Ivey Publishing

Strategic Management: A Dynamic Perspective - Concepts

Carpenter, M.,Sanders, W., Harling, K.,1/e (Canada, Pearson Education, 2012)
Prepared By Chethan D Srikant, Ph.D. Student
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introducing Strategic Management

WESTJET IN 2009: THE FLEET EXPANSION DECISION
Stewart Thornhill, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B09M063
Publication Date: 9/24/2009
Revision Date: 8/26/2010
Length: 18 pages

Thirteen years after it began operations with three airplanes, WestJet is the second-largest airline in Canada. It has grown revenues at an annual rate of 37 per cent per year for the past 11 years, and is poised to become the country’s dominant airline in the future. As it has grown, WestJet seems to have made changes to its original strategy of low-cost, no-frills, point-to-point, single-class service. The case examines WestJet’s strategy over the years and focuses on the company’s latest decision point: whether to add smaller planes to its single-model Boeing fleet. The objective of the case is to examine changes in a company’s strategy over time, and to review the potential impact of these changes on a company’s future performance.

Teaching Note: 8B09M63 (10 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Strategic Planning; Strategy Development; Strategic Positioning; Change Management; Airline Industry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DELL INC. IN 2009
Stewart Thornhill, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B08M093
Publication Date: 1/20/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 18 pages

The Dell story is well-known in the business world: a young Michael Dell, while attending the University of Texas in Austin, founds a computer sales company that eventually revolutionizes the industry. The case puts students in the position of a senior executive at Dell who is preparing for an investor relations meeting. As the senior executive reviews information on his company, he wonders how best to convey to skeptical investors that Dell's strategy will return the company to growth. In examining the Dell story, students learn about how Dell built up a set of competitive advantages that seemed unassailable until the early 2000s. The second part of the case illustrates the impermanence of competitive advantages - it describes how Dell is attempting to remake itself after falling behind its competitors.

Teaching Note: 8B08M93 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Development; Strategic Change; Globalization; Strategic Balance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



APPLE'S IPOD SYSTEM: IPOD, ITUNES AND FAIRPLAY
Rod E. White, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B06M080
Publication Date: 11/6/2006
Revision Date: 2/7/2007
Length: 7 pages

In July 2006, Apple Computer Inc. (Apple) is enjoying increased sales due to its popular iPod portable digital music player. The iPod and iTunes, Apple's online music store, each have about 70 per cent of the market share. In the 1980's, Apple had a great deal of success in the personal computer (PC) business. However, Apple saw its market share fall from over 30 per cent to less than five per cent. Most experts agree that this occurred because Apple had control over the production and distribution of its hardware, software and operating system. The Windows and Intel computers eventually took Apple's lead in the market. Analysts are starting to wonder if Apple will face the same problems as it uses the same business model for its iPod and iTunes products.

Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy; Expansion; Market Strategy; System Design; Product Strategy; Strategic Positioning; Competitive Advantage
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SWATCH AND THE GLOBAL WATCH INDUSTRY
Allen Morrison, Cyril Bouquet

Product Number: 9A99M023
Publication Date: 5/9/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The efforts of Swatch to reposition itself in the increasingly competitive global watch industry are reviewed in this case. Extensive information on the history and structure of the global watch industry is provided and the shrinking time horizons decision makers face in formulating strategy and in responding to changes in the industry are highlighted. In particular, the case discusses how technology and globalization have changed industry dynamics and have caused companies to reassess their sources of competitive advantage. Like other companies, Swatch faces the difficult task of deciding whether to emphasize product breadth, or focus on a few key global brands. It also must decide whether to shift manufacturing away from Switzerland to lower cost countries like India.

Teaching Note: 8A99M23 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Industry Analysis; Competing with Multinationals; Globalization
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 2:
The Process of Strategic Leadership

MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AT COCA-COLA: THE REAL THING
W. Glenn Rowe, Suhaib Riaz

Product Number: 9B08M040
Publication Date: 11/4/2008
Length: 15 pages

Muhtar Kent had just been promoted to the CEO position in Coca-Cola. He was reflecting upon the past leadership of the company, in particular the success that Coca-Cola enjoyed during Robert Goizueta's leadership. The CEOs that had followed Goizueta were not able to have as positive an impact on the stock value. When his promotion was announced, Kent mentioned that he did not have immediate plans to change any management roles but that some fine-tuning might be necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B08M40 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Performance Evaluation; Management Style; Leadership; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VISIONING AT XEROX CANADA
Mary M. Crossan, Nick Bontis

Product Number: 9A95M015
Publication Date: 12/8/1995
Revision Date: 2/19/2010
Length: 8 pages

This case describes the visioning process at Xerox Canada. The chairman, CEO and president of Xerox Canada has been meeting with her leadership team since eight o'clock in the morning to craft the organization's new vision statement. Three and a half hours into the meeting the team hits a road block. With 30 minutes left in the session, the CEO must decide whether and how to proceed. (A three-minute video can be purchased with the case, video 7A95M015.

Teaching Note: 8A95M15 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Visioning; Mission Statements
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
The Internal Environment Resources, Capabilities, and Activities

ORCHID ECOTEL: LEVERAGING GREEN HOTELING AS CORE COMPETENCY
Trupti Karkhanis, Atanu Adhikari

Product Number: 9B11A045
Publication Date: 10/26/2011
Length: 19 pages

Vithal Kamat, chairman and managing director of Kamat Hotels India Ltd., was a second-generation entrepreneur who has taken the Kamat Hotels brand to new heights. Kamat Hotels included five major verticals, from five-star luxury hotels (The Orchid Ecotels) to economy restaurants (Kamat Restaurants) catering to different customer segments. Kamat had ambitious plans for the expansion of every vertical using alternative growth strategies. However, the recent economic slump had caused a sudden setback due to the fall in average room occupancy and competing room-tariff rates offered by other hotels. In such a tumultuous situation, Kamat planned to use the core competency of The Orchid as an “ecotel,” that is, an environmentally friendly hotel, to go in for corporate branding and leverage its position in the market.

The case illustrates the challenges faced by Kamat in extending the core competency of The Orchid to its other verticals. The Orchid had performed better than the industry average until 2008, but in 2009 its performance dipped, partly because of the economic recession. This prompted the company board members to decide on extending the core competency of the ecologically sustainable hotel into other verticals. However, this decision had to be considered carefully in light of its impact on The Orchid as well as on the other verticals. What were the challenges that would be faced while extending the core competency of “ecoteling” to the other verticals?


Teaching Note: 8B11A045 (9 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Core Competency; Environmental Sustainability; Ecotels; Green Marketing; Hotel Management; Hospitality Industry; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



IMAX: LARGER THAN LIFE
Anil Nair

Product Number: 9B09M019
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 18 pages

IMAX was involved in several aspects of the large-format film business: production, distribution, theatre operations, system development and leasing. The case illustrates IMAX's use of its unique capabilities to pursue a focused differentiation strategy. IMAX was initially focused on large format films that were educational yet entertaining, and the theatres were located in institutions such as museums, aquariums and national parks. However, IMAX found that its growth and profitability were constrained by its niche strategy. In response, IMAX sought to grow by expanding into multiplexes. Additionally, IMAX expanded its film portfolio by converting Hollywood movies, such as Harry Potter and Superman, into the large film format. This shift in strategy was supported by the development of two technological capabilities - DMR for conversion of standard 35 mm film into large format, and DMX to convert standard multiplexes to IMAX systems. The shift in strategy was partially successful, but carried the risk of IMAX losing its unique reputation.

Teaching Note: 8B09M19 (11 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Business Policy; Strategic Positioning; Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HARLEQUIN ENTERPRISES LTD.: THE MIRA DECISION (CONDENSED)
Rod E. White, Mary M. Crossan, Will Mitchell, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05M037
Publication Date: 6/14/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 13 pages

Harlequin Enterprises is a well-known publisher of series romantic fiction. The company is facing threats to its leading position as the world's largest romance publisher. While Harlequin was the dominant and very profitable producer of series of romance novels, research indicated that many customers were reading as many single-title romance and women's fiction as series romances. Facing a steady loss of share, Harlequin convened a task force to study the possibility of re-launching a single title women's fiction program. Students must analyze the organization's capabilities and resources as it considers the launch of this new business line.

Teaching Note: 8B03M07 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Strategy Development; Product Design/Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STARBUCKS
Mary M. Crossan, Ariff Kachra

Product Number: 9A98M006
Publication Date: 5/14/1998
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 23 pages

Starbucks is faced with the issue of how it should leverage its core competencies against various opportunities for growth, including introducing its coffee in McDonald’s, pursuing further expansion of its retail operations, and leveraging the brand into other product areas. The case is written so that students need to first identify where Starbucks competencies lie along the value chain, and assess how well those competencies can be leveraged across the various alternatives. It also provides an opportunity for students to assess what is driving growth in this company. Starbucks has a tremendous appetite for cash since all its stores are corporate, and investors are betting that it will be able to continue its phenomenal growth, so it needs to walk a fine line between leveraging its brand to achieve growth while not eroding it in the process. This is an exciting case that quickly captures the attention of students.

Teaching Note: 8A98M06 (13 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: competitiveness; industry analysis; growth strategy; core competence; coffee
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Exploring the External Environment Macro and Industry Dynamics

CANADIAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS: INDUSTRY REGULATION AND POLICY
Adam Fremeth, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B11M005
Publication Date: 2/3/2011
Length: 15 pages

This case study is based on a high-profile issue facing the Canadian federal government that began in 2008 and was still ongoing as of December 2010. Industry Canada, working from a set of policy objectives crafted over a period of three years, had decided that in the auction sale of wireless spectrum licenses in 2008, it would set aside 40 per cent of the licenses for new entrants. This decision had come about because research indicated that Canadian usage of wireless services had lagged behind that of other developed countries, mainly due to the high relative cost of wireless services.

One of the new entrants was Globalive Communications Corporation (Globalive), a start-up which was funded by Orascom Telecom Holding S.A.E., an Egyptian company. Despite the fact that Canada had well-defined foreign ownership restrictions for the telecommunications sector, Globalive was allowed to bid. It won, and paid $442 million for its spectrum, began to hire hundreds of staff, and committed another $300 million to investing in wireless infrastructure. From the time Globalive applied to participate in the spectrum auction to the period prior to its official launch, the firm met several times with Industry Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), and the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) to ensure that its ownership was structured so as to fit within the foreign ownership restrictions.

Pressure had been put on the CRTC by carriers such as Rogers and Bell to conduct a formal review of Globalive, and this review had determined that Globalive did not fit within foreign ownership restrictions. However, the government had overturned this decision, revealing a conflict between regulation and policy.


Teaching Note: 8B11M005 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Strategic Planning; Policy Analysis; Government and Business; Government Regulation; Wireless Telecommunications
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUMCHA.COM.AU
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Rohan Belliappa

Product Number: 9B10M038
Publication Date: 6/16/2010
Length: 12 pages

Set in November 2007, the case is about a soon-to-launch social networking website (Yumcha) in Australia intended for the country's significant Asian population and diaspora. The case describes the process that Yumcha's founder went through in establishing the entity, including her initial motivations and business rationale. The case goes on to describe the dilemma facing the founder in choosing a web developer for the site, including whether to source the developer from new online bidding platforms. The challenges involved in this relatively new means of sourcing and bidding for technical talent are presented. The case also outlines the strategy questions facing the founder concerning expanding the social networking venture in an external environment that has seen the rapid development and expansion of numerous other social networking websites.

Teaching Note: 8B10M38 (9 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Information System Design; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Internet; Startups; Entrepreneurial Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ENTREPRENEURS AT TWITTER: BUILDING A BRAND, A SOCIAL TOOL OR A TECH POWERHOUSE?
Simon Parker, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B10M028
Publication Date: 3/22/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 10 pages

Twitter has become an incredibly popular micro-blogging service since its launch in 2006. Its founders have ambitious plans for the service, and are backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital funding, which values the company at $3.7 billion in 2011. Twitter seems to attract a diverse audience of users, such as political organizers looking to disseminate information to their followers; businesses looking to reach out, in real time, to potential customers; and social users. The company charges consumers nothing for its service. By 2011, competitors have emerged, some of whom are financially strong. It remains unclear - at least to some observers - whether the company will ever make money from its service.

Teaching Note: 8B10M28 (10 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Social Networking Media; Strategic Positioning; New Venture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON THE CUBAN CIGAR INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish, Akash Kapoor

Product Number: 9B03M001
Publication Date: 2/27/2003
Revision Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 20 pages

The cigar industry in Cuba has a mythical aura and renown that give it unparalleled recognition worldwide. The relationship between Cuba and the United States makes the situation in this industry particularly intriguing. Cuban cigars cannot currently be sold in the United States, even though it is the largest premium cigar market in the world. This note provides an opportunity for a structured analysis using Porter's five forces model and to consider several scenarios including the possible lifting of the U.S. embargo and the relaxation of Cuba's land ownership laws.

Teaching Note: 8B03M01 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Government and Business; Internationalization; International Business; Industry Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Creating Business Strategies

LEGO GROUP: BUILDING STRATEGY
Darren Meister, Paul Bigus

Product Number: 9B11M086
Publication Date: 9/13/2011
Revision Date: 2/1/2013
Length: 12 pages

The world famous toymaker, The LEGO Group, assembled an internal management team to create a strategic report on LEGO’s different product lines and business operations. In recent years, numerous threats to LEGO had emerged in the toy industry. The acquisition of Marvel Entertainment by The Walt Disney Company created major implications for valuable toy license agreements. LEGO had also recently lost a long legal battle with major competitor MEGA Brands, makers of MEGA Bloks, with a European Union court decision that removed the LEGO brick trademark. Furthermore, the second-largest toymaker in the world, Hasbro, was preparing to launch a new rival product line called Kre-O. It was critical for the management team to identify where to expand LEGO’s product lines and business operations, in order to develop a competitive strategy to continue the organization’s recent years of financial success and dominance in the building toy market.

Teaching Note: 8B11M086 (6 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Opportunity Recognition; Licensing; Competitive Strategy; Business Growth; Toy Industry; Denmark
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



QANTAS: WHICH ROUTE OUT OF THE TURBULENCE?
Nitin Pangarkar, Hari Bapuji, Braden Loader

Product Number: 9B11M068
Publication Date: 8/24/2011
Revision Date: 10/5/2011
Length: 24 pages

In May 2011, Alan Joyce, chief executive officer of Qantas Group, needed to think about the future strategy of the airline group. Over the past few years, it had launched a number of strategic initiatives to defend its current position and penetrate new markets and segments. Qantas had discontinued its first-class service on many flights, opting to bolster its business-class service instead. Its forays into the budget travel segment through Jetstar proved to be successful and contributed to the overall financial performance of the group. Qantas had also placed a bet on emerging economies such as China, despite experiencing adverse performance in its international routes. However, the financial performance of the company was far from healthy. Qantas was fighting hard to retain its Australian position in the face of attempts by Virgin Blue and Tiger Airways to compete aggressively and gain market share. Analysts wondered whether Qantas was trying to do too much and, in the process, spreading itself too thinly. Would the Qantas Group be better off simply prioritizing across its various alternatives, or did it have sufficient resources (financial as well as managerial) to pursue all the initiatives? And if a narrow focus was better, then which strategic alternatives should Qantas pursue aggressively?

Teaching Note: 8B11M068 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Business Policy; Emerging Markets; Environmental Analysis; Growth Strategy; Airline Industry; Australia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BOMBARDIER AEROSPACE: THE CSERIES DILEMMA
Louis Hébert, Ali Taleb

Product Number: 9B11M072
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Revision Date: 3/29/2016
Length: 21 pages

In July 2004, Bombardier Aerospace announced its intention to develop a new family of aircraft called CSeries. In May 2007, three years after the initial announcement, the final decision on whether to proceed with the initiative was still pending. Moreover, during this period, the company released several confusing announcements that raised concerns among investors and industry analysts regarding the sustainability of the company’s long-term strategy. In the meantime, Brazilian Embraer had invested heavily in research and development and had taken the leadership position in the regional aircraft segment from Bombardier. Consequently, Bombardier was faced with a serious dilemma of whether or not to launch the CSeries project. The decision was expected to have a major impact on the future market positioning of Bombardier.

Students may be asked to act as advisors to Pierre Beaudoin, president and chief executive officer of Bombardier Aerospace, and recommend whether the company should proceed with the CSeries initiative. More specifically, students should do a full analysis of the company’s external environment, identify the alternatives available to Beaudoin, assess these options based on internal and external environments, and recommend a course of action. For Beaudoin, the recommendation was due before the annual meeting of shareholders, scheduled on May 29, 2007.


Teaching Note: 8B11M072 (16 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Industry Analysis; Corporate Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Strategic Positioning; Aerospace; Canada
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Crafting Business Strategy for Dynamic Contexts

NETFLIX
Sayan Chatterjee, Elizabeth Carroll, David M. Spencer

Product Number: 9B09M093
Publication Date: 2/3/2010
Length: 20 pages

This case describes how Netflix created the business model of delivering DVDs using mail services. Essentially, Netflix exploited a whitespace that other players, such as Blockbuster, could not engage in primarily because they were constrained by their own business models. The case allows the instructor to develop the details of the capabilities that have allowed Netflix to deliver the values its customers desire. The case can then explore the competitive dynamics between Blockbuster, Netflix and Wal-Mart, a new entrant, in this space. Finally, the case describes future technologies, such as Video on Demand (VOD), that in turn pose a threat to Netflix's business model.

There are two follow-up cases: Netflix Inc.: The Second Act - Moving into Streaming, 9B16M080 and Netflix: Proving the Skeptics Wrongs, 9B16M081.


Teaching Note: 8B09M93 (19 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Planning; Business Model Design; Competitive Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESEARCH IN MOTION: MANAGING EXPLOSIVE GROWTH
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Daina Mazutis

Product Number: 9B08M046
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 19 pages

Research in Motion (RIM) is a high technology firm that is experiencing explosive sales growth. David Yach, chief technology officer for software at RIM, has received notice of an impending meeting with the co-chief executive officer regarding his research and development (R&D) expenditures. Although RIM, makers of the very popular BlackBerry, spent almost $360 million in R&D in 2007, this number was low compared to its largest competitors, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of sales (e.g. Nokia spent $8.2 billion on R&D). This is problematic as it foreshadows the question of whether or not RIM is well positioned to continue to meet expectations, deliver award-winning products and services and maintain its lead in the smartphone market. Furthermore, in the very dynamic mobile telecommunications industry, investment analysts often look to a firm's commitment to R&D as a signal that product sales growth will be sustainable. Just to maintain the status quo, Yach will have to hire 1,400 software engineers in 2008 and is considering a number of alternative paths to managing the expansion. The options include: (1) doing what they are doing now, only more of it, (2) building on their existing and satellite R&D locations, (3) growing through acquisition or (4) going global.

Teaching Note: 8B08M46 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Telecommunication Technology; Change Management; Globalization; Staffing; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TIME WARNER INC. AND THE ORC PATENTS
Paul W. Beamish, John Adamson

Product Number: 9B01M059
Publication Date: 1/29/2002
Revision Date: 8/28/2009
Length: 16 pages

Optical Recording Corporation (ORC) secured the rights to a technology known as digital optical audio recording. During the time it took to negotiate the final transfer of the technology ownership, it was rumored that some major electronics manufacturers were developing compact disc (CD) players that recorded digital optical audio signals. A patent lawyer advised ORC that the compact disc players and compact discs recently released by these companies might be infringing the claims of ORC's newly acquired patents. Based on this information, the company proceeded to successfully negotiate licensing agreements with the two largest CD manufacturers, Sony of Japan, and Philips of the Netherlands The third largest manufacturer, WEA Manufacturing, a subsidiary of Time Warner Inc., maintained a position of non-infringement and invalid patents. With the U.S. patent expiry date looming, ORC decided to sue Time Warner for patent infringement. When the defense counsel presented testimony that questioned the integrity of the licensing agreement, ORC's president realized that the entire licensing program was in jeopardy and must decide whether he should accept a settlement or proceed with the lawsuit.

Teaching Note: 8B01M59 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Business Law; Intellectual Capital; Licensing; Patents
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Performance of the Strategy

APOLLO HOSPITALS ENTERPRISE LTD. CLINICAL SCORECARD
Murray J. Bryant, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B11M066
Publication Date: 8/9/2011
Length: 13 pages

In January 2011, the group medical director of Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Ltd (AHEL), India’s largest integrated health care provider in the private sector, is weighing his options in promoting clinical excellence among group hospitals. AHEL has been using a clinical scorecard, called ACE@25, as a tool to measure and monitor clinical excellence, which is becoming a source of differentiation in the Indian health care industry. ACE@25 measures 25 clinical parameters, benchmarked against the best hospitals globally, every month. The group medical director is wondering whether his role should be limited to monitoring clinical outcomes or whether, in order to drive clinical excellence, he should also prescribe the steps that the medical superintendents of individual hospitals should take in improving outcomes on their watch.

Teaching Note: 8B11M066 (5 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Managerial Accounting and Control; Clinical Governance; Health Care; Performance Management; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



RESUMING INTERNATIONALIZATION AT STARBUCKS
Mario Koster, Rob Alkema, Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M073
Publication Date: 9/23/2010
Revision Date: 5/4/2017
Length: 17 pages

Starbucks enjoyed tremendous growth over the previous two decades. In 2007, it had a global reach of over 17,000 stores in 56 countries. Between 2007 and 2009, however, Starbucks' relentless march was slowed by three forces: increasingly intense competition, rising coffee bean prices and a global economic recession. In order to remain profitable, the company started to scale back its overseas operations. In 2010, Starbucks was faced with a critical strategic decision: Should the company resume its international expansion and once again intensify its commitments in overseas markets? If so, what approach should the company take? Had the pace of Starbucks' internationalization (i.e. the rate of opening new stores abroad), the rhythm of its internationalization (i.e. the regularity by which stores were opened abroad) and geographical scope of its internationalization (i.e. number of new countries entered) had an impact on the company's performance in previous years? Could Starbucks learn from its prior internationalization within the coffee industry in order to guide its future international strategy?

Teaching Note: 8B10M73 (10 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; International Strategy; Market Entry; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WIL-MOR TECHNOLOGIES: IS THERE A CRISIS?
Andrew C. Inkpen

Product Number: 9A99M042
Publication Date: 2/16/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 11 pages

The CEO of Wilson Industries, a U.S. firm, is concerned about the performance of a joint venture between Wilson Industries and a Japanese firm, Morota Manufacturing. He wants the joint venture president to make some changes to improve financial performance. However, the president is unsure of what action to take because the Japanese partner, Morota, is satisfied with the performance and is considering expansion plans.

Teaching Note: 8A99M42 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Manufacturing Strategy; Management Philosophy; Joint Ventures
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Strategy Implementation

FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR GREENWASHING?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STRATEGIC PLANNING AT APPLE INC.
Kyle Murray, Miranda R. Goode, Fabrizio Di Muro

Product Number: 9B09A026
Publication Date: 1/11/2010
Length: 12 pages

Apple Inc. is one of the world's most successful and most recognizable companies. Over its 30 year existence, the company had seen a lot of changes in the computer industry. What would the future hold for the computer giant in a rapidly changing world? How should the company allocate resources between its more traditional offerings (computers) and its newer products (iPods, iPhones, Apple TV, etc.) in order to maintain and improve its market position. Also, how should Apple's unique retail strategy be used to support the company's product decisions, and by capitalizing on new and emerging trends thus further maintaining its competitive advantage.

Teaching Note: 8B09A26 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Competitive Advantage; Strategic Planning; Retailing; New Products
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 9/24/2018
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Corporate Strategy

ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GILLETTE'S ENERGY DRAIN (A): THE ACQUISITION OF DURACELL
Frank C. Schultz, Michael McCune

Product Number: 9B05M026
Publication Date: 1/31/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 16 pages

In 1996, Gillette acquired Duracell batteries for $7.3 billion in stock. The purchase was met with optimism not only by Gillette's senior management and its highly visible director, Warren Buffet, but also Wall Street analysts. The case highlights the numerous challenges that Gillette has encountered since its acquisition of Duracell. Despite the initial enthusiasm, Duracell has proven to be a drain on Gillette's earning and has cost Michael Hawley, James Kilt's predecessor as CEO, his job after only 18 months in the position - in large part for his inability to turn around the financial hemorrhaging at the Duracell division. The key strategy questions revolve around what can be done to turn around the battery business to help it achieve the potential for Gillette that everyone had assumed it possessed. The supplement Gillette's Energy Drain (B): Energizer's Acquisition of Schick, product 9B05M027 highlights Energizer's October 2003 acquisition of Schick.

Teaching Note: 8B05M26 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Mergers & Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Competition; Strategy Implementation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CGI GROUP INC.
Rod E. White, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05M021
Publication Date: 2/21/2005
Revision Date: 9/30/2009
Length: 14 pages

The president and chief operating officer of Montreal-based CGI Group, Inc., the largest information technology services firm in Canada and among the largest in North America, is looking to comment on a U.S. team member's new business opportunity. The general manager of CGI's Oklahoma City office and his team are developing plans to introduce an inventory audit service, which would fall with in a broad category of business process outsourcing services, targeted at CGI's retailing clients in the United States and Canada. CGI prides itself on its close relationships with its clients and the leeway it allows its managers to develop and launch new ideas. But while the inventory audit idea sounds promising, since, CGI has a strategic goal to increase its business process outsourcing revenues, the president was concerned that focusing on too many business process outsourcing markets would be distracting. CGI had already made substantial investments to develop a BPO offering for the insurance industry and it was also looking at the telecommunications industry. Where would an inventory audit service fit in? And if the president did not feel that launching this service was warranted, how could he inform the Oklahoma team without dampening their enthusiasm for new ideas?

Teaching Note: 8B05M21 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Opportunity Development; Strategic Scope; Outsourcing; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Looking at International Strategies

STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EMERGING MARKET MULTINATIONALS: MARCO POLO MARINE
Marleen Dieleman, Yue-Jer Lee

Product Number: 9B11M046
Publication Date: 7/7/2011
Length: 15 pages

Marco Polo Marine (MPM) Ltd was a medium-sized Singaporean shipping company listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange that was involved in regional shipping and shipbuilding. The company was part of a larger Indonesian family business group, and had been built from scratch by the CEO. MPM had started off providing barges to transport sand and mining products, initially for the group’s mining operations, but increasingly for third parties. It subsequently entered the shipbuilding industry by establishing a shipyard in Batam, Indonesia, an island near Singapore. As a next step to grow the company, the CEO intended to become an international player in the much more sophisticated offshore marine services sector, but he had yet to decide what strategy to take to achieve it. The case allows students to analyze a global industry and present recommendations to the CEO for positioning the company within this industry. MPM is an example of an aspiring emerging market multinational, and the case discusses the challenges such companies face in catching up with more advanced incumbents in global industries. In order to penetrate the offshore marine services sector, decisions were required as to what types of vessels to build or buy, which countries to target, and how to enter this market given financial constraints and limited technical expertise.

Teaching Note: 8B11M046 (11 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Entrepreneurial Business Growth; International Expansion; Emerging Markets; Shipbuilding; Family Business; Indonesia; Singapore; Ivey/NUS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ETHICS OF OFFSHORING: NOVO NORDISK AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SAMSUNG CHINA: THE INTRODUCTION OF COLOR TV
Paul W. Beamish, David J. Sharp, Chang-Bum Choi

Product Number: 9A98G003
Publication Date: 3/2/1998
Length: 16 pages

Mr. Chung Yong, president of Samsung China Headquarters was considering a recent meeting with the marketing director who was responsible for developing a marketing strategy for the entire China market. The topic at the meeting was the marketing strategy for color TVs, which had been chosen as the flagship product for the China market. Samsung had to decide whether it should focus on the low or high-end market segment (or both), and whether to import or produce locally.

Teaching Note: 8A98G03 (7 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: China;
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Alliances and Cooperatives as Vehicles

CIBC MELLON: MANAGING A CROSS-BORDER JOINT VENTURE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Sartor

Product Number: 9B10M091
Publication Date: 11/5/2010
Revision Date: 5/24/2012
Length: 15 pages

During his 10-year tenure, the president and CEO of CIBC Mellon had presided over the dramatic growth of the jointly owned, Toronto-based asset servicing business of CIBC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation (BNY Mellon). In mid-September 2008, the CEO was witnessing the onset of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The impending collapse of several major firms threatened to impact all players in the financial services industry worldwide. Although joint ventures (JVs) were uncommon in the financial sector, the CEO believed that the CIBC Mellon JV was uniquely positioned to withstand the fallout associated with the financial crisis. Two pressing issues faced the JV’s executive management team. First, it needed to discuss how to best manage any risks confronting the JV as a consequence of the financial crisis. How could the policies and practices developed during the past decade be leveraged to sustain the JV through the broader financial crisis? Second, it needed to continue discussions regarding options for refining CIBC Mellon’s strategic focus, so that the JV could emerge from the financial meltdown on even stronger footing.

Teaching Note: 8B10M91 (13 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Financial Crisis; Joint Ventures; Leadership; Alliance Management; Managing Multiple Stakeholders; Canada; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Mergers and Acquisitions

DOW'S ACQUISITION PROGRAM
Koen H. Heimeriks, Stephen Gates

Product Number: 9B10M058
Publication Date: 9/30/2010
Revision Date: 6/26/2014
Length: 23 pages

This case illustrates how Dow Chemical acquired and integrated Wolff Walsrode, a German specialty chemicals firm that was part of the Bayer Group. This acquisition, combined with Dow's existing cellulosics unit, helped it create a new specialty business with a forecasted $1.1 billion in annual sales and strengthen its footprint in Central and Eastern Europe.

The main challenge in this case concerns the complexities of acquisition integration, which are demanding in spite of Dow's extensive experience and track record. Dow is confronted with various integration challenges and faces several decisions concerning the degree and speed of integration of Wolff Walsrode and one of its units, Probis. The decisions pit considerations of rapid cost synergy capture via leveraging global systems platforms against process technology transfer and accommodating different customers and their requirements. Along with providing a review of the importance of a multitude of codified implementation templates and tacit integration mechanisms, this case illustrates how Dow's M&A integration personnel prove their worth by ensuring Wolff's successful integration.


Teaching Note: 8B10M58 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; Cross-border Merger & Acquisition Integration; Target Acquisition Integration; United States; Germany
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TATA MOTORS' ACQUISITION OF DAEWOO COMMERCIAL VEHICLE COMPANY
Meera Harish, Sanjay Singh, Kulwant Singh

Product Number: 9B08M094
Publication Date: 2/2/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 15 pages

In January 2004, the chairman of the India-based Tata Group, announced that the Tata Group would focus its efforts on international expansion to become globally competitive. This largely domestic vehicle manufacturing firm subsequently acquired a leading established South Korean firm, Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company (DCVC). This case focuses on the background of the firms and the acquisition, and the bidding and acquisition process. It provides information on the interests of the acquirer and target, and how both came to see the value in the acquisition. The Tata Group acquisition presents an uncommon situation of how an Indian firm acquired a firm in South Korea while overcoming a series of cultural and other barriers. An analysis of this case provides the basis for determining what criteria should be considered to guide a successful acquisition. A companion case is also available, Tata Motors' Integration of Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company.

Teaching Note: 8B08M94 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Strategy; International Expansion; Management Decisions; Market Entry; Mergers & Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Business Policy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC-BARCLAYS: SHOULD THEIR CARIBBEAN OPERATIONS BE MERGED?
Don Wood, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M067
Publication Date: 1/10/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

At the end of 2001, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC were in advanced negotiations regarding the potential merger of their respective retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean. Some members of each board wondered whether this was the best direction to take. Would the combined company be able to deliver superior returns? Would it be possible to integrate, within budget, companies that had competed with each other in the region for decades? Would either firm be better off divesting regional operations instead? Should the two firms just continue to go-it-alone with emphasis on continual improvement? A decision needed to be made within the coming week. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the six additional Cross-Enterprise cases that deal with the various functional issues associated with the actual merger: Accounting and Finance - CIBC-Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022, Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032, Marketing and Branding - FirstCaribbean International Bank: The Marketing and Branding Challenges of a Start-up, product 9B05A012, Human Resources - Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean International Bank, product 9B04C053, Finance - FirstCaribbean Merger: The Proposed Merger, product 9B06N004, and technical note - Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Emerging Markets; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Considering New Ventures and Corporate Renewal

TRIUMPH
Stewart Thornhill, Cooper Langford

Product Number: 9B11M052
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Revision Date: 5/22/2012
Length: 13 pages

The case is set immediately following a catastrophic fire that destroyed the Triumph Motorcycle Company’s manufacturing facility in England. After having gone out of business in the 1980s, the company was resurrected by British entrepreneur John Bloor and, at the time of the fire, was in its tenth year of renewed operations. The decision facing Bloor and his team after the fire was to either rebuild and resume their strategy as before or consider whether another course of action might be worthwhile.

Students are challenged to identify and articulate Triumph’s strategy during its renaissance and evaluate whether other alternatives might be more appropriate. This mirrors the assignment given to McKinsey and Company when it was engaged to help Triumph during its post-fire recovery. The case provides information about Triumph’s history, as well as a current picture of the motorcycle industry.


Teaching Note: 8B11M052 (5 pages)
Issues: Crisis Leadership; Strategic Change; Brand Repositioning; Strategic Renewal; Britain; Motorcycles
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HYDRO: FROM UTSIRA TO FUTURE ENERGY SOLUTIONS
Robert Klassen, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06M044
Publication Date: 3/29/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 22 pages

Managers at Norway's Hydro are wondering whether or not an economically viable business case can be made to commercialize a wind-hydrogen solution. The company has successfully installed a wind-hydrogen renewable energy system as a research and development project on the 200 person remote island of Utsira. Now, they are considering two early markets to which to sell the idea: remote island communities or grid power balancing for grid operators with high reliance on wind power. Students will be introduced to current trends in renewable energy and will look at the threats and opportunities and business drivers in launching a new project. Students will analyse the priorities of the company by looking at economic, social and environmental objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B06M44 (13 pages)
Industry: Utilities
Issues: Innovation; Environmental Business Management; Feasibility Analysis; New Products
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ONTARIO SCIENCE CENTRE: AGENTS OF CHANGE AND BEYOND
Charlene Zietsma, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B05M049
Publication Date: 9/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 22 pages

In June 2005, the Ontario Science Centre (OSC) was in the midst of the Agents of Change renewal plan - a $45 million, five-year project aimed at refreshing a third of the centre's exhibit halls. With more than 600 exhibits in 11,000 square metres of exhibit space, the OSC has been communicating science and technological ideas in an interactive way since it opened in 1969. Throughout its history, the OSC has conceived, designed and built its own exhibits. In the mid-1980s, this led to consulting, selling and renting out its exhibit design and construction to other science centres around the world. Funded 50 per cent by the Ontario government, the OSC faced the challenge of raising private funds and generating enough earned revenues to cover its operating expenses and continue innovating and renewing its facilities. To avoid getting stuck in the status quo once the Agents of Change renewal plan was complete, the OSC's chief executive officer and her management team set high goals: to double the visitor count and generate $10 million in operating profit by 2010. The CEO must determine how to reach these goals while maintaining its primary mission.

Teaching Note: 8B05M49 (10 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Growth Strategy; Strategy Development; Mission Statements; Non-Profit Organization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Corporate Governance in the Twenty-First Century

BARNES & NOBLE, INC.: THE YUCAIPA PROXY CHALLENGE
Ram Subramanian

Product Number: 9B11M109
Publication Date: 11/18/2011
Length: 8 pages

Ron Burkle is an activist investor and stockholder of Barnes & Noble, Inc. (BN). In September 2010, through his company, The Yucaipa Companies (Yucaipa), Burkle filed a “Definitive Proxy” to challenge BN’s slate of board-of-director nominees at the upcoming stockholder meeting. The proxy was made in response to a ruling against Yucaipa by the Delaware Chancery Court concerning a lawsuit that challenged Barnes and Noble’s poison-pill provision, which prevented outsiders from becoming majority stockholders. Burkle disagreed with BN’s founder, chairman, and owner of the majority stake in the company, Leonard Riggio, concerning BN’s long-term strategy. While Burkle wanted the company to cede ground to Amazon in the digital reader marketplace and instead concentrate on BN’s physical stores, Riggio believed that the Nook eReader should be the centrepiece of the company’s strategy. Riggio had to respond to the Yucaipa proxy in the short term and come up with a plan of action to retain control of the company in the long term.

Teaching Note: 8B11M109 (6 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Corporate Governance; Strategic Management; Activist Investor; New York; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOVERNANCE FAILURE AT SATYAM
Ajai Gaur, Nisha Kohli

Product Number: 9B11M028
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 14 pages

An acquisition decision by Satyam Corporation created discontent among shareholders and led to a series of investigations that revealed fraud of about INR 50 billion, leading to resignations by several board members and the CEO. This episode became a mockery of corporate governance practices, raising questions about the efficacy of well-accepted governance norms.

This case covers the events that led to the failure of Satyam. The roles of not only the “promoter” but also other parties, such as the managers, board of directors, auditors and bankers, are discussed in detail. The case draws attention to various corporate governance and ethical issues and provides an opportunity to discuss measures that should be taken by regulators, auditors, and other bodies to prevent fraud.


Teaching Note: 8B11M028 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Corporate Governance; Auditing; Board of Directors; Fraud; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GOVERNANCE FROM SCRATCH: THE PEPSI BOTTLING GROUP IPO
Amy J. Hillman

Product Number: 9B04M062
Publication Date: 12/20/2004
Revision Date: 10/15/2009
Length: 21 pages

PepsiCo is a large international soft drink manufacturer. The company has decided to split its worldwide bottling company from its concentrate business and is pursuing the initial public offering of the Pepsi Bottling Group. The president of PepsiCo Inc will become the chief executive officer of the newly formed bottling division and must create a system of corporate governance, and decide how to structure the new board of directors for the Pepsi Bottling Group.

Teaching Note: 8B04M62 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Initial Public Offerings; Corporate Governance; Board of Directors
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA