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Ivey Publishing

International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior

Luthans, F., Doh, J.P.,8/e (United States, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2012)
Prepared By Paul W. Beamish, Professor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Globalization and International Linkages

OSSCUBE: LEVERAGING SOCIAL MEDIA
Anandan Pillai, Ashok Pratap Arora

Product Number: 9B11A007
Publication Date: 6/29/2011
Length: 19 pages

Established in 2006, OSSCube was an open source software development company based in North Carolina, United States, which had its India office in Noida and its development centres in Delhi, Bangalore, and Noida. OSSCube started as a software training provider and gradually emerged as an open source software development and consulting company. The marketing of OSSCube’s offerings was primarily executed by search engine optimization (SEO) initiatives. Later, OSSCube created a social media presence on a variety of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Vimeo. The primary objective of creating a presence on these social media platforms was to augment the company’s SEO initiatives. Although this strategy helped OSSCube in gaining business leads, the community manager of the firm realized that the strategy was not building the brand identity of OSSCube. Also, the prospect of having a wide presence on social media platforms to augment SEO activities created confusion in consumers’ minds regarding OSSCube’s expertise. Hence, in 2010, the manager was reviewing the social media approach with some definite objectives such as branding employees, branding OSSCube, and promoting open source software. He faced the challenge of forming an appropriate social media strategy that would address these objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B11A007 (14 pages)
Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Issues: Social Media Strategy; Search Engine Optimization; Branding; Open Source Software; United States; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN?: AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M107
Publication Date: 11/8/2011
Length: 11 pages

This exercise assesses one’s exposure to the rest of the world’s peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a group’s collective exposure to the world’s people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one’s business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

For marketers, it underscores the need to gather greater base knowledge about opportunities abroad.


Teaching Note: 8B11M107 (6 pages)
Issues: Career Development; Intercultural Relations; Team Building; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GEELY'S ACQUISITION OF VOLVO: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B10M057
Publication Date: 6/18/2010
Length: 4 pages

For more than a decade, the government of China had sought to develop an automotive industry. The government's initial steps involved the creation of joint ventures in which government-owned firms became partners of foreign privately owned corporations. Most of these joint ventures were extremely successful financially. However, ongoing differences in management preferences created a continual tension within the joint ventures. Of particular concern was a desire of the government of China to ensure that its new automotive industry would adopt the latest advances in technologies. This subject of technology transfer, and how the government of China could best support it, became a central issue in China's automotive industry. From the perspective of the government of China, Geely's acquisition of Volvo would be a major step in achieving technology transfer on an ongoing basis. Geely's China operations would be able to quickly and easily adopt Volvo's cutting-edge safety features and production operations. From Geely's perspective, the Volvo acquisition would provide it with a new set of luxury vehicles for sale in China that would fill a gap in Geely's automotive lineup. Nevertheless, Geely faced the challenge that Ford had continually lost money in Volvo. How to reverse these losses would become a major challenge for Geely.

Teaching Note: 8B10M57 (3 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ARE WE READY FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE PLANT?
Yi-Chia Wu, Joo Y. Jung

Product Number: 9B09D014
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
Length: 15 pages

The city of McAllen, Texas and its partners have worked on attracting an automotive assembly plant to the region for over fifteen years. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provision, this region enjoys the advantages offered by both sides of the Mexican-U.S. border. Even during the economic downturn of 2007 to 2008, McAllen experienced a lower unemployment rate compared to other cities in the United States. One of the primary reasons was its close proximity and economic ties to Mexico. Lower labour cost, a right-to-work state and proximity to Mexico were some of this region's strengths, while a high illiteracy rate, limited numbers of automotive suppliers and small workforce were among its weaknesses. Based on publicly available data and aggregate score evaluation methods, McAllen is compared to other potential sites. The case addresses a wide range of issue regarding site selection factors within the automotive industry. Teaching objectives include: 1) to examine essential factors for site location of different industries, including the automotive industry 2) to evaluate the potential sites based on a quantitative method, such as the relative aggregate score 3) to understand other qualitative factors that can affect the decision. The case is suitable for courses and workshops concerning operations management, supply chain management, production management, project management, decision science and management science. Exhibits can be omitted for graduate and executive levels, requiring the students to research and come up with their own factors.

Teaching Note: 8B09D14 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Automotive; Site Selection; Global Strategy; Decision Making
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHINA MINMETALS CORPORATION AND NORANDA INC.
Isaiah A. Litvak

Product Number: 9B06M013
Publication Date: 2/6/2006
Revision Date: 10/26/2011
Length: 16 pages

The proposed takeover of Noranda Inc. (one of the biggest mineral players in the world) by the Chinese state owned enterprise, China Minmetals Corporation, was cause for Canadian government concern as it required some understanding about the workings and objectives of state owned enterprises. There was particular concern around the labour issues and human rights violations in China, and the possible impact of these on the proposed takeover. Equally important, Canada ran the substantial risk of sending the wrong message to the People's Republic of China if it was to block such a takeover, and in some respects, to be seen as shutting its doors to one of the world's largest and most powerful emerging economies.

Teaching Note: 8B06M13 (13 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: China; Government and Business; Ethical Issues; Business and Society; Politics
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment

ESTIMATING DEMAND IN EMERGING MARKETS FOR KODAK EXPRESS
Ilan Alon, David M. Currie

Product Number: 9B11A026
Publication Date: 6/23/2011
Length: 10 pages

An executive must estimate the demand for Kodak Express outlets in various developing countries based on socioeconomic and demographic data about the countries. The case requires students to think about how to transform data on a national scale (GDP per capita, population, income distribution) into a form that is meaningful for a managerial decision — here, the number of outlets that could be supported by a country’s market demographics. In this instance, doing so can be accomplished effectively through modeling on a spreadsheet.

Teaching Note: 8B11A026 (5 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: Demand Analysis; Retailing; Franchising; Market Selection; Market Assessment; Microsoft Excel
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ORAL INSULIN: BREAKTHROUGH INNOVATION AT BIOCON
Nita Sachan, Prasad Kaipa, Anand Nandkumar, Charles Dhanaraj

Product Number: 9B11M065
Publication Date: 7/28/2011
Length: 18 pages

This case deals with the innovation challenges of a medium-sized firm (under $1 billion) in an emerging economy (India), particularly the challenges of product development and commercialization. The management has to decide how to proceed with a promising novel formula for oral insulin — promising both in terms of financial returns as well as social impact. The company has spent several years of research and development in getting the drug through Phase I and Phase II trials, and is entering the most critical stage, Phase III. The case is set in 2009, a period that was punctuated with a lot of economic uncertainty. Students are asked to decide if Biocon should go ahead with Phase III and, if so, whether it should be done locally or globally and with a partner or alone. The case also deals with transitioning research and development strategies in emerging markets, wherein firms that have traditionally focused on “imitation” (or generic drugs) are moving to high-risk drug discovery.

Teaching Note: 8B11M065 (11 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Innovation; Technology Commercialization; Technology Licensing; Research and Development (R&D); Phamaceutical Industry; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MANAGING CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS IN OFFSHORE OUTSOURCING: B2BCS, AN ISRAELI CONSULTING FIRM
Arup Kumar Das, Sangeeta Shah Bharadwaj, Kate M. Kaiser

Product Number: 9B11E024
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 10 pages

This case examines an Israeli firm, B2Bcs, which provides end-to-end services in establishing offshore project development teams and helping firms in their decisions to outsource projects offshore. An interesting aspect of B2Bcs’s work involves cross-cultural partnering, and interfacing Israel-based client organizations with service provider organizations in India and Eastern Europe. However, the recent economic downturn has made B2Bcs’s customers very cautious about the decision to set up offshore development centres. Recently, Israeli firms have been looking for less expensive outsourcing solutions as part of their various cost-reduction initiatives. They expect low-rate quotes from offshore service providers of low-cost destinations such as India and Eastern Europe. However, India has not been hit very hard by the recession, unlike the West, and hence the prices quoted by Indian service providers are still very high.

Recently, B2Bcs has been facing stiff competition from similar consulting firms. The key to getting business in this area is based on one’s past relationships with key executives in client and vendor firms. Increasingly, other consulting firms have started exploiting these relationships to get new business, thus affecting B2Bcs’s growth plans severely. In such a scenario, two broad questions need to be answered: 1) What is the new value proposition that B2Bcs should now offer to its clients? 2) How can B2Bcs help its clients find the right service provider at a competitive price?


Teaching Note: 8B11E024 (9 pages)
Issues: Business Development; Retention Marketing; Value-based Management; Eastern Europe; India; Israel; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



BANK OF AMERICA AND THE CHINESE CREDIT CARD MARKET
Charles Dhanaraj, Jing Li, Justin W. Evans

Product Number: 9B10M055
Publication Date: 8/12/2010
Revision Date: 10/19/2010
Length: 11 pages

This case addresses Bank of America Corporation's contemplated joint venture with China Construction Bank to enter the Chinese credit card market. The case builds on the questions of strategic alliances in foreign markets and the state of the banking and credit industries in China generally.

Teaching Note: 8B10M55 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: China; Credit Card Business; Joint Ventures; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LYONBIOPÔLE: THE CHALLENGE OF BECOMING A WORLD-CLASS BIOTECHNOLOGY CLUSTER
Anthony Goerzen, Ana Colovic

Product Number: 9B09M075
Publication Date: 11/20/2009
Length: 13 pages

In December 2007, the Economics & International Affairs director of the competitiveness cluster, Lyonbiopôle, was responsible for the international development of the cluster. Lyonbiopôle was one of seven biotechnology clusters in France. Although Lyonbiopôle performed very well at the national level, its visibility as an international cluster in the biotechnology field was uncertain. Yet, for its member firms to thrive in the globalized world of biotechnology clusters, establishing international connections for the cluster was crucial. That is why the management team of Lyonbiopôle developed an internationalization program through alliances with foreign clusters (i.e. interclusteral alliances). By improving its international visibility and reputation through alliances with world-class biotechnology clusters, Lyonbiopôle hoped to create new technological partnerships, increase investment, and create other kinds of opportunities for member firms. After having successfully established alliance partnerships in Europe, Lyonbiopôle was preparing for the second stage in its internationalization process. The case highlights the questions - in the context of industrial clusters - whether or not a smaller organization can approach an industry leader to create a mutually beneficial alliance, and how it might accomplish this.

Teaching Note: 8B09M75 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Industry Globalization; Internationalization; Pharmaceuticals; Industry Clusters; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Ethics and Social Responsibility

GOVERNANCE FAILURE AT SATYAM
Ajai Gaur, Nisha Kohli

Product Number: 9B11M028
Publication Date: 6/22/2011
Length: 14 pages

An acquisition decision by Satyam Corporation created discontent among shareholders and led to a series of investigations that revealed fraud of about INR 50 billion, leading to resignations by several board members and the CEO. This episode became a mockery of corporate governance practices, raising questions about the efficacy of well-accepted governance norms.

This case covers the events that led to the failure of Satyam. The roles of not only the “promoter” but also other parties, such as the managers, board of directors, auditors and bankers, are discussed in detail. The case draws attention to various corporate governance and ethical issues and provides an opportunity to discuss measures that should be taken by regulators, auditors, and other bodies to prevent fraud.


Teaching Note: 8B11M028 (9 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Corporate Governance; Auditing; Board of Directors; Fraud; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PEPSICO’S TURNING POINT: ESTABLISHING A ROLE IN A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY
Michael Valente

Product Number: 9B11M033
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Revision Date: 12/8/2011
Length: 17 pages

In early 2011, PepsiCo, one of the world’s largest food and beverage companies, is receiving immense criticism for its role in social and ecological issues associated with the food system. Major health problems including obesity, heart disease and diabetes, not to mention environmental issues such as excessive packaging and waste, have encouraged PepsiCo’s chief executive officer (CEO) to rethink the company’s strategy. The CEO feels that PepsiCo has a responsibility to develop solutions to key global challenges like obesity. Doing so would require an extensive consideration of PepsiCo’s positioning in the marketplace in light of the many products it provides that currently contradict this very objective.

Teaching Note: 8B11M033 (15 pages)
Issues: Sustainability; Health Issues; Business Interests versus Public Interests; Embedding Sustainability; United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



PARTNERSHIP FOR LEBANON AND CISCO SYSTEMS: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT IN A POST-WAR CONTEXT
Dima Jamali

Product Number: 9B11M050
Publication Date: 6/21/2011
Length: 16 pages

The project manager of the Partnership for Lebanon (PFL) and Cisco Systems’s regional director of corporate affairs for the Middle East and Africa met in September 2009, three years after the PFL was first initiated. The meeting primarily revolved around the challenge of sustainability and what useful suggestions they could put forward to their partners to ensure that the projects initiated through the PFL were not dependent on the continuous investments of the partners.

The PFL, a major partnering initiative in a post-war context, was initiated in September 2006 after President George W. Bush called for the assistance of U.S. companies to help in the relief and reconstruction efforts in Lebanon after the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah. The five companies involved were Cisco Systems, Intel Corporation, Ghafari Inc., Occidental Petroleum, and Microsoft. They leveraged their core competence under five main work streams: emergency relief/response, job creation/private-sector revival, developing information and communication technology infrastructure, workforce training/education, and developing connected communities. Cisco took a leadership position within the PFL, establishing a management office in Beirut staffed by five senior full-time Cisco employees, and committed an investment of $10 million in the Lebanese private sector over a three-year period. The PFL’s corporate partners engaged closely with the Lebanese government as well as with various international and local NGOs to develop initiatives under the five work streams and yield a long-term sustainable impact.


Teaching Note: 8B11M050 (10 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Business and Society; Corporate Social Responsibility; Information and Communication Technology; Lebanon; Middle East and United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAYER CROPSCIENCE IN INDIA (A): AGAINST CHILD LABOR
Charles Dhanaraj, Oana Branzei, Satyajeet Subramanian

Product Number: 9B10M061
Publication Date: 1/27/2011
Length: 19 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Indian Management Issues and Opportunities Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. This case explores value-driven strategy formulation and implementation by bringing to the fore issues of ethics, responsible leadership, social intiatives in emerging markets, and the global-local tensions in corporate social responsibility. It examines how Bayer CropScience addressed the issue of child labor in its cotton seed supply chain in rural India between 2002 and 2008. Bayer had been operating in India for more than a century. In December 2002, the Bayer Group completed the acquisition of India-based Aventis CropScience. Bayer CropScience first learned about the occurrence and prevalence of child labor in its newly acquired India-based cotton seed operations a few months post-acquisition, in April 2003. The Aventis acquisition had brought onboard a well-known Indian company, Proagro, which already had operations in the cotton seed production and marketing - a new segment of the supply chain for Bayer. Child labor was widespread in cotton seed production — a traditional practice taken for granted not only by Indian farmers but also by several hundred Indian companies then accounting for approximately 90 per cent of the market share. The (A) case focuses on Bayer’s decision whether, when, and how to launch a self-run program that would take direct responsibility for tracking and eradicating child labor in rural India.

Teaching Note: 8B10M061 (11 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Emerging Markets; Strategy Implementation; Ethical Issues; Crisis Management; Corporate Responsibility; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WAL-MART PUERTO RICO: PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Myrna Comas, Julia Sagebien

Product Number: 9B10M024
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 14 pages

Sowing the Development of the Country (SDC) was a public-private partnership between Wal-Mart Puerto Rico (Wal-Mart PR), the island's Department of Agriculture as well as its Economic Development Bank (EDB), two NGOs Caborroje's Pro Salud y Ambiente (Caborroje's Pro Health and Environment) and ConectaRSE (a corporate social responsibility (CSR) promotion non-governmental organization(NGO)), and a group of local farmers. The objective of the project was to promote sustainable development on the island by encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurs by developing small agro-businesses. Wal-Mart acted as the primary buyer. The project faced many challenges, such as farmers' difficulties in meeting quality standards and delivery schedules, the lack of an existing vehicle through which to access funding from the EDB, and, most importantly, changes in the political party in power. Project partners had to develop a position from which to negotiate a new alliance with the incoming government administration. Since Wal-Mart was determined to guarantee the continuity and expansion of the SDC project, Wal-Mart had to step into the project champion role.

Teaching Note: 8B10M24 (9 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade
Issues: Government and Business; Corporate Social Responsibility; Developing Countries; Partnership; Public Administration
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ETHICS OF OFFSHORING: NOVO NORDISK AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 1/9/2009
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIJI WATER AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - GREEN MAKEOVER OR GREENWASHING?
James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4 & 5:
The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture & Managing Across Cultures

PRIVATIZATION OF THE TIGER LEAPING GUEST HOUSE IN NANJING, PRC
Stephen Grainger

Product Number: 9B10C029
Publication Date: 3/23/2011
Length: 6 pages

The Liang family, experienced family hoteliers in China, had to leave the mainland under the pressure of the forces of Chairman Mao and the Communist Party of China in 1949. They resettled in Taiwan, resumed their hospitality business and now, two generations later, have returned to Nanjing to find that their family’s old guest house has been allowed to run down and deteriorate as a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SoE). They repurchase the old guest house with the intention to redevelop it. How will they deal with this privatization and the inevitable bureaucracy of purchasing, demolishing, and rebuilding the old guest house? How will they convert the existing SoE human resources (trained under planned-economy conditions) into dynamic employees operating in the market economy, while being sensitive to the cultural characteristics and challenges of this mainland Chinese workplace? With more than 6,000 Chinese SoEs still being targeted for privatization, this case is very relevant and provides a real-world opportunity for students to exercise their research, analytical, international management, entrepreneurial, and cross-cultural management skills.

Teaching Note: 8B10C029 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Cultural Customs; Privatization; Cross-cultural Management; Human Resource Management; Hotel China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AN ENGLISH TEACHER IN SOUTH KOREA
Stacey R. Fitzsimmons, Paul Shantz

Product Number: 9B10C027
Publication Date: 1/21/2011
Length: 5 pages

Bert took a position to teach English in South Korea after graduating with his business degree from a Canadian university. It was his second time teaching English in South Korea, and because he had a fantastic experience the first time, he took a second position without doing a lot of due diligence before arrival. Soon, however, he realized that a city tax was being deducted from his pay, and he had suspicions that his boss was making up the city tax, in order to deduct money from the English teachers’ pay. Since Bert’s visa to stay in the country was tied to his employer, he could not look for a new employer, nor could he effectively find legal recourse against his employer, because foreign teachers had few rights in South Korea.

Teaching Note: 8B10C027 (12 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Organizational Culture; International Management; Ethical Issues; Teachers; Expatriates; South Korea
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



SPEED RACE: BENELLI AND QJ COMPETE IN THE INTERNATIONAL MOTORBIKE ARENA
Francesca Spigarelli, Ilan Alon, William Wei

Product Number: 9B09M097
Publication Date: 12/23/2009
Revision Date: 9/30/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the Qianjiang Group (QJ), a large-scale Chinese state-owned group, acquired the Italian company Benelli to expand its business in Western markets beyond Italy. Benelli's brand advantage was intended to provide the core competency for QJ to compete in the global motorbike markets; in addition, Benelli's capabilities and know-how in motorbike and scooter engineering also helped QJ complete its product portfolio. After a successful start, the many cultural differences related to an Italian business model and a Chinese company became problematic. Problems arose in integrating Chinese and Italian cultures and in coping with a completely different way of doing business, and the company was facing stiff competition from Japanese competitors. Despite excellent press and large industrial investments aimed at gaining efficiency and reducing prices, penetration of Western markets was difficult.

Teaching Note: 8B09M97 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Competitiveness; Mergers & Acquisitions; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SARAH JAMES IN MEXICO: OFTEN WRONG BUT NEVER IN DOUBT?
William A. Andrews

Product Number: 9B09C006
Publication Date: 1/27/2009
Length: 4 pages

A college student, Sarah James, attends a Mexican university (INI) for the summer to develop her language and cross-cultural capabilities. At the end of a successful semester, she e-mails the director of international recruitment for the Mexican University - with a copy to her major professor back in the United States - complaining about the treatment she received from her host family. She appears to have alienated all parties involved as she makes her exodus. The reader must decide how Professor McGill should respond. McGill had been attempting to build a relationship with the administration at INI in hopes of sending more students there for cross-cultural and language training. The reader must also evaluate Sarah's complaints to determine if they are a result of her own inflexibility or whether the host family was inappropriately screened or prepared. Will the remedy be found in having better policies governing host families or in having more culturally-attuned students?

Teaching Note: 8B09C06 (5 pages)
Industry: Educational Services
Issues: Partnership; Cultural Customs; Conflict Resolution
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MIA, PHILIPPINES
Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B09M016
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Length: 20 pages

The newly appointed country director of MIA Philippines, a non-profit organization with a mandate to alleviate poverty in developing countries, is faced with the challenge of designing and managing a development assistance project that would establish a go-to-market supply chain for a remote Filipino fishing village. The country director has to enter a new country, launch the project, deal with the constraints of a foreign culture, manage the expectations of major stakeholders whilst trying to manage a multi-cultural team and conclude the project on time. The value of the case lies in the realistic assessment of stakeholders' motivation, their capabilities and assets, and project constraints during the design and implementation stages. Value chain analysis, value added analysis and stakeholder analysis are used to assess the applicability of project design, impact and long term success.

Teaching Note: 8B09M16 (11 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Value Chain; Cross Cultural Management; Project Management; Project Design/Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Organizational Cultures and Diversity

MAINTAINING THE “SINGLE SAMSUNG” SPIRIT: NEW CHALLENGES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Shaista E. Khilji, Chang Hwan Oh, Nisha Manikoth

Product Number: 9B11C010
Publication Date: 8/2/2011
Length: 13 pages

This case examines how Samsung has grown to become one of the world’s leading companies. It presents a detailed description of Samsung’s “top priority to the people” philosophy and its strong cultural values, both of which have been instrumental in ensuring its continued success in recent decades. Since 1982, the Samsung Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) has played a critical role in supporting Samsung’s corporate strategy of achieving global competitiveness through programs that focus on maintaining Samsung values and developing a cadre of effective next-generation leaders. New Employee Orientation (NEO), an intensive four-week in-house program for all Samsung employees, is one example of an SHRD program. NEO aligns employees across Samsung affiliates to its strategic direction, thereby fostering a stronger “Single Samsung” culture.

In recent years, however, NEO has been faced with new challenges. First, Samsung’s pool of new employees has become more diverse, with the recruitment of more experienced and foreign (non-Korean) employees in addition to the fresh college graduates whom Samsung has always relied upon. Second, Samsung has become aware of stark value differences between the older employees, who are obedient and easily follow rules, and the younger “digital native” employees, who are more individualistic and prefer egalitarian and open policies. Managers at SHRDC are concerned that the “Single Samsung” spirit, which forms the core of Samsung culture, is being threatened from within.

Students must address issues related to the need for maintaining a unified organizational culture among diverse groups of employees with conflicting values, and propose ways for Samsung to effectively employ and utilize all of its employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C010 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Culture; Generational Differences; Human Resource Development; Consumer Electronics; South Korea
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EBIO - WHAT VALUE ARE SOCIAL PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTH AFRICA?
Albert Wocke, Christine Yiannakis

Product Number: 9B10M059
Publication Date: 7/29/2010
Length: 15 pages

The case deals with the evolution of a socially based business that provides education and work-preparedness to underprivileged people in South Africa. The case takes place in South African townships and involves the formation of a firm that provides poor African people with tools to help them become ready for and gain employment, or start their own business. The Ebio business model requires close community involvement and an understanding of African culture. The entrepreneur and his team have proven the concept works but now have to scale up the enterprise. He has to decide how to expand his team, what the cost of attracting additional team members will be and whether they will fit into his unique business model.This case has been used in MBA entrepreneur courses and executive education courses for social entrepreneurs to illustrate the difficulties in commercializing a socially based firm.

Teaching Note: 8B10M59 (8 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Partnership; Cross Cultural Management; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Social Entrepreneurship; GIBS
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TOIVONEN PAPER IN THE U.S.: HUMAN RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS OF FOREIGN CORPORATE OWNERSHIP
Jannifer David, Ahmed Maamoun

Product Number: 9B08C019
Publication Date: 10/20/2008
Length: 5 pages

The growing globalization of many industries has led many U.S.-based companies to open facilities overseas. In the process, researchers have counselled U.S. companies to adopt many local customs and policies to increase their probability of success in these new locations. During this same time period, many foreign-owned companies have moved into the United States and either purchased existing facilities or started new operations. The purpose of this case is to investigate how a non-American company (Toivonen) has adapted to the U.S. environment. It assesses the role of the parent company culture in the day-to-day operations of the American subsidiary.

Teaching Note: 8B08C19 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cultural Customs; Acquisition Strategy; Management in a Global Environment; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Cross-Cultural Communication and Negotiation

EXPERIENCE CHINA: A NATIONAL IMAGE CAMPAIGN IN THE UNITED STATES
William Wei, Yuanfang Lin, Mei Qin Kok

Product Number: 9B11A033
Publication Date: 10/6/2011
Length: 8 pages

The China national image film “People Chapter” — officially a sub-series of the “Experience China” campaign — was launched by the Chinese government to coincide with President Hu Jintao’s visit to the United States in mid-January 2011. The one-minute promotional video was played on six giant electronic screens about 300 times per day, and had appeared approximately 8,400 times when the broadcast ended on February 14, 2011. The video showed a series of Chinese people, ranging from ordinary citizens to celebrities. It was a publicity effort aimed at promoting a truer image of China abroad, and signalling that China was opening to embrace the world. However, reactions from both Chinese and overseas audiences had been fairly mixed since the initial release of the promotional film. Experts from China and abroad were skeptical of the effectiveness of the campaign in promoting the national image of modern China to the world. This case presents the opportunity to examine the basic elements in the marketing communication process, analyze how decisions in marketing design affect outcomes, and understand the differences between nation and product promotion.

Teaching Note: 8B11A033 (6 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Advertising Strategy; Advertising Media; Cultural Sensitivity; Public Relations; Target Market; China and United States
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHARLES FOSTER SENDS AN EMAIL (A)
Henry W. Lane

Product Number: 9B05C019
Publication Date: 8/12/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 5 pages

After the U.S. sales manager of a large multinational company emails his supervisor regarding the supply of a new product, the message is forwarded to two others. The final recipient, the president of the Franco-Japanese joint venture partner that is manufacturing the new product, is offended by what he perceives as unfair criticism. The supplemental case, Charles Foster Sends an Email (B), product number 9B05C020, includes the sales manager's response to the president, and the ensuing correspondence from the joint venture. Together, the (A) and (B) cases present a setting for discussing three issues; the relationship between a communication situation and the medium chosen to deliver it, the effects on business relationships when an inappropriate communications medium is chosen and the processes needed to communicate effectively in multicultural business relationships.

Teaching Note: 8B05C19 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Interpersonal Relations; International Business; Management Communication; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Strategy Formulation and Implementation

BESTSELLER — FACING A NEW COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE IN CHINA
Michael W. Hansen, Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen

Product Number: 9B11M054
Publication Date: 8/29/2011
Length: 20 pages

In the fall of 1996, Bestseller became one of the first international fashion companies to enter the Chinese retail market. Earlier that year, Allan Warburg and Dan Friis had made contact with the CEO of Bestseller A/S, Troels Holch Povlsen, regarding the prospect of selling Bestseller brands in China, where they felt there were many business opportunities. Holch Povlsen found himself convinced by the two entrepreneurs’ enthusiasm for the Chinese market.

They quickly proved that they had been right about China. A decade after the first store opened, Bestseller China had almost 2,000 stores, and accounted for more than one-third of the total turnover of Bestseller A/S. The secret to Bestseller China’s extraordinary success was its ability to sell price-competitive European designs with a Chinese touch, which was achieved by locating all production in China and modifying Bestseller A/S’s designs to suit the size and tastes of Chinese middle-class consumers. With a 10-year headstart over potential competitors, Bestseller China had by the end of 2007 managed to establish a strong presence in China. However, high economic growth and the growing middle class were making the Chinese market highly attractive for other companies. Although global giants, such as Zara and H&M, were devoting big chunks of their budgets to entering China and capturing market share, these aggressive new entrants were not Bestseller China’s biggest concern. In fact, the competition from local companies was seen as the real threat.


Teaching Note: 8B11M054 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Franchising; Marketing Management; Global Strategy; Fashion; Clothing; Denmark; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHABROS INTERNATIONAL GROUP: A WORLD OF WOOD
Paul W. Beamish, Bassam Farah

Product Number: 9B10M100
Publication Date: 11/30/2010
Revision Date: 4/17/2014
Length: 16 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - MENA Business Cases Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The Chabros International Group case examines how a Lebanese multinational wood company confronts a drastic drop in its largest subsidiary's sales after 2008's global economic crisis. Antoine Chami, Chabros's owner and president, was reviewing his company's 2009 end-of-year financial statements and, in particular, a 30 per cent drop in sales in Dubai. In 2007, a year before the global economic crisis, Chami had invested more than $11 million to acquire and expand a sawmill in Serbia to meet Chabros's growing lumber sales demand. With a much higher capacity to produce lumber and a much lower probability to sell it, Chami had to decide what to do to overcome this challenge. Should he close parts of his Serbian sawmill? Should he try to boost his company's sales to use all of his sawmill's available capacity? If so, should Chabros try to increase sales within the countries where it already operated (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Egypt) or should it expand into a new country (Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Tunisia)? Would Morocco, among other countries, be the best country to expand into? Was it the right time to embark on such an expansion?

Teaching Note: 8B10M100 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Expansion; Market Entry; Growth Strategy; Exports
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GIANT INC.: FORMATION OF THE A-TEAM
Paul W. Beamish, Chwo-Ming (Joseph) Yu

Product Number: 9B09M044
Publication Date: 5/25/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case describes the history and activities of the A-Team, a major alliance of bicycle assembly firms and parts suppliers in Taiwan, which was created in 2003. A strategic alliance with competitors posed challenges. For the A-Team, it was more complicated because the alliance was between both competing bicycle assembly firms and between parts suppliers. By 2006, progress had been made in making the alliance work but the senior executives were wondering what they could do to ensure future progress. The case can be used in a strategy module or course on alliances/joint ventures in a section examining the competition versus cooperation challenge.

Teaching Note: 8B09M44 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Networks; Location Strategy; Learning; Competitive Strategy; Alliances; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VINCOR AND THE NEW WORLD OF WINE
Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M001
Publication Date: 1/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/8/2009
Length: 17 pages

Vincor International Inc. was Canada's largest wine company and North America's fourth largest in 2002. The company had decided to internationalize and as the first step had entered the United States through two acquisitions.The company's chief executive officer felt that to be among the top 10 wineries in the world, Vincor needed to look beyond the region. To the end, he was considering the acquisition of an Australian company, Goundrey Wines. He must analyze thestrategic rationale for the acquisition of Goundrey as well as to probe questions of strategic fit and value.

Teaching Note: 8B04M01 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Internationalization; Market Entry; Acquisitions; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 10/17/2012
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Entry Strategies and Organizational Structures

INTERNATIONALIZATION OF KOYO JEANS FROM HONG KONG
Kevin Au, Bernard Suen, Na Shen, Justine Tang

Product Number: 9B11M053
Publication Date: 9/26/2011
Length: 11 pages

William Cheung owned an apparel wholesaler and a boutique shop that sold his clothing designs in Hong Kong. After attending a fashion exhibition in France, he realized his products were lacking compared to European brands. This experience motivated him to improve his jeans designs, and he soon registered “Koyo” as an independent company. He went on to become the first Hong Kong designer embraced by the French department store Galeries Lafayette. While Cheung had had commendable success, including many franchises in mainland China, he faced challenges related to expansion and funding as Koyo Jeans strove for international success.

Teaching Note: 8B11M053 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Expansion; Brand Management; Franchising; Retail Marketing; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Hong Kong; Ivey/CUHK
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CHINESE FIREWORKS INDUSTRY - REVISED
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B11M006
Publication Date: 1/11/2011
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 13 pages

The Chinese fireworks industry thrived after China adopted the open-door policy in the late 1970s, and grew to make up 90 per cent of the world’s fireworks export sales. However, starting in the mid-1990s, safety concerns led governments both in China and abroad to set up stricter regulations. At the same time, there was rapid growth in the number of small family-run fireworks workshops, whose relentless price-cutting drove down profit margins. Students are asked to undertake an industry analysis, estimate the industry attractiveness, and propose possible ways to improve the industry attractiveness from an individual investor’s point of view. Jerry Yu is an American-born Chinese in New York who has been invited to buy a fireworks factory in Liuyang, Hunan.

Teaching Note: 8B11M006 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Market Analysis; Industry Analysis; International Marketing; Exports; China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GE ENERGY — THE DECISION TO RE-ENTER INDIA: IS OPPORTUNITY “BLOWING IN THE WIND”?
Michael J. Rouse, Swetha Dasari

Product Number: 9B11M039
Publication Date: 10/21/2011
Length: 21 pages

In July 2008, the vice chairman of General Electric (GE) was considering whether GE should re-enter the wind power market in India. Financial incentives had been announced by the government of India for wind farm operators who generated power through wind energy. These incentives might encourage market development so that GE could leverage the technological strength of its wind-powered turbines. However, as recently as 2005, GE Energy had pulled out of the Indian market after a frustrating stint in the country. The vice chairman needed to weigh the pros and cons of re-entering India and make a decision. There was reason for caution, however, from GE’s perspective. India was a complex market in which to operate, and the wind energy market was still developing. To be successful, GE would need to build a local supply chain and compete with the speed of delivery of Suzlon, the formidable domestic competitor. Should GE re-enter India?

Industry: Utilities
Issues: Market Entry; Business Environment; Wind Power; Energy; United States; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NTT DOCOMO — JOINT VENTURE WITH TATA IN INDIAN MOBILE TELECOM
Shih-Fen Chen, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B10M107
Publication Date: 2/1/2011
Length: 20 pages

In November 2008, NTT DoCoMo, the largest mobile telecom company in Japan, entered into a joint venture with Tata Tele Services Ltd (TTSL), the fifth-largest mobile telecom company in India. The two partners had come together because both had recognized that they could put complementary capabilities into play. NTT DoCoMo could build on TTSL’s knowledge of the local market and ownership of a telecom licence (given by the federal government only to domestic firms). TTSL could gain access to NTT DoCoMo’s core competence in 3G technology, which was soon being rolled out in India through a spectrum auction. As part of signing the deal, the two partners had to face issues other than business synergies — like the percentage of equity holding of each partner in the joint venture, the price at which NTT DoCoMo would buy its stake to be offloaded by TTSL, and the provision for veto rights that could make up for a minority holding. The case helps students understand the dynamics of the formation of an international joint venture. It also highlights the unique advantages of a joint venture over other forms of international collaboration, such as technology licensing and agency distribution.

Teaching Note: 8B10M107 (14 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: International Collaboration; Globalization; Joint Ventures; Strategic Management; Telecommunications; Japan; India
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



GENICON: A SURGICAL STRIKE INTO EMERGING MARKETS
Allen H. Kupetz, Adam P. Tindall, Gary Haberland

Product Number: 9B10M041
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Revision Date: 8/1/2012
Length: 13 pages

A critical question facing a company's ability to grow its business internationally is where it should go next. One company facing that decision was GENICON, a U.S.-based firm that manufactured and distributed medical instruments for laparoscopic surgeries. Although the minimally invasive surgical market in the United States had long been the largest in the world, international markets were anticipated to grow at a much faster rate than the U.S. market for the foreseeable future. GENICON was already in over 40 international markets and was looking in particular at the rapidly emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India and China - as potential new opportunities for growth. This case is appropriate for use in an international business course to introduce market selection strategy. It can also be used in sessions on international marketing, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B10M41 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Expansion; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Emerging Markets; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



EXPATICA.COM: 10 YEARS OF A DUTCH BORN-GLOBAL
Christopher Williams

Product Number: 9B10M029
Publication Date: 5/5/2010
Length: 12 pages

In December 2009, the management team at Expatica.com was undertaking a strategic review of the progress of the company and of the future opportunities for growth. The management team needed to take stock: the external environment was rapidly changing and threats from competitors were on the rise. Expatica.com was founded 10 years earlier to provide English language information and news to the expatriate community in Europe, delivering its services primarily over the Internet. Over the course of the 10 years, Expatica.com had experienced significant challenges in its organization and environment. The central issue was how to make its core business effective across multiple markets. The company had made tremendous progress over the decade but now needed to re-evaluate its position and identify new opportunities for growth. The management team realized that it needed to make a number of critical decisions, especially in the areas of internationalization and product development. 1) How should Expatica.com now internationalize into new markets? Which markets should it consider? How should it select new markets? Should it pull out of any existing markets? 2) What product development strategy should it adopt? What line extensions should it make to existing products? What kinds of more radical innovation could be appropriate? Should it phase out any existing products? 3) What else should the company do to drive success?

Teaching Note: 8B10M29 (8 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Product Development; Media; Internet; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CAMERON AUTO PARTS (A) - REVISED
Harold Crookell, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M015
Publication Date: 1/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is about a small American auto parts producer trying to diversify his way out of dependence on the major automakers. A promising new product is developed and the company gets a chance to license it to a Scottish manufacturer. The issue of whether to license or go it alone in international markets is central to the case. (A sequel to this case is available titled Cameron Auto Parts (B) - Revised, case 9B06M016.)

Teaching Note: 8B06M15 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Exports; Licensing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON INTERNATIONAL LICENSING
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M005
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 18 pages

Licensing is a strategy for technology transfer; and an approach to internationalization that requires less time or depth of involvement in foreign markets, compared to exports, joint ventures, and foreign direct investment. This note examines when licensing is employed, risks associated with it, intellectual property rights, costs of licensing, unattractive markets for licensing, and the major elements of the license agreement.

Issues: Technology Transfer; Licensing; Corporate Strategy; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 9/10/2009
Length: 20 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (20 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Managing Political Risk, Government Relations, and Alliances

CHINA'S TRADE DISPUTES
David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B09M018
Publication Date: 3/9/2009
Revision Date: 8/5/2009
Length: 17 pages

By 2009, China's exports had increased dramatically from $250 billion in 2000 to a projected $1,500 billion in 2009. This enormous growth of exports severely damaged competing businesses in the advanced nations, particularly the United States and Europe. China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 guaranteed China's right to export to these nations, but at the same time the WTO required China to adhere to certain rules that sought to support fair trade and create a level playing field. Several broad subjects each gave rise to a series of trade disputes: the protection of intellectual property, health and safety concerns about China's products, labour and environmental standards, China's manipulation of their currency, and costs and prices determined by the government rather than free markets. This case examines each set of trade disputes and China's attempts to resolve them. Many disputes were embedded in cultural practices and ideological positions and so they might not disappear quickly. Shortcomings in China's legal and judicial system hampered enforcement. In addition, many rested on the government's desire to protect the interests of Chinese businesses and their employees, and so China might alter its practices only if confronted with credible retalitory threats. China's central government experienced the principal-agent problem where its wishes and decisions could be ignored by local governments and firms. Meanwhile, changes in industry structure within the advanced nations were altering the negotiation positions of Western governments. The case examines the WTO dispute resolution procedures and enforcement mechanisms that have been directed at China's trade disputes.

Teaching Note: 8B09M18 (8 pages)
Issues: China; International Business; Government and Business; Globalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



STRATEGIC ALLIANCES THAT WORK: IMPLEMENTING WINNING CONDITIONS
Micheal Kelly, Jean-Louis Schaan

Product Number: 9B05M025
Publication Date: 2/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 19 pages

This note is part of a series entitled Strategic Alliances That Work. All the strategic analysis, negotiation, and implementation planning of a strategic alliance aims for the day the alliance can be formally launched. While much of the details depend on the specific nature of the agreement, there exist common practices that will take you far down the path of successful alliance management. These include laying a positive foundation with the right team and establishing productive linkages across both organizations. It also includes dedicated focus on building trusted relationships in the early days and structuring alliance activities for some early successes. Alliances usually define success in terms of financial returns; but when the honeymoon is over, enduring and sustainable benefits will be more easily achieved through additional emphasis on effective communications, constructive conflict resolution and continuous organizational learning - elements that support a productive relationship over time. Related cases, Strategic Alliances That Work: Should You Build a Strategic Alliance?, Strategic Alliances That Work: Selecting the Right Partner and Strategic Alliances That Work: Negotiating and Designing an Alliance, products 9B05M022, 9B05M023 and 9B05M024.

Issues: Alliances; Competitiveness; Joint Ventures
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON THE CUBAN CIGAR INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish, Akash Kapoor

Product Number: 9B03M001
Publication Date: 2/27/2003
Revision Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 20 pages

The cigar industry in Cuba has a mythical aura and renown that give it unparalleled recognition worldwide. The relationship between Cuba and the United States makes the situation in this industry particularly intriguing. Cuban cigars cannot currently be sold in the United States, even though it is the largest premium cigar market in the world. This note provides an opportunity for a structured analysis using Porter's five forces model and to consider several scenarios including the possible lifting of the U.S. embargo and the relaxation of Cuba's land ownership laws.

Teaching Note: 8B03M01 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Government and Business; Internationalization; International Business; Industry Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ANTAMINA COPPER-ZINC PROJECT: POLITICAL RISK INSURANCE
Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B02N018
Publication Date: 2/6/2003
Revision Date: 12/5/2009
Length: 20 pages

Compania Minera Antamina S.A. is a consortium of three large multinational Canadian mining companies set up to exploit a very large copper-zinc deposit north central Peru. The project requires about US$2 billion of financing for the development and exploitation of the deposit. The finance committee needs to determine the best means to raise the necessary funds: loans guaranteed by the sponsors or project finance. The costs and benefits are different across alternatives because the project involves both business and political risks to which the exposure for all of the stakeholders is different.

Teaching Note: 8B02N18 (14 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Financing; Political Environment; Risk Analysis; International Finance
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Management Decision and Control

LUNDBECK KOREA: MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL GROWTH ENGINE
Paul W. Beamish, Michael Roberts

Product Number: 9B10M012
Publication Date: 2/11/2010
Revision Date: 2/12/2010
Length: 16 pages

In 2005, the vice-president of Lundbeck, a Danish based pharmaceutical firm, needed to decide what to do with one of his most promising subsidiaries, Lundbeck Korea. Over its short lifetime, under the leadership of the country manager and the Asia regional manager, the subsidiary had grown well beyond the original goals set for it. The vice-president wanted to create a reporting structure and management mix that would balance the local demands that Lundbeck Korea required for growth with Lundbeck's overall strategy of specialization, speed, integration and results. The case also traces Lundbeck's internationalization efforts in Asia over the past 20 years. The company had grown from pure licensing arrangements to establishing its own country level subsidiaries. This case introduces the dynamic tensions between taking advantage of local management expertise and executing a corporate strategy developed for an entire global group. In addition, it illustrates the importance, but difficulties, of being sensitive to local management goals, while promoting a global corporate culture.

Teaching Note: 8B10M12 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: MNE Reporting Structures; International Strategy; Emerging Markets
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LEGO GROUP: AN OUTSOURCING JOURNEY
Marcus Moller Larsen, Torben Pedersen, Dmitrij Slepniov

Product Number: 9B10M094
Publication Date: 12/1/2010
Length: 16 pages

The last year's rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would phase out the entire sourcing collaboration with Flextronics. This sudden change in its sourcing strategy posed LEGO management with a number of caveats. Despite the bright forecasts, the collaboration did not fulfill the initial expectations, and the company needed to understand why this had happened. Secondly, what could LEGO management have done differently?

Teaching Note: 8B10M94 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Outsourcing; Management Control; Global Strategy; Supply Chain Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MARKET STRETCH
Gavin Price, Margaret Sutherland

Product Number: 9B09M046
Publication Date: 6/25/2009
Length: 11 pages

Bio-Oil is a multi-purpose skin care product that has gone from being sold only in South Africa to being the No. 1 scar treatment product in 16 of the 17 countries in which it is distributed. Retail sales have jumped from R3 million per annum to R1 billion from 2000 to 2008. Justin and David Letschert made key decisions to eliminate all of the other 119 products that were being manufactured by the company that they took over in 2000, and focused on the mainstay product of Bio-Oil. Union-Swiss accomplished its successful sales through the use of a hybrid distribution model that compelled its distributors in each country to communicate and share knowledge with each other. Union-Swiss also ensured that it remained focused on building the brand through limiting its activities in the value chain to that of marketing. It did this to such an extent that it created a separate entity to run the distribution of Bio-Oil in South Africa.

Teaching Note: 8B09M46 (8 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Market Entry; International Business; Supply Chain Management; Strategic Positioning; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



MAJESTICA HOTEL IN SHANGHAI?
Paul W. Beamish, Jane Lu

Product Number: 9B05M035
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M35 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Market Entry; Negotiation; Control Systems; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CIBC-BARCLAYS: SHOULD THEIR CARIBBEAN OPERATIONS BE MERGED?
Don Wood, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M067
Publication Date: 1/10/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

At the end of 2001, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC were in advanced negotiations regarding the potential merger of their respective retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean. Some members of each board wondered whether this was the best direction to take. Would the combined company be able to deliver superior returns? Would it be possible to integrate, within budget, companies that had competed with each other in the region for decades? Would either firm be better off divesting regional operations instead? Should the two firms just continue to go-it-alone with emphasis on continual improvement? A decision needed to be made within the coming week. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the six additional Cross-Enterprise cases that deal with the various functional issues associated with the actual merger: Accounting and Finance - CIBC-Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022, Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032, Marketing and Branding - FirstCaribbean International Bank: The Marketing and Branding Challenges of a Start-up, product 9B05A012, Human Resources - Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean International Bank, product 9B04C053, Finance - FirstCaribbean Merger: The Proposed Merger, product 9B06N004, and technical note - Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Emerging Markets; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MABUCHI MOTOR CO., LTD.
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9A98M034
Publication Date: 10/30/1998
Revision Date: 2/1/2010
Length: 11 pages

A year had elapsed since Mabuchi Motor Co., Ltd. of Japan, the world's most successful producer of small electric motors, had implemented a new management training program at one of its foreign operations in China. The program had two objectives. First, it was intended to enable the corporation to maintain its strategy of cost minimization by making it possible to reduce Japanese expatriate levels by improving the management skills of local managers in foreign subsidiaries. Second, by overcoming the shortage of qualified Japanese managers, the program would also allow the continued aggressive expansion of production that had become a cornerstone of corporate strategy. The teaching purpose is to illustrate the difficulties associated with transferring a management style and corporate culture into a different national culture.

Teaching Note: 8A98M34 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Organizational Change; Corporate Culture; Management Training; Subsidiaries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 12:
Motivation Across Cultures

JINJIAN GARMENT FACTORY: MOTIVATING GO-SLOW WORKERS
Tieying Huang, Junping Liang, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M033
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 6 pages

Jinjian Garment Factory is a large clothing manufacturer based in Shenzhen with distribution to Hong Kong and overseas. Although Shenzhen had become one of the most advanced garment manufacturing centres in the world, managers in this industry still had few effective ways of dealing with the collective and deliberate slow pace of work by the employees, of motivating workers, and of resolving the problem between seasonal production requirements and retention of skilled workers. However, the owner and managing director of the company must determine the reasons behind the deliberately slow pace of the workers, the pros and cons of the piecework system and the methods he could adopt to motivate the workers effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B04M33 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Productivity; Employee Attitude; Piece Work; Performance Measurement; Work-Force Management; Peking University
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 13:
Leadership Across Cultures

LAUNCH OF DURRA: WOMEN IN ISLAMIC BANKING
Alexandra Roth, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B10M035
Publication Date: 4/19/2010
Length: 9 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Euro-Mediterranean Managerial Practices and Issues Award, 2012 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. The case focuses on the vice-president and regional head of corporate banking for Noor Islamic Bank in Dubai as she arrives in the United States to promote the first global network for women in Islamic banking and finance, known as Durra. As a result, Islamic banks have been growing at a rate of 15 per cent per year, and have assets approaching $1 trillion, despite the recent banking crisis. Islamic banks also have a hard time filling the 30,000 new jobs created each year because of the specialized training required. One of the purposes of Durra is to help more women fill critical positions in Islamic banking and to help them manage their careers in order to assume leadership positions. The case also raises questions about how best to build a non-profit organization. Issues include how to attract new members and financial backers and how to build a useful and robust website that fulfills the needs of the organization.

Teaching Note: 8B10M35 (5 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Cultural Customs; Non-Profit Organization; Women in Management; International Finance; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



A BOMB IN YOUR POCKET? CRISIS LEADERSHIP AT NOKIA INDIA (A)
Charles Dhanaraj, Monidipa Mukherjee, Hima Bindu

Product Number: 9B10M064
Publication Date: 2/16/2011
Length: 11 pages

This case addresses the theme of crisis leadership in a multinational enterprise in order to help students internalize the critical challenges of a multinational company in an emerging market. In August 2007, a routine product feedback and defect analysis process identified a defective batch of batteries supplied by a Japanese vendor. India happened to be the recipient of the largest proportion of the defective batch. Nokia’s corporate communications team, based in Finland, in cooperation with the Indian team, responded with a customary global product advisory. Instructions were made available on the Internet for customers to diagnose a defective battery and get a free replacement. Nokia was shocked to see the antagonistic response from the Indian press to the product advisory and the ensuing mayhem that spread quickly through the country. The head of Nokia India and his team had to act swiftly to preserve the company’s hard-earned reputation and market share. Case (A) is set as a midnight strategy session at Nokia’s Indian headquarters to chart out the way forward. A Bomb in Your Pocket? Crisis Leadership at Nokia India (B) is a short version of what actually happened: how Nokia and the team responded to the crisis and and used the situation to create new organizational capabilities.

Teaching Note: 8B10M64 (15 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Multinational; Global Strategy; Crisis Leadership; Communications; Telecommunications; Finland; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



BRITISH PETROLEUM (PLC) AND JOHN BROWNE: A CULTURE OF RISK BEYOND PETROLEUM (A)
Murray J. Bryant, Trevor Hunter

Product Number: 9B08M002
Publication Date: 7/29/2008
Length: 13 pages

The year 2007 had to have been one of the worst in the history of British Petroleum plc (BP). In the span of four months, two separate independent reports (the first one commissioned by BP itself) had identified a deeply rooted "culture of risk" within BP where money and profits were valued above worker and environmental safety. These reports were in response to an explosion in 2005 at an oil refinery in Texas City, in the United States, which killed 15 people and injured more than 180, but the reports also referred to pipeline leaks in Alaska as well as other serious safety lapses throughout BP's global operations. The Texas City explosion was the worst but not the first major incident at a BP facility, and the revelations in the reports severely damaged the credibility the so-called super-major oil company had earned over the last decade. The job of restoring investor and stakeholder confidence as well as the firm's reputation fell to the BP board and its star group chief executive, Lord John Browne.The B case, product 9B08M003, examines the role played by the board with respect to the personal integrity of Lord Browne. The teaching objectives are to introduce students to examining the role of the board with respect to risk management as well as its social responsibilities to various stakeholders.

Teaching Note: 8B08M02 (11 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Governance; Stakeholder Analysis; Risk Management; Ethical Issues
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AT COCA-COLA: THE REAL THING
W. Glenn Rowe, Suhaib Riaz

Product Number: 9B08M040
Publication Date: 11/4/2008
Length: 15 pages

Muhtar Kent had just been promoted to the CEO position in Coca-Cola. He was reflecting upon the past leadership of the company, in particular the success that Coca-Cola enjoyed during Robert Goizueta's leadership. The CEOs that had followed Goizueta were not able to have as positive an impact on the stock value. When his promotion was announced, Kent mentioned that he did not have immediate plans to change any management roles but that some fine-tuning might be necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B08M40 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Performance Evaluation; Management Style; Leadership; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 14:
Human Resource Selection and Development Across Cultures

HR AS TRANSFORMATION PARTNER IN MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.
Anita Ollapally, Asha Bhandarker

Product Number: 9B11C022
Publication Date: 7/27/2011
Length: 20 pages

The Indian business landscape is marked by uncertainty, turbulence, hyper-competition, and non-linear growth, as exemplified by the automobile sector. Increasing competition from foreign automobile organizations and homegrown ones such as Tata Motors are posing a threat to the market leader, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. A fierce battle for market share is ensuing among these automobile giants. However, Maruti Suzuki has succeeded in maintaining its leadership position. Yet with more companies venturing into the territory of Maruti Suzuki — the small car segment — the threat to Maruti Suzuki’s market share is looming larger than before.

This case illustrates Maruti Suzuki’s journey and depicts the changes in its organizational strategy, HR strategy, and work culture in response to new challenges. Maruti Suzuki had to change from a government-owned organization and a monopoly, to a firm capable of competing with world-class automobile companies. This case describes the various challenges faced by the organization and how HR has assisted in bringing about much-needed transformation. The challenges include having to create a performing workforce, changing the mindset of the employees, coping with cross-cultural issues and, most significantly, engaging in breakthrough innovation. HR needs to create an organizational culture that not only supports breakthrough innovation but also helps retain employees.


Teaching Note: 8B11C022 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resource Management; Organizational Culture; Talent Management; Cultural Differences; Automobile Industry; India; Ivey/ISB
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



COLOPLAST A/S - ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES IN OFFSHORING
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

Product Number: 9B08M031
Publication Date: 7/25/2008
Length: 16 pages

Coloplast's future global manufacturing strategy was based on relocation of volume production of mature product lines to low cost countries like Hungary and China, whereas most creative and innovative activities (pilot production, ramp-up and range care) were retained in Denmark. The large scale project of offshoring, first volume production and later perhaps other activities, to Tatabanya, Hungary constituted a major shift in the operational strategy for Coloplast, which resulted in a series of organizational and managerial challenges. An important feature of the case is the surprise to the management team of how challenging it was to globalize the operations despite Coloplast's international experience operating a network of subsidiaries in more than 26 countries. The management team learned how important it is to have the structure, the organization and the mindset in place when offshoring production. Sourcing internationally is very different from selling internationally as it involves the entire organization. The learning process of the management team and the challenges they faced is unfolded in this case.

Teaching Note: 8B08M31 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Operations Management; Human Resources Management; Centralization; Management Science and Info. Systems; Management Information Systems; Organizational Behaviour; International Management; Change Management; Value Chain
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



BAX GLOBAL LIMITED: STAFF TURNOVER IN MAINLAND CHINA
Jean-Louis Schaan, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05C035
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 13 pages

The human resources manager for logistics and supply chain management at BAX China must consider her company's high rate of staff turnover. In her monthly report to the managing director, the turnover had reached 12 per cent in the first eight months of the year. The human resources manager must evaluate the company's current methods of dealing with turnover and consider what additional action should be taken. Logistics was a complex and rapidly growing industry, particularly in mainland China. Many multinational and domestic service providers were entering the marketing and expanding their operations; however, these companies had to respond to complex operational challenges and escalating customer demands. The resulting demand for skilled workers led to high turnover rates across the industry and at all organizational levels, and created margin pressure and other management challenges. The case offers a uniquely Chinese perspective on workforce recruitment, management and retention. The industry and the broader economy were growing rapidly. Skilled workers were in short supply because logistics was a new and developing discipline in the former command economy. Also, in the human resources manager's opinion, cultural attitudes resulted in low loyalty among the workers.

Teaching Note: 8B05C35 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: China; Employee Retention; Recruiting; Compensation; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LARSON IN NIGERIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, Isaiah A. Litvak, Harry Cheung

Product Number: 9B04M012
Publication Date: 2/3/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 7 pages

The vice-president of international operations must decide whether to continue to operate or abandon the company's Nigerian joint venture. Although the expatriate general manager of the Nigerian operation has delivered a very pessimistic report, Larson's own hunch was to stay in that country. Maintaining the operation was complicated by problems in staffing, complying with a promise to increase the share of local ownership, a joint venture partner with divergent views, and increasing costs of doing business in Nigeria. If Larson decides to maintain the existing operation, the issues of increasing local equity participation (i.e. coping with indigenization) and staffing problems (especially in terms of the joint venture general manager) have to be addressed.

Teaching Note: 8B04M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Subsidiaries; Third World; Government Regulation; Staffing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HARMONIZATION OF COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS FOR FIRSTCARIBBEAN INTERNATIONAL BANK
Edward Corbin, Betty Jane Punnett

Product Number: 9B04C053
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 9 pages

The merger of the Caribbean holdings of Barclays Bank Plc. and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is going ahead, and the reality of integration of very diverse systems and procedures has to be faced. The case deals with understanding the current situation in terms of existing policies and designing policies that would be acceptable to employees from both banks in the organization - FirstCaribbean International Bank - which would be created by the merger. A critical aspect of the merger is the harmonization of compensation and benefits that must be resolved as a matter of priority. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis, or in combination with any of four additional cases that deal with various functional issues: 1) General Management - CIBC and Barclays: Should Their Operations be Merged, product 9B04M067. 2) Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032. 3) Accounting and Finance: CIBC Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022 4) Technical note: Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04C53 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Consolidations and Mergers; Benefits Policy; Compensation; Change Management; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA