disaster that ultimately led to recognition that NAB was truly in trouble. The (B) case is about the turnaround that followed. It covers the period 2004 to 2006, at which point the new chief executive officer (CEO) declares that the three year turnaround is almost over and the new NAB is back in business. It covers the investigation of the foreign exchange trading scandal disaster, the changes in personnel in the top management team and the board, the introduction of new external people to support the new CEO and many other detailed events that took place as part of the turnover. The (A) case is primarily about implementation of strategy and the (B) case is primarily about implementation of strategy for a turnaround. Both cases are mainly corporate strategy cases, though they could be used in the business strategy section of a strategic management course, since the corporation is narrowly diversified and centrally controlled, so it acts like a business.

Teaching Note: 8B08M35 (5 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Success and Failure; Turnaround; Positioning; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



NATIONAL AUSTRALIA BANK (B)
Graham Hubbard, Judy Hubbard

Product Number: 9B08M036
Publication Date: 8/29/2008
Length: 13 pages

This is a chronological series of two cases. The (A) case is about the fall from grace of a revered, high-performing Australian company that had gone international in its quest for growth. The (B) case is about the turnaround that followed. The (A) case covers the period 2000 to 2004. It includes the National Australia Bank (NAB) 2000 corporate/business strategy, the MLC acquisition, the sale of Michigan National, the HomeSide financial disaster and consequent sale, and the 2003 foreign exchange trading disaster that ultimately led to recognition that NAB was truly in trouble. The (B) case is about the turnaround that followed. It covers the period 2004 to 2006, at which point the new chief executive office (CEO) declares that the three year turnaround is almost over and the new NAB is back in business. It covers the investigation of the foreign exchange trading scandal disaster, the changes in personnel in the top management team and the board, the introduction of new external people to support the new CEO and many other detailed events that took place as part of the turnover. The (A) case is primarily about implementation of strategy and the (B) case is primarily about implementation of strategy for a turnaround. Both cases are mainly corporate strategy cases, though they could be used in the business strategy section of a strategic management course, since the corporation is narrowly diversified and centrally controlled, so it acts like a business.

Teaching Note: 8B08M36 (4 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Positioning; Corporate Strategy; Success and Failure; Turnaround
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JACQUES KEMP: TOWARDS PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE
Rod E. White, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M084
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 19 pages

Over the past two years, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific had successfully implemented a new organizational and operational framework called Towards Performance Excellence (TPE), which was developed with inputs from functional heads, senior management and staff at the business unit level. TPE detailed and organized everything ING Asia/Pacific needed to execute its strategy effectively. TPE divided ING's business processes into six core categories: portfolio, marketing, organizational, operational, reputation and financial. Each category included aspects of execution known as drivers, which required managers to identify specific objectives and key performance indicators (KPIs) for each driver or sub-driver. The case includes many original exhibits and is ideally taught as the follow up case of the ING Insurance Asia/Pacific, Ivey product #9B06M083 or as a standalone case, which illustrates a real example of regional versus local organizational management.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
The Nature and Sources of Competitive Advantage

MARKET STRETCH
Gavin Price, Margaret Sutherland

Product Number: 9B09M046
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 11 pages

Bio-Oil is a multi-purpose skin care product that has gone from being sold only in South Africa to being the No. 1 scar treatment product in 16 of the 17 countries in which it is distributed. Retail sales have jumped from R3 million per annum to R1 billion from 2000 to 2008. Justin and David Letschert made key decisions to eliminate all of the other 119 products that were being manufactured by the company that they took over in 2000, and focused on the mainstay product of Bio-Oil. Union-Swiss accomplished its successful sales through the use of a hybrid distribution model that compelled its distributors in each country to communicate and share knowledge with each other. Union-Swiss also ensured that it remained focused on building the brand through limiting its activities in the value chain to that of marketing. It did this to such an extent that it created a separate entity to run the distribution of Bio-Oil in South Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B09M46 (8 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Market Entry; International Business; Supply Chain Management; Strategic Positioning; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



PARADISE VACATIONS
Mark B. Vandenbosch, Jonathan Michel

Product Number: 9B08A009
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Revision Date: 4/5/2019
Length: 10 pages

In February 2008, the president of Vacances Paradis Inc. (Paradise) was assessing his options for the company's competitive strategy for the future. Paradise was Quebec's market leader in the tour operating industry but was facing a significant challenge: FunTours Holidays (FunTours) had stolen a sizeable portion of Ontario's market share in only two years and was planning on conquering the Quebec market for the 2008/09 winter season. FunTours' aggressive strategy was to provide large capacity at low prices, thus creating a price war and decreased margins. The president had to consider how to meet FunTours' threat in the face of several challenges: the tour industry was fundamentally changing as a result of shifting from traditional travel agents towards Internet distribution; limited differentiation in product offering forced competing on price; and a growing customer base as more people could afford travel. Price had emerged as the dominant criteria for travelers and a huge consideration for tour operators. The president wondered which strategy would be best for the company's short- and long-term viability.

Teaching Note: 8B08A09 (7 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategy; Competition
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAL-MART STORES, INC
Mary M. Crossan

Product Number: 9B06M068
Publication Date: 8/28/2006
Revision Date: 6/4/2008
Length: 18 pages

A Wal-mart vice-president is preparing to meet with her new colleagues from a Brazilian company Wal-mart had just acquired. She thinks about how she should explain how Wal-mart operates, how it competes and what role its international operations will play in its future. The case describes several aspects of Wal-mart's operations in the context of the U.S. retail industry. Several items are described including employee wages and benefits, merchandise assortment, the Retail Link database, and the supply chain. The retailer's financial position is also depicted. The case notes Wal-mart's public relations woes as well as its international ventures and its competitors.

Teaching Note: 8B06M68 (8 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Strategic Positioning; Operations Management; Financial Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Cost Advantage

THE ASCENDANCE OF AIRASIA: BUILDING A SUCCESSFUL BUDGET AIRLINE IN ASIA
Thomas Lawton, Jonathan Doh

Product Number: 9B08M054
Publication Date: 10/31/2008
Revision Date: 7/21/2010
Length: 16 pages

In September 2001, Tony Fernandes left his job as vice president and head of Warner Music's Southeast Asian operations. He reportedly cashed in his stock options, took out a mortgage on his house, and lined up investors to take control of AirAsia, a struggling Malaysian airline. Three days later, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center. Despite the negative aftermath of the 9-11 attacks, by 2003, AirAsia had demonstrated that the low-fare model epitomized by Southwest and JetBlue in the United States, and by Ryanair and easyJet in Europe, had great potential in the Asian marketplace. Now, Fernandes had to make plans to ensure that AirAsia maintained its momentum while considering the influx of new entrants into the low-fare segment of the airline industry in Asia.

Teaching Note: 8B08M54 (8 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: International Business; Competitive Strategy; Strategic Positioning; Entrepreneurial Business Growth
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DELL INC. IN 2009
Stewart Thornhill, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B08M093
Publication Date: 1/20/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 18 pages

The Dell story is well-known in the business world: a young Michael Dell, while attending the University of Texas in Austin, founds a computer sales company that eventually revolutionizes the industry. The case puts students in the position of a senior executive at Dell who is preparing for an investor relations meeting. As the senior executive reviews information on his company, he wonders how best to convey to skeptical investors that Dell's strategy will return the company to growth. In examining the Dell story, students learn about how Dell built up a set of competitive advantages that seemed unassailable until the early 2000s. The second part of the case illustrates the impermanence of competitive advantages - it describes how Dell is attempting to remake itself after falling behind its competitors.

Teaching Note: 8B08M93 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Development; Strategic Change; Globalization; Strategic Balance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WESTJET: THE PEARSON DECISION
Rod E. White, Derek Lehmberg

Product Number: 9B05M054
Publication Date: 10/28/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 22 pages

In early 2003, WestJet's management was reviewing its plans for growth, and specifically considering whether WestJet should move its eastern Canada base of operations from Hamilton's Munro airport to Toronto Pearson airport. WestJet had grown rapidly since its launch in 1996, and was now the second largest airline in Canada. WestJet had originally focused on Western Canada, but had entered eastern Canada in March of 2000, with an eastern base of operations in Hamilton, a secondary airport in the greater Toronto area. Pearson was Canada's largest domestic and international airport, the primary commercial airport for the greater Toronto area, and a hub of WestJet's largest competitor, Air Canada. Compared with Pearson, Hamilton was less congested and charged much lower fees. WestJet's operations had been closely modeled upon Southwest Airlines. The use of a secondary airport such as Hamilton as a base of operations was consistent with Southwest's low cost, high utilization features. With higher costs and longer turnaround times due to congestion, a base at Pearson was arguably not consistent with the Southwest business model, however, it was hard for WestJet to ignore the growth potential.

Teaching Note: 8B05M54 (25 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Differentiation Advantage

IMAX: LARGER THAN LIFE
Anil Nair

Product Number: 9B09M019
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 18 pages

IMAX was involved in several aspects of the large-format film business: production, distribution, theatre operations, system development and leasing. The case illustrates IMAX's use of its unique capabilities to pursue a focused differentiation strategy. IMAX was initially focused on large format films that were educational yet entertaining, and the theatres were located in institutions such as museums, aquariums and national parks. However, IMAX found that its growth and profitability were constrained by its niche strategy. In response, IMAX sought to grow by expanding into multiplexes. Additionally, IMAX expanded its film portfolio by converting Hollywood movies, such as Harry Potter and Superman, into the large film format. This shift in strategy was supported by the development of two technological capabilities - DMR for conversion of standard 35 mm film into large format, and DMX to convert standard multiplexes to IMAX systems. The shift in strategy was partially successful, but carried the risk of IMAX losing its unique reputation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Business Policy; Strategic Positioning; Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HONG KONG'S OCEAN PARK: TAKING ON DISNEY (REVISED)
Michael N. Young, Dong Liu, Derek Au, Karen Hung, Crystal Wong, Marty Yam, Olivia Yau

Product Number: 9B06M075
Publication Date: 8/30/2006
Revision Date: 2/5/2014
Length: 16 pages

Ocean Park was the only amusement park in Hong Kong until 2005 when Hong Kong Disney exploded onto the entertainment scene. This case outlines Ocean Park's history and its response to Disney's encroachment into its market. Ocean Park acted swiftly and decisively to capitalize on the excitement generated by Disney, thus turning what could have been a threat into an opportunity. In terms of business-level strategy, the park moved to accentuate the differences with Disney rather than compete with Disney head-on. As the CEO stated We have no intention of trying to out-Disney Disney. The park focused on its aquarium, animals and thrill-rides as opposed to the fantasy and animated characters that make up Disney's core competence. By following such a strategy, the park was able to capture a large portion of Disney visitors that came from Mainland China. The case also discusses a recent restructuring, as well as, human resources management issues and other challenges that the park faced in 2006.

Teaching Note: 8B06M75 (6 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Product Positioning; Competitive Strategy; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Industry Evolution and Strategic Change

ALCAN (A): ANTICIPATING INDUSTRY CHANGE
Gregory Vit, Johnny Boghossian, Amrita Nain, Karl Moore

Product Number: 9B09M071
Publication Date: 12/8/2009
Length: 18 pages

In December 2006, Alcan was the second largest producer of aluminum in the world, but the industry was consolidating. The case traces the development of the aluminum industry since World War II to the recent emergence of China as an economic power and the accompanying rise in commodity prices. Alcan had to decide between two offers: to be acquired or to go it alone. The first offer was from Alcoa and the other from Rio Tinto. Alcoa was the world leader in the production of aluminum and, like Alcan, was engaged in significant technological research and development. Meanwhile, Rio Tinto was one of the largest mining companies in the world, but had minor aluminum operations and, in general, few downstream processing plants or technologies. Students are asked to identify Alcan's key resources and consider which strategy would make best use of them.

Teaching Note: 8B09M71 (6 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Government and Business; Strategy and Resources; Globalization; Mergers & Acquisitions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHARTWELL TECHNOLOGIES: UPPING THE ANTE WITH INTERNET POKER
Michael J. Rouse, David Maslach

Product Number: 9B08M055
Publication Date: 12/9/2008
Length: 12 pages

On March 12, 2005, the founder and chief executive officer (CEO) of Chartwell Technologies (Chartwell), a company that specialized in Internet gaming development, noticed something interesting. The CNN headline news ticker on his television read: Online Poker Industry Expected to Grow by Billions within the Year. The CEO and his partner, the vice-president of business development, were about to decide whether to acquire MicroPower Inc. (MicroPower), an online poker company, for US$2.6 million in cash. The industry certainly had the potential for explosive growth. The CEO had to decide whether Chartwell should upgrade its current technology or purchase MicroPower to gain instant access to its C++ platform to take advantage of the growth on the online poker industry.

Teaching Note: 8B08M55 (6 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services, Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation, Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resources Management; Integration; Technological Growth; Acquisitions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SUN MICROSYSTEMS
Scott Jacobs, Prescott C. Ensign

Product Number: 9B06M023
Publication Date: 5/12/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 11 pages

The chairman and chief executive officer of Sun Microsystems Inc., is struggling to take the company he co-founded into a profitable direction. There is strong evidence that a new strategy is necessary. Segments of Sun's business are growing but open source solutions and commoditization of products are driving revenues toward zero. Decisions involve market focus, pricing and investment in new technologies. The case illustrates the role of management preferences and the limits to an executive's span of attention/control. Both the chairman's and Sun's success is contingent upon an accurate assessment of the industry and the relative position of partners as well as the ability to generate creative solutions.

Teaching Note: 8B06M23 (14 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Managing Industry Change; Generating Profit from New Technology; Leadership; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Technology-Based Industries and the Management of Innovation

SOFAME TECHNOLOGIES INC.: SPARKING GROWTH IN A MATURE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B09M070
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 17 pages

The president, chief executive officer (CEO) and director of Sofame Technologies Inc. (Sofame) is trying to boost sales at his firm. Sofame is trying to figure out why, with proven environmentally friendly technology, it is unable to achieve rapid rates of growth. The purpose of the case is to exhibit the issues and challenges in selling new technology and to highlight key elements of entrepreneurship, such as sales strategy and managing the sales cycle.

Teaching Note: 8B09M70 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Sales Management; Market Segmentation; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FARMING PHARMACEUTICALS: VENTRIA BIOSCIENCE AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER PLANT-MADE MEDICINES
Anne T. Lawrence

Product Number: 9B09M011
Publication Date: 2/19/2009
Length: 11 pages

How can a biotechnology start-up navigate a complex regulatory and stakeholder terrain to bring to market an innovative product with potentially significant public health benefits? This case focuses on the challenges facing Ventria Bioscience, a small biotechnology firm based in California. The company had developed an innovative technology for growing medical proteins useful in the treatment of childhood diarrhea in genetically modified rice. The company's efforts to obtain regulatory approval in California to commercialize its invention met with a firestorm of opposition from a wide range of stakeholders, including environmentalists, food safety activists, consumer advocates and rice farmers. The case presents the hurdles faced by Ventria as it has attempted to commercialize its invention in the context of the broader debate over the ethics of plant-based medicines. This case is suitable for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate course in entrepreneurship, small business, the management of technology or biotechnology. In such a course, it is best positioned in a discussion of the regulatory environment and stakeholder relations. Alternatively, the case may be used in a segment on technology or stakeholder relationships in a course in business and society.

Teaching Note: 8B09M11 (10 pages)
Issues: Genetically Modified Crops; Stakeholders; Biotechnology; Government Regulation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BELL CANADA: THE VOIP CHALLENGE
Rod E. White, Daniel Day

Product Number: 9B06M009
Publication Date: 2/16/2006
Revision Date: 3/19/2010
Length: 12 pages

Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is beginning to disrupt plain old telephone service (POTS). Ron Close has been offered the job of heading Bell Canada's nascent VoIP business. Bell is Canada's largest telco and supplier of POTS. The case provides a platform for discussing a disruptive innovation (VoIP) and its implications for an incumbent player. Ron Close explains how Bell addressed the technology challenge, and its managerial and organizational consequences in an available video, product 7B06M009.

Teaching Note: 8B06M09 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Technological Change; Strategy Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Competitive Advantage in Mature Industries

H&R SEWING MACHINE COMPANY
Stephen Hummel, Kenneth Harling

Product Number: 9B08M082
Publication Date: 11/10/2008
Length: 20 pages

This case deals with H&R, a company that distributes sewing equipment in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Its future is in jeopardy because of fundamental changes in the global sewing industries stemming from changes in trade restrictions. The consequence is that Canadian sewing activities are in decline as activities in low-cost foreign countries grow rapidly. As Canadian activities decline, H&R's performance has been suffering. But the management of the family-owned company has had trouble seeing the challenge it faces because it has been highly successful for two generations. The case asks what the new CEO and third generation owner should do to save the company.

Teaching Note: 8B08M82 (7 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Competition; Strategy Development; Managing Industry Change; Tariffs
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MACTARA LIMITED AND THE WOOD PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN NOVA SCOTIA
Julia Sagebien, Rick Shaver

Product Number: 9B07M070
Publication Date: 1/4/2008
Revision Date: 8/26/2008
Length: 12 pages

The case centers around the strategic planning retreat of MacTara Limited (MacTara), the largest wood products company in Nova Scotia. While there are some very good opportunities for the company in some sectors, like wood pellets for fuel (high demand for inexpensively priced renewable energy sources), the Canadian lumber industry as a whole is not attractive at this time (distortionary effects of the Canadian-U.S. softwood lumber dispute, low price of lumber, sales denominated in the free-falling U.S. dollar, inflexible cost structure, etc). The fact that MacTara is a somewhat vertically integrated company - from construction lumber, to chips for paper mills, to fuel pellets made out of wood waste - makes planning very difficult because the health of each sector impacts on the prospects for the others. Company executives need to find a way to make all the various pieces of the business fit together into a profitable whole while they still have money and time. The Canadian lumber industry is in crisis and the eastern Canadian industry is ripe for consolidation.

Teaching Note: 8B07M70 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Industry Analysis; Strategy Development; Crisis and Change; Trade
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENERAL MOTORS: ACTING STRATEGICALLY?
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B05M059
Publication Date: 10/21/2005
Revision Date: 10/3/2009
Length: 18 pages

General Motors (GM) had a history of bold strategies in a wide variety of areas, including the creation of Saturn, the development of global operations and the formation of strategic alliances with Fiat, SAIC and Daewoo. Non-market strategies included pursuing government financial assistance, coping with new environmental regulations, and agreeing to very expensive health care and pension schemes. Meanwhile, GM had failed to create strategies to compete effectively with foreign automakers. By 2005, many of GM's strategic decisions seemed to have been inappropriate. Some that were undertaken for short-term gain had disastrous long-term consequences, and GM performed poorly compared with other global automakers. Many strategies had seemed disconnected, lacking an overall vision or purpose. While students may discuss each strategic decision and understand why GM acted as it did, nevertheless, students can see that the compendium of strategic decisions had moved GM into a serious crisis. In 2005-2006, GM introduced several new strategies. Whether these strategies could achieve sustainable profitability,or whether they would also bring undesirable consequences, was a subject of importance to employees, shareholders, and governments throughout the world.

Teaching Note: 8B05M59 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Business Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Vertical Integration and the Scope of the Firm

ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CONOCO'S PURCHASE OF GULF CANADA RESOURCES: REAPING SYNERGIES FROM INTEGRATION
David W. Conklin, Ken Mark, Darcy Jones

Product Number: 9B03M038
Publication Date: 11/28/2003
Revision Date: 10/22/2009
Length: 18 pages

Firms in the oil and gas industry were shifting towards a model of vertical integration, innovative technologies and international diversification. Canadian firms like Gulf were not able to achieve this new success paradigm on their own and so they were natural takeover targets for large multinationals like Conoco.

Teaching Note: 8B03M38 (11 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: International Business; Business Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAIWAN'S UNITED MICROELECTRONICS CORPORATION (UMC)
Tony S. Frost, Terence Tsai, Borshiuan Cheng, Changhui Zhou

Product Number: 9A98M017
Publication Date: 4/9/1999
Revision Date: 1/29/2010
Length: 11 pages

Taiwan's United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC), one of the world's leading semiconductor foundries, has grown dramatically in 16 years. UMC pursued a strategy of vertical disintegration as part of the chairman's vision of turning UMC into a pure-play foundry. This case discusses the major technological and competitive forces affecting the industry and looks at UMC's restructuring through the eyes of the chairman. The case provides enough detail to engage the class in a discussion of the merits of UMC's vertical disintegration strategy and the possible pitfalls of this approach going forward.

Teaching Note: 8A98M17 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Vertical Integration; Competitiveness
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 15:
Global Strategies and the Multinational Corporation

CANADIAN SOLAR
Paul W. Beamish, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B10M019
Publication Date: 4/5/2010
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 18 pages

In late September 2009, the CEO of the Nasdaq-traded solar cell and module manufacturer, Canadian Solar, was at an inflection point in the formation of its international strategy. The company had experienced dynamic growth during the past five years buoyed largely by aggressive incentive schemes to install solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in Germany and Spain. The credit crunch, coupled with changes in government incentive programs, caused a major decline in the demand for solar PV technology and analysts were predicting that full year 2009 sales would decline. Furthermore, competition in the industry was fierce with diverse players ranging from Japanese electronic giants to low-cost Chinese producers. Canadian Solar had decided to focus on 10 major markets in the next two to three years where strong renewable policies existed. Students are challenged with deciding if any changes to the company's global strategy are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B10M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Business; Growth Strategy; Global Product; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A SPEED RACE: BENELLI AND QJ COMPETE IN THE INTERNATIONAL MOTORBIKE ARENA
Francesca Spigarelli, Ilan Alon, William Wei

Product Number: 9B09M097
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Revision Date: 9/30/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the Qianjiang Group (QJ), a large-scale Chinese state-owned group, acquired the Italian company Benelli to expand its business in Western markets beyond Italy. Benelli's brand advantage was intended to provide the core competency for QJ to compete in the global motorbike markets; in addition, Benelli's capabilities and know-how in motorbike and scooter engineering also helped QJ complete its product portfolio. After a successful start, the many cultural differences related to an Italian business model and a Chinese company became problematic. Problems arose in integrating Chinese and Italian cultures and in coping with a completely different way of doing business, and the company was facing stiff competition from Japanese competitors. Despite excellent press and large industrial investments aimed at gaining efficiency and reducing prices, penetration of Western markets was difficult.

Teaching Note: 8B09M97 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Competitiveness; Mergers & Acquisitions; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VINCOR AND THE NEW WORLD OF WINE
Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M001
Publication Date: 1/14/2004
Revision Date: 11/18/2014
Length: 17 pages

Vincor International Inc. was Canada's largest wine company and North America's fourth largest in 2002. The company had decided to internationalize and as the first step had entered the United States through two acquisitions.The company's chief executive officer felt that to be among the top 10 wineries in the world, Vincor needed to look beyond the region. To the end, he was considering the acquisition of an Australian company, Goundrey Wines. He must analyze thestrategic rationale for the acquisition of Goundrey as well as to probe questions of strategic fit and value.

Teaching Note: 8B04M01 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization; Market Entry; Acquisitions; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 16:
Diversification Strategy

REINVENTING THE SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION (A)
Roberto Galang, Andrew Karl Delios

Product Number: 9B09M074
Publication Date: 12/8/2009
Revision Date: 9/27/2012
Length: 20 pages

San Miguel Corporation is one of the oldest and largest companies in the Philippines. In its 100 year history, it has established a clear leadership position in the Philippine beer industry, as well as having made successful forays into other related and unrelated product areas. In the late 2000s, Eduardo Cojuangco, the CEO of San Miguel Corporation, which was South Asia's largest food and beverage company, found himself in a quandary. Cojuanco wanted to move San Miguel into industries that had scale and good future growth possibilities, to build leadership positions in key industries that would drive growth not just for San Miguel but also for the Philippines. At the same time, San Miguel Corporation would reverse its international expansion plans. The case involves discussion of this strategy, tracing issues of internationalization versus a domestic product focused growth in non-allied businesses in the Philippines, such as energy, mining, infrastructure and other utilities.

The case is part of the Beer Cases series: Anheuser-Busch InBev (9B11M124), Groupo Modelo (9B11M125), Tsingtao Brewery (9B11M126), San Miguel and Thai Bev (9B13M065).


Teaching Note: 8B09M74 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; International Strategy; Strategy; Diversification
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HAVELLS INDIA: THE SYLVANIA ACQUISITION DECISION
Charles Dhanaraj, Kavil Ramachandran, Swetha Dasari

Product Number: 9B09M089
Publication Date: 11/11/2009
Revision Date: 12/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case presents the management challenges of a high-growth manufacturing company based in India that is contemplating a major international acquisition. Its decision will involve both geographic and product diversification. Students have to grapple with the trade-offs of an exciting growth opportunity that can bring the company to new heights against significant risks and challenges that such an acquisition would entail. The case also provides an excellent context for studying the evolution of international strategy in a firm, as it shows Havells growing from an entrepreneurial start-up trading company to a successful manufacturing firm and then a global company.

Teaching Note: 8B09M89 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Acquisition; Mergers & Acquisitions; Growth Strategy; Diversification; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUNNAN BAIYAO: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE MEETS PRODUCT/MARKET DIVERSIFICATION
Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RAYOVAC CORPORATION: INTERNATIONAL GROWTH AND DIVERSIFICATION THROUGH ACQUISITIONS
Ravi Sarathy, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B06M025
Publication Date: 2/16/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 18 pages

The Rayovac case discusses the company's bold and risky acquisitions strategy as it diversifies into personal care and grooming, lawn and garden care, insecticides and pet foods. The company assumes it can successfully manage diverse product categories across diverse geographic markets in which it has limited experience. Success will depend on how well the acquired companies are integrated and managed under Rayovac's supervision. Increasingly, it will also depend on external conditions beyond Rayovac's control, such as macroeconomic conditions and foreign exchange fluctuations. Students should be able to analyze the case from the point of view of international business and strategy and perform a financial analysis of potential future returns using different assumptions for sales growth and margins of the various businesses acquired.

Teaching Note: 8B06M25 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Risk Analysis; Diversification; Acquisition Strategy; Globalization; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 17:
Implementing Corporate Strategy: Management of the Multi-business Firms

GIANT INC.: FORMATION OF THE A-TEAM
Paul W. Beamish, Chwo-Ming (Joseph) Yu

Product Number: 9B09M044
Publication Date: 5/25/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case describes the history and activities of the A-Team, a major alliance of bicycle assembly firms and parts suppliers in Taiwan, which was created in 2003. A strategic alliance with competitors posed challenges. For the A-Team, it was more complicated because the alliance was between both competing bicycle assembly firms and between parts suppliers. By 2006, progress had been made in making the alliance work but the senior executives were wondering what they could do to ensure future progress. The case can be used in a strategy module or course on alliances/joint ventures in a section examining the competition versus cooperation challenge.

Teaching Note: 8B09M44 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Networks; Location Strategy; Learning; Competitive Strategy; Alliances; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ORCHID CHEMICALS & PHARMACEUTICALS LIMITED: MANAGING THE VALUE CHAIN TRANSFORMATION
N. Ravichandran, Ankur Roy

Product Number: 9B06M071
Publication Date: 11/23/2006
Length: 26 pages

Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited (Orchid) is an Indian pharmaceutical company, which commenced its operations in 1994. Over a span of 10 years, the turnover of this company has increased from US$11 million to US$153 million. The company's profit after tax registered a five fold increase from US$1.3 million to US$6.8 million in the corresponding period. Early success was a combination of pricing flexibility, lower production cost and business opportunities in unregulated markets. Orchid decided to explore opportunities for the manufacture of generic drugs in the regulated markets and formulations in the domestic market. Diversification to basic research was also considered. Cooperation and joint ventures were the primary route to expand and explore new molecule discovery. By 2005, Orchid was no longer a single-product company, its business had widened to multiple products in bulk, formulations and generics, in both regulated and unregulated markets. Orchid was making its presence felt in its novel drug delivery systems and new drug development processes. In 2005, Orchid faced several challenges related to financial leverage and risks, leadership, managerial challenges associated with joint ventures, balancing the new business model, setting global trends in being a pioneer in the industry, addressing shareholders' concerns and evolving an appropriate organization culture and process.

Teaching Note: 8B06M71 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Management Systems; Value Chain; Product Mix
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



GILLETTE'S ENERGY DRAIN (A): THE ACQUISITION OF DURACELL
Frank C. Schultz, Michael McCune

Product Number: 9B05M026
Publication Date: 1/31/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 16 pages

In 1996, Gillette acquired Duracell batteries for $7.3 billion in stock. The purchase was met with optimism not only by Gillette's senior management and its highly visible director, Warren Buffet, but also Wall Street analysts. The case highlights the numerous challenges that Gillette has encountered since its acquisition of Duracell. Despite the initial enthusiasm, Duracell has proven to be a drain on Gillette's earning and has cost Michael Hawley, James Kilt's predecessor as CEO, his job after only 18 months in the position - in large part for his inability to turn around the financial hemorrhaging at the Duracell division. The key strategy questions revolve around what can be done to turn around the battery business to help it achieve the potential for Gillette that everyone had assumed it possessed. The supplement Gillette's Energy Drain (B): Energizer's Acquisition of Schick, product 9B05M027 highlights Energizer's October 2003 acquisition of Schick.

Teaching Note: 8B05M26 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Mergers & Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Competition; Strategy Implementation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GILLETTE'S ENERGY DRAIN (B): ENERGIZER'S ACQUISITION OF SCHICK
Frank C. Schultz, Michael McCune

Product Number: 9B05M027
Publication Date: 1/31/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 12 pages

This is a supplement to Gillett's Energy Drain (A): The Acquisition of Duracell, product 9B05M026. Highlighted is Energizer's acquisition of Schick. Gillette was just dabbling in batteries but its source of profits always been in razors and blades. Now, that business is under direct threat by Energizer, with its acquisition of Schick. This supplement provides an excellent example of multipoint competition, and raises the question, should Gillette have anticipated that the acquisition of a battery company would ultimately put razor profits at risk?

Teaching Note: 8B05M26 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Implementation; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Mergers & Acquisitions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 18:
Current Trends in Strategic Management

GREAT RECESSION, 2007-2010: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B10M008
Publication Date: 1/20/2010
Length: 11 pages

A recession in the U.S. economy began at the end of 2007. Concerns deepened as an epic financial crisis shattered business and consumer confidence. By the fall of 2008, the United States was in the midst of the worst recession since the 1930s, and major financial institutions were on the verge of bankruptcy. The financial crisis and recession spread around the world. Many saw a risk that the global financial system might collapse, perhaps precipitating a repetition of the lengthy economic devastation of the 1930s depression. Governments reacted by creating huge stimulus packages that greatly increased national deficits and debts, and by loosening monetary policies with interest rates close to zero and huge expansions of the money supply. In their efforts to save the financial system, governments also offered bail-out packages to banks, including loans, guarantees and equity. By the fall of 2009, the crisis had stabilized, and the appearance of green shoots gave promise of recovery. By 2010, it was possible to put the financial crisis in perspective, and to raise questions about the causes and consequences. Of particular concern was whether new regulations might be needed to prevent a recurrence, and whether some of the tighter regulations should be international in scope. A related concern was whether such regulations should be applied to non-bank financial institutions as well as banks. Governments were also trying to determine how to exit the unique fiscal and monetary positions that now seemed to put their economies at risk of ongoing deficits and future inflation.

Teaching Note: 8B10M08 (5 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Business and Society; Government and Business; Government Regulation; Financial Institutions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CORRUPTION: THE INTERNATIONAL EVOLUTION OF NEW MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
David W. Conklin

Product Number: 9B09M065
Publication Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 21 pages

Many countries have become increasingly concerned with the subject of corruption, and managers today must deal with changes in ethical norms and laws. New laws and international agreements seek to create a worldwide shift towards the reduction of corruption, and so management responsibilities are continually evolving. Both Transparency International and the World Bank provide estimates of the relative pervasiveness of corruption in different countries. Yet this subject is ambiguous and complex, creating significant challenges for managers. Both Volkswagen and Siemens have recently experienced public criticism and legal prosecution over corruption issues, some relating to internal and inter-corporate relations. Some cultures appear to accept corrupt practices as part of normal business-government relations. In China, guanxi is widely seen as a requirement for business success with the establishment of personal relationships that include an ongoing exchange of gifts and personal favours. Some managers may argue that the giving of gifts is acceptable, that bribes to expedite decisions may be necessary, and that only certain types of bribes should be seen as inappropriate corruption. However, this perspective involves the difficulty of drawing a line to guide decisions of corporate employees, and for many managers it is now necessary to implement clear corporate guidelines in regard to what they consider to be corruption. In this context, some managers may decide to avoid investing in certain countries until the culture of corruption has changed.

Teaching Note: 8B09M65 (3 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Business and Society
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOOGLE'S WAY - DON'T BE EVIL
Pratima Bansal, Marlene J. Le Ber

Product Number: 9B07M067
Publication Date: 1/4/2008
Revision Date: 7/3/2008
Length: 14 pages

Wall Street's darling, Google Inc., offered more than a pretty financial picture. Poverty, communicable diseases and climate change - some of the world's largest problems - were also key interests of Google's cofounders. By applying innovation and significant resources, Google's cofounders hoped that their efforts in these areas would one day eclipse Google itself in worldwide impact. On February 22, 2006, Google Inc. announced the appointment of an executive director of the newly created Google.org. With one per cent of Google Inc.'s equity and profit as seed money, Google.org's mandate was to address climate change, global public health, economic development and poverty. Although charity by successful entrepreneurs was not unusual, this press release signaled a new organizational form, a for-profit philanthropic company. The new executive director's task ahead was unprecedented. How could he leverage the company's for-profit status to make the biggest impact possible with the resources trusted to Google.org? What decision-making criteria should be used for strategic investments? How would he measure Google.org's success?

Teaching Note: 8B07M67 (11 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Corporate Governance; Strategic Decision Making; Business Sustainability; New Organizational Forms
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA