Ivey Publishing

International Business: Strategy and The Multinational Company

Cullen, J., Parboteeah, K.P.,1/e (United States, Routledge, 2009)
Prepared By Paul Beamish, Professor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Competing in the Global Marketplace

Paul W. Beamish, Chwo-Ming (Joseph) Yu

Product Number: 9B09M044
Publication Date: 5/25/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case describes the history and activities of the A-Team, a major alliance of bicycle assembly firms and parts suppliers in Taiwan, which was created in 2003. A strategic alliance with competitors posed challenges. For the A-Team, it was more complicated because the alliance was between both competing bicycle assembly firms and between parts suppliers. By 2006, progress had been made in making the alliance work but the senior executives were wondering what they could do to ensure future progress. The case can be used in a strategy module or course on alliances/joint ventures in a section examining the competition versus cooperation challenge.

Teaching Note: 8B09M44 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Networks; Location Strategy; Learning; Competitive Strategy; Alliances; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Albert Wöcke

Product Number: 9B09M005
Publication Date: 5/22/2009
Revision Date: 6/2/2010
Length: 22 pages

In 2008, the acquisition of the General Healthcare Group (GHG) in the United Kingdom had propelled Netcare Limited (Netcare) from a predominantly South African operation into one of the largest private hospital groups in the world. One of Netcare's key long-term goals was to deliver innovative, quality health-care solutions to patients in every continent. Recent South African parliamentary legislation had introduced the potential for regulated pricing and collective bargaining in medical centres, which could change the industry structure and possibly affect Netcare's strategy. As acquisition at home would be increasingly subject to stringent scrutiny from competition regulators, Netcare wondered what the impact of global acquisition would have on executing its strategy. What lessons could be learned from the GHG acquisition, how could those lessons be leveraged for further international growth, and what continent would be best suited to expansion? The case illustrates the international expansion strategies of Netcare, and illustrates the challenges of operating in an emerging market. The ability to overcome these challenges is the basis of a competitive advantage when entering developed markets.

Teaching Note: 8B09M05 (4 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: Business and Society; Global Strategy; Emerging Markets; Hospitals; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M069
Publication Date: 8/26/2008
Length: 11 pages

This team-building and familiarization activity can be used in the initial class or session of an international management program. It assesses one's exposure to the rest of the world's peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a classes' collective exposure to the world's people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one's business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

Teaching Note: 8B08M69 (6 pages)
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Internationalization; Team Building; Career Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Strategy and the Multinational Company

Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Daina Mazutis

Product Number: 9B08M046
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 19 pages

Research in Motion (RIM) is a high technology firm that is experiencing explosive sales growth. David Yach, chief technology officer for software at RIM, has received notice of an impending meeting with the co-chief executive officer regarding his research and development (R&D) expenditures. Although RIM, makers of the very popular BlackBerry, spent almost $360 million in R&D in 2007, this number was low compared to its largest competitors, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of sales (e.g. Nokia spent $8.2 billion on R&D). This is problematic as it foreshadows the question of whether or not RIM is well positioned to continue to meet expectations, deliver award-winning products and services and maintain its lead in the smartphone market. Furthermore, in the very dynamic mobile telecommunications industry, investment analysts often look to a firm's commitment to R&D as a signal that product sales growth will be sustainable. Just to maintain the status quo, Yach will have to hire 1,400 software engineers in 2008 and is considering a number of alternative paths to managing the expansion. The options include: (1) doing what they are doing now, only more of it, (2) building on their existing and satellite R&D locations, (3) growing through acquisition or (4) going global.

Teaching Note: 8B08M46 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Telecommunication Technology; Change Management; Globalization; Staffing; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M011
Publication Date: 2/25/2008
Revision Date: 9/15/2014
Length: 9 pages

This case, which outlines the product recall, is a supplement to Mattel and the Toy Recalls (A).

Teaching Note: 8B08M11 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Global and Regional Economic Integration: An Evolving Competitive Landscape

David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B09M018
Publication Date: 3/9/2009
Revision Date: 8/5/2009
Length: 17 pages

By 2009, China's exports had increased dramatically from $250 billion in 2000 to a projected $1,500 billion in 2009. This enormous growth of exports severely damaged competing businesses in the advanced nations, particularly the United States and Europe. China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 guaranteed China's right to export to these nations, but at the same time the WTO required China to adhere to certain rules that sought to support fair trade and create a level playing field. Several broad subjects each gave rise to a series of trade disputes: the protection of intellectual property, health and safety concerns about China's products, labour and environmental standards, China's manipulation of their currency, and costs and prices determined by the government rather than free markets. This case examines each set of trade disputes and China's attempts to resolve them. Many disputes were embedded in cultural practices and ideological positions and so they might not disappear quickly. Shortcomings in China's legal and judicial system hampered enforcement. In addition, many rested on the government's desire to protect the interests of Chinese businesses and their employees, and so China might alter its practices only if confronted with credible retalitory threats. China's central government experienced the principal-agent problem where its wishes and decisions could be ignored by local governments and firms. Meanwhile, changes in industry structure within the advanced nations were altering the negotiation positions of Western governments. The case examines the WTO dispute resolution procedures and enforcement mechanisms that have been directed at China's trade disputes.

Teaching Note: 8B09M18 (8 pages)
Issues: China; International Business; Government and Business; Globalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B08M084
Publication Date: 1/7/2009
Revision Date: 8/21/2012
Length: 4 pages

Mexico had a history of repeated financial crises, with high inflation leading to current account deficits with volatile capital inflows, culminating in significant devaluations. Concerns persisted that this pattern might repeat itself in the future. In the years prior to 1980, the government of Mexico had put in place a command and control economy with an extensive array of regulations through which it intervened in the economy on an ongoing basis and with discretionary powers. Governments created barriers to entry for foreign investment and imports and put in place price controls that protected existing Mexican firms. After 1980, a series of trade and investment reforms opened the economy. Nevertheless, many expressed the view that Mexico's reform movement stalled under President Fox (2000-2006) and that extensive government intervention continued to stifle competition. Exhibits present macroeconomic data as well as World Bank Investment Climate Indicators. A series of challenges now confronted Mexico, including the U.S. financial crisis and recession, competition with China, appropriate monetary policy, opening oil production to foreign companies and a rise in corruption and violent crime.

Teaching Note: 8B08M84 (3 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Growth; Government and Business; Growth Strategy; Globalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
Global Trade and Foreign Direct Investment

David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M059
Publication Date: 4/28/2006
Revision Date: 9/21/2009
Length: 12 pages

Hugo Chavez often pointed to Simon Bolivar as the model for his political philosophy, centered on Bolivar's vision of a unified and independent Latin America. In 1998, Chavez ran in the presidential election, on a platform that opposed what he termed the savage neoliberalism of the 1990s. Chavez's speeches in the presidential election campaign emphasized the importance of national sovereignty and economic justice. As president, Chavez passed a new Hydrocarbons Law to enhance the share oil revenue that would be owed to the government; he created a new government-owned bank; he introduced a radical land reform law; and he encouraged takeovers by the government and employees of privately-owned factories. Venezuela sold oil to Cuba at reduced prices in return for professionals, especially doctors who created health missions in many low-income areas. Chavez sought to foment socialist anti-American revolutions throughout Latin America. In the context of this socialist agenda, analysts expected that Venezuela's economy would experience serious challenges in the coming years. The combination of high inflation, fiscal pressure, and slow growth would be a boiling political cauldron in which violent opposition could ferment.

Teaching Note: 8B06M59 (7 pages)
Industry: Public Administration
Issues: Developing Countries; Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

David W. Conklin, Danielle Cadieux

Product Number: 9B06M073
Publication Date: 8/22/2006
Revision Date: 8/4/2006
Length: 15 pages

This case presents a summary of U.S. trade and investment sanctions in effect as of 2006. The case examines in detail the U.S. sanctions against Cuba, and it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these sanctions have created for Cuba's largest foreign investor, Sherritt International. The discussion concerning Sherritt presents the wide array of forces that impact a business that is contemplating trade or investment with a country against which sanctions have been imposed. In spite of U.S. sanctions, Sherritt International, based in Canada, developed profitable businesses in Cuba, in mining, oil and gas, hotels and food processing. The U.S. policies, while imposing costs, also reduced the competition that Sherritt would otherwise have faced. The ability to work with the Communist government gave Sherritt a strong competitive advantage and a protected market. Sherritt had positioned itself with a first mover advantage if sanctions were lifted.

Teaching Note: 8B06M73 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Globalization; International Business; Government and Business
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 5:
Foreign Exchange Markets

Colette Southam, Ahsen Amir-Ali, Samir Meghji

Product Number: 9B08N023
Publication Date: 1/20/2009
Length: 7 pages

In 2007, an analyst in the derivatives group of investment bank Grenfeld & Co. was asked to devise a hedging strategy for Providence Equity Partners (Providence) in Bell Canada Enterprises (BCE Inc.). Providence was based in the United States and any strategy would involve significant foreign exchange rate risk due to the conversion of returns into U.S. dollars. The analyst needed to consider several long-term hedging strategies that Grenfeld & Co. could recommend to Providence. Her vice-president had asked that she create a hedging strategy by initially assuming a 25 per cent IRR for the investment and its performance, based on two outcomes at the end of the investment (investment horizon = five years): a zero per cent IRR and a 25 per cent IRR.

Teaching Note: 8B08N23 (5 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Options; Hedging; Derivatives
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Colette Southam, Karim Moolani

Product Number: 9B08N013
Publication Date: 6/30/2008
Revision Date: 8/18/2020
Length: 4 pages

The chief financial officer of Pixonix Inc. is trying to decide if she should hedge, given the current strength of the Canadian dollar. Her company licenses proprietary software through a U.S. company that will cost $7.5 million in three months time. The case provides the students with the opportunity to understand the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on her firm's cash flows and some of the instruments available to manage risk, including puts and calls and forward contracts.

Teaching Note: 8B08N13 (10 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Hedging; Foreign Exchange
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate

Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B05N024
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 11/4/2009
Length: 8 pages

The president of a small Canadian tour operator of packaged vacations faces foreign exchange risk resulting from a future transaction in which the firm is committing to pay in U.S. dollars where the company's revenues are in Canadian dollars. The thin profit margins require the company to consider different hedging alternatives. The case provides significant information that will allow students to discuss international parity conditions and various hedging strategies within a relatively simple context.

Teaching Note: 8B05N24 (6 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Derivatives; Strategic Planning; Hedging; Risk Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:
Global Capital Markets

Stephen Sapp, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07N004
Publication Date: 6/4/2007
Revision Date: 8/21/2018
Length: 17 pages

Clearwater Seafoods (Clearwater) is a seafood company located on the east coast of Canada. It is an income trust with operations around the world. As a result of the increasing value of the Canadian dollar relative to other currencies around the world, Clearwater has recently ceased paying its distributions. The case considers the decision faced by the chief financial officer to determine the strategy the firm should take to enable it to reinstate its distributions. This involves the choice between different financial and operational means to hedge the foreign exchange risk which brought the firm into its current situation.

Teaching Note: 8B07N04 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Foreign Exchange; Options; Capital Markets; Risk Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Stephen Sapp, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B05N023
Publication Date: 6/30/2008
Revision Date: 10/4/2009
Length: 8 pages

The president of a small mining company is faced with an opportunity to purchase a mining refinery to complement its existing mining operations. It has the potential to bring the company into a situation of positive cashflow, but the small size of the company and high risk of the mining industry has left the president with few alternatives to raise the capital. The case focuses on the issuing of a Euro-denominated bond to finance this purchase and provide funds for future acquisitions. The case discusses the alternatives available in such a situation as well as the risks associated with changes in the price of metals and the value of the U.S. dollar, Canadian dollar and the Euro on the ability to make regular payments on the Euro-denominated bond and other financing alternatives.

Teaching Note: 8B05N23 (10 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Capital Markets; Risk Management; Hedging; Foreign Exchange; Financial Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Chapter 7:
Culture and International Business

Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B09M016
Publication Date: 2/9/2009
Length: 20 pages

The newly appointed country director of MIA Philippines, a non-profit organization with a mandate to alleviate poverty in developing countries, is faced with the challenge of designing and managing a development assistance project that would establish a go-to-market supply chain for a remote Filipino fishing village. The country director has to enter a new country, launch the project, deal with the constraints of a foreign culture, manage the expectations of major stakeholders whilst trying to manage a multi-cultural team and conclude the project on time. The value of the case lies in the realistic assessment of stakeholders' motivation, their capabilities and assets, and project constraints during the design and implementation stages. Value chain analysis, value added analysis and stakeholder analysis are used to assess the applicability of project design, impact and long term success.

Teaching Note: 8B09M16 (11 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: Value Chain; Cross Cultural Management; Project Management; Project Design/Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Stephen Grainger

Product Number: 9B08M004
Publication Date: 3/5/2008
Length: 7 pages

The case looks at the takeover of the Roaring Dragon Hotel (RDH), a state owned enterprise in south-west China, by global hotelier Hotel International (HI) and discusses the cultural collision and organizational adoptions resulting from the intersections of two significantly different business cultures. Specifically in this case, the focus is on the challenge involved with downsizing, redundancy, communication, cultural sensitivity, strategic planning and in developing strategy. In south-west China in 2002, the RDH business environment was just emerging from the shadow of the planned economy and had retained its guanxi-based organizational culture. At RDH, relationship development and the exchange of favors were still important and occurring on a daily basis and there was little system or efficiency in the hotel's domestic management style and processes. In comparison, Hotel International had a wealth of international experience in providing accommodation, marketing and professional management in servicing the needs of a global market steeped in corporate governance. At the commencement of the management contract there was a deep division separating the organizational cultures of RDH and HI.

Teaching Note: 8B08M04 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Cross Cultural Management; Strategic Planning; Cross Cultural Communication; Cultural Sensitivity
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07E004
Publication Date: 4/2/2007
Revision Date: 2/24/2010
Length: 21 pages

The case describes Naseeb Networks (Naseeb), a social networking site that seeks to offer Muslims an online forum that conforms to Islamic cultural traditions. Using a product platform strategy, the company has been able to expand to other online services to Muslims, including greeting cards and job search. As a company, Naseeb has a number of advantages that distinguish it from other Islamic Internet companies. The case looks at the conditions under which a company can seek to enter a mature market by offering highly specialized niche services and raises questions about how to monetize a niche service with limited expansion options. From an information systems perspective, it provides an example of how a technology platform can be used to expand into other service areas with minimal development costs. Lastly, the case considers how companies that host online communities attempt to balance user-generated content and company-sponsored content and activities.

Teaching Note: 8B07E04 (9 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Market Entry; Internet Culture; Networks; Outsourcing; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 8:
The Strategic Implications of Political, Religious, and Legal Institutions for International Business

Alexandra Roth, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B09M021
Publication Date: 3/9/2009
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 18 pages

A Swiss Catholic investor is faced with a decision on how to invest her savings in a socially responsible way. She learns of a new fund offered by Credit Suisse that purports to invest according to Christian values and principles. After researching the fund on the Internet, she becomes aware of the current state of ethical funds, their principles and their critics. Some organizations criticize socially responsible investing (SRI) as nothing more than a marketing ploy. The only way some funds are able to enjoy favorable returns is by using vague criteria that permit them to invest in questionable companies. Although the Christian Values fund has not performed well, it was only established a few months earlier and has not had time to establish a track record. Finally, the management fees were high compared to similar funds and the investor must decide if these fees are justified. The case provides a forum for the discussion of business ethics, religion in the workplace, and the history of ethical funds and ethical investing. Finally, it discusses the challenges faced by SRI fund managers who must balance ethical and financial considerations.

Teaching Note: 8B09M21 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Mutual Funds; Personal Values; Ethical Issues; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Henry W. Lane, Mikael Sondergaard, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B08M005
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 12 pages

After a Danish newspaper publishes cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad, consumers across the Middle East decide to boycott Danish goods. Arla Foods (Arla) is one of Europe's largest dairy companies. Suddenly, it finds itself caught in the middle of a crisis that appears to be beyond its control. Prior to the boycott, the Middle East was Arla's fastest growing region and represented an important component of the company's long-term growth strategy. As the largest Danish company in the region, it stands to lose up to $550 million in annual revenues. Students are asked to take the role of the communication director for Arla, who, along with other members of the newly formed Crisis and Communication Group, must decide on a course of action to deal with the crisis. The case addresses a variety of topics, including culture and religion, international management, risk management, crisis communications, and managing in a boycott situation. It also creates an opportunity to discuss doing business in the Middle East and management in an Islamic context.

Teaching Note: 8B08M05 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Boycott; Crisis Management; Women in Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

Product Number: 9B07M054
Publication Date: 8/3/2007
Revision Date: 8/16/2007
Length: 20 pages

This case describes E+Co's approach to promoting clean energy entrepreneurship in developing countries and its current strategic challenge; how to scale up its business model to reach 100 million unserved or underserved people in the developing world by 2020. In the last 12 years E+Co was successful at demonstrating and validating an "enterprise centered model" which offered reliable access and improved energy efficiency to the poor in emerging economies. Its approach to bringing the poor up the modern energy ladder, one step at a time, was initiated in response to a challenging project for the Rockerfeller Foundation, marked by a radical departure from the top-down, large scale infrastructure projects sponsored by international institutions. So far, these models had left 2.5 million people trapped into the double bind of energy poverty and energy waste. E+Co's approach was working well; by September 2006 it had invested in 138 enterprises in 30 countries. These local entrepreneurs currently provided clean energy to more than three million people. The next issue was scaling it all up; however, this risked straining the resources of E+Co's global team of 38 employees and could change the services the company provided to local entrepreneurs. Tenfold expansion within these constraints required an innovative growth strategy. Supplemental case, E+Co: The Path to Scale (B), product 9B07M055, presents a set of entrepreneurial growth strategies that preserve the core of the model.

Industry: Utilities
Issues: Business and Society; Entrepreneurial Business Growth; Emerging Markets; Energy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 9:
Entry Strategies for Multinational Companies

Jean-Louis Schaan, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B07M019
Publication Date: 11/21/2007
Length: 20 pages

The executive vice-president of newspapers for Schibsted was about to meet with his colleagues to discuss the company's plan to release an internally developed free daily newspaper concept called 20 Minutes. Over the past couple of years, Schibsted's executive team had kept a watchful eye on the free newspaper industry, which was enjoying tremendous popularity. Earlier in the year, Schibsted had launched Avis 1, a free paper with direct delivery to homes in Oslo, Norway. Looking to expand beyond their home country of Norway, Schibsted's executives had developed a proposal to simultaneously launch 20 Minutes in Zurich, Switzerland, and Cologne, Germany. The executive vice-president of newspapers and his colleagues were scheduled to present this recommendation to Schibsted's board of directors within a month. They were in the midst of preparing a financial and strategic analysis, since they were certain the board of directors would ask some tough questions. The supplemental case Schibsted (B): Should We Start Up 20 Minutes Cologne Again?, product #9B07M020 describes the events folllowing.

Teaching Note: 8B07M19 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; Market Entry; Cost/Benefit Analysis; Strategic Scope
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Ilan Alon, Allen H. Kupetz

Product Number: 9B06A034
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 8 pages

In 2006, Ruth's Chris Steak House was fresh off of a sizzling initial public offering and was now interested in growing their business internationally. With restaurants in just four countries outside the United States, a model to identify and rank new international markets was needed. This case provides a practical example for students to take quantitative and non-quantitative variables to create a short list of potential new markets.

Teaching Note: 8B06A34 (6 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Market Strategy; International Business; International Strategy; Market Entry
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Harold Crookell, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M015
Publication Date: 1/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is about a small American auto parts producer trying to diversify his way out of dependence on the major automakers. A promising new product is developed and the company gets a chance to license it to a Scottish manufacturer. The issue of whether to license or go it alone in international markets is central to the case. (A sequel to this case is available titled Cameron Auto Parts (B) - Revised, case 9B06M016.)

Teaching Note: 8B06M15 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Exports; Licensing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 10:
International Marketing and Supply Chain Management for Multinational Companies

Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B09M012
Publication Date: 3/31/2009
Revision Date: 9/2/2011
Length: 9 pages

Ribe Maskinfabrik A/S (RM) had, during the last 15 years, developed from a simple machine works operating out of Southern Jutland (Denmark) to the modern and globalized RM Group consisting of three distinct business units. This change had developed gradually as its outsourcing activities became increasingly important during the last years. In the beginning, outsourcing activities developed in an ad-hoc and reactive manner. However, RM gained important knowledge on how to optimize the outsourcing processes, and it developed a very extensive network of suppliers, many of which it had relationships with for many years. This network was offered to RM's customers and represented a high value to them. RM had already established these contacts and was able to assure the quality of its partners, which saved its customers valuable time and effort. In that sense, RM exploited its own experience and network of suppliers and became an outsourcing consultant.

Teaching Note: 8B09M12 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Strategy; Networks; Value Chain; Supplier Relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

Product Number: 9B08M031
Publication Date: 7/25/2008
Length: 16 pages

Coloplast's future global manufacturing strategy was based on relocation of volume production of mature product lines to low cost countries like Hungary and China, whereas most creative and innovative activities (pilot production, ramp-up and range care) were retained in Denmark. The large scale project of offshoring, first volume production and later perhaps other activities, to Tatabanya, Hungary constituted a major shift in the operational strategy for Coloplast, which resulted in a series of organizational and managerial challenges. An important feature of the case is the surprise to the management team of how challenging it was to globalize the operations despite Coloplast's international experience operating a network of subsidiaries in more than 26 countries. The management team learned how important it is to have the structure, the organization and the mindset in place when offshoring production. Sourcing internationally is very different from selling internationally as it involves the entire organization. The learning process of the management team and the challenges they faced is unfolded in this case.

Teaching Note: 8B08M31 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Operations Management; Human Resources Management; Centralization; Management Science and Info. Systems; Management Information Systems; Organizational Behaviour; International Management; Change Management; Value Chain
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05A024
Publication Date: 9/26/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 22 pages

The Global Media manager for adidas International is responsible for developing and championing a new marketing strategy at adidas called brand in the hand that is based on the convergence of cell phones and wireless Internet. The case presents company background information, data on the penetration of mobile devices such as cell phones, the growth of global mobile marketing practices, and several mobile marketing communications campaigns that adidas launched in 2004, such as a mobile newsticker for the 2004 European soccer championship. The case then introduces a specific campaign - Respect M.E. - featuring Missy Elliott, a popular female hip-hop artist, and discusses the company's mobile marketing strategy to support MissyElliott's new line of sportswear. This case can be used to highlight the role of new technology in overall marketing strategy and integrated marketing communications.

Teaching Note: 8B05A24 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Channels; Marketing Communication; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 11:
Financial Management for Multinational Companies

James E. Hatch, David Jagodzinski

Product Number: 9B09N011
Publication Date: 5/14/2009
Length: 23 pages

LAB International (LAB) has two divisions that have vastly different strategies. The research and development division has a continuing need for funding and a high degree of risk, while the contract research division is a cash generator and is less risky. LAB is attempting to raise additional capital but believes that the shares of the company are undervalued in the market. It is contemplating a spinoff of one of the divisions to raise the funds and to make each company more of a pure play and therefore to achieve a more appropriate market valuation. Students must assess the merits of this strategy and place a value on the spinoff.

Teaching Note: 8B09N11 (27 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Health Sector; Initial Public Offerings; Financing; Financial Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Stephen R. Foerster, Patricia A. McGraw

Product Number: 9B02N017
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 12/5/2009
Length: 23 pages

Air New Zealand is a national airline faced with a number of important strategic and financial issues. The company's recent acquisition of Ansett Australia had proved to be disastrous and a severe financial drain for Air New Zealand. Key issues facing Air New Zealand include the long-term strategic positioning of the business, and determining anticipated financing needs, the appropriate gearing ratio or capitalization (debt-to-equity) rate, and available sources of financing. A recent research report had summarized two fundamental questions that impacted on the company's stock price and needed to be addressed: Would the New Zealand government relax Air New Zealand's ownership restrictions in order to allow Singapore Airlines to increase its stake from 25 per cent to 49 per cent? If so, would any proposal fix Air New Zealand's balance sheet to allow Air New Zealand and Ansett to once again become viable airline competitors? Supplement to this case is Air New Zealand: The Recapitalization Decision (B), product number 9B02N020.

Teaching Note: 8B02N17 (15 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Financial Analysis; Financial Management; Financial Strategy; Strategic Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 12:
Accounting for Multinational Operations

Claude P. Lanfranconi, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B07B009
Publication Date: 8/3/2007
Length: 17 pages

The main objective of this case is to introduce students to the calculation and usage of ratios in a real world environment. Secondly, students will be required to access, read and use an actual annual report. Lastly, Dairy Farm International is an Asian-based multinational and, therefore, by using comparative data from a United Kingdom multinational, Tesco, and a local Canadian company, Sobeys, students will be introduced to issues related to international financial comparisons.

Teaching Note: 8B07B09 (16 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: International Financial Accounting; Financial Ratio Analysis; Using an Annual Report
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Charles McPeak, Owen Hall, Stella Hung-Yuan Chu

Product Number: 9B07B006
Publication Date: 7/4/2007
Length: 7 pages

Trans Global Corporation is a multinational company facing a complex set of inter-related problems including: international financial reporting standards, impact of a country's EU status, functional currency decisions, currency translation methods, exchange rates and impact of using derivatives to hedge currency changes.

Teaching Note: 8B07B06 (11 pages)
Issues: Gains and Losses on Currency Transactions; International Financial Reporting Standards; Exchange Rates
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Archibald Campbell, Noel Reynolds

Product Number: 9B04B022
Publication Date: 3/7/2005
Revision Date: 10/8/2009
Length: 12 pages

The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC have signed an agreement to combine their retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean to create FirstCaribbean International Bank. In principle, it appeared that both parties were agreeing to a combination of their assets to form a new entity, in which case a new holding company could be constituted to absorb the assets being merged. Alternately, as Barclays interest in the merger was substantially greater than that of CIBC, the transaction could be construed as an outright purchase of the CIBC interests by Barclays. The problem with this second approach, however, was that Barclays Caribbean presently had no separate legal form in the region. This case illustrates the procedures for accounting for mergers and acquisition, and lends itself to discussion on a myriad of issues and concepts. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the four additional cases which deal with various functional issues regarding the actual merger/integration which occurred. The four additional cases are Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean Bank, product 9B04C053; Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032; CIBC-Barclays: Should Their Caribbean Operations be Merged?, product 9B04M067; and Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04B22 (10 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Accounting - Tax; Accounting - Transactions; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 13:
Organizational Structures for Multinational Companies

Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Jean-Louis Schaan, Ramasastry Chandrasekhar

Product Number: 9B07M056
Publication Date: 10/24/2007
Length: 13 pages

The president of Asian Paints Ltd., India's largest paint manufacturer, was wondering how he could improve the way the company's International Business division was managing its team of 120 global managers. The company had operations throughout Asia in various locations such as China, Singapore and Thailand; throughout Africa in countries such as Oman, Egypt and Mauritius; and in the Americas in Jamaica. The team of global management was critical to the success of the company's globalization endeavour, which was expected to gather momentum once the ongoing consolidation was complete. The president must decide how to structure the management of this global team.

Teaching Note: 8B07M56 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Manager; Growth; Management Systems; Organizational Structure
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 14:
International Human Resource Management

Jannifer David, Ahmed Maamoun

Product Number: 9B08C019
Publication Date: 10/20/2008
Length: 5 pages

The growing globalization of many industries has led many U.S.-based companies to open facilities overseas. In the process, researchers have counselled U.S. companies to adopt many local customs and policies to increase their probability of success in these new locations. During this same time period, many foreign-owned companies have moved into the United States and either purchased existing facilities or started new operations. The purpose of this case is to investigate how a non-American company (Toivonen) has adapted to the U.S. environment. It assesses the role of the parent company culture in the day-to-day operations of the American subsidiary.

Teaching Note: 8B08C19 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Cultural Customs; Acquisition Strategy; Management in a Global Environment; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Diana E. Krause, Reiner Piske

Product Number: 9B07C041
Publication Date: 1/4/2008
Length: 17 pages

The owner of a company with production plants in various regions in the world wants to standardize the methods of personnel selection for the Asian-Pacific region (APAC). A new system of personnel selection has to be developed for middle management positions in APAC. The owner delegates this task to a cross-functional, multinational project team that operates in Hong Kong headed by a human resources (HR) executive and expatriate from Germany. In terms of the new personnel selection system, he has two opposing goals in mind: the new personnel selection system should be highly specific for a particular country and simultaneously valid for different countries. A series of issues must be resolved in order for the project to be successful. Some of these issues are related to the personnel selection system; the job requirements to be assessed, the modules it must include, the stages and methods of each module, and the implementation of the system across countries in APAC. Other issues are interpersonal, such as the cultural differences and the heterogeneous perspectives that exist among the team members, and a conflict between the HR executive and the owner.

Teaching Note: 8B07C41 (9 pages)
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Aptitude Diagnostics; International Personnel Selection; Teamwork
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

Product Number: 9B07C040
Publication Date: 10/30/2007
Length: 18 pages

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C40 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: International Management; Expatriate Management; Trade Unions; Management Training; Emerging Markets; Performance Evaluation; Recruiting; Subsidiaries; Career Development; Employee Selection
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 15:
E-Commerce for the Multinational Company

Darren Meister, Rua-Huan Tsaih

Product Number: 9B08E011
Publication Date: 3/16/2009
Length: 12 pages

The chairman of Taiwan-based Polaris Securities Co. Ltd. (Polaris Securities), announced approval of Polaris' investment plans in Singapore, Vietnam and Abu Dhabi. The chairman's name was known in Taiwan as synonymous with innovation and entrepreneurship. He had experienced great success in launching an information technology strategy and related complementary assets for online stock trading and online transactions. With a prominent performance, the chairman had made Polaris Securities stand out conspicuously in Taiwan's securities market. He also copied Polaris Securities experiences, such as computational finance, trading platform and customer service, to Polaris Securities (Hong Kong) Ltd. (Polaris Securities HK) to expand his business scope. The chairman contemplated whether Polaris Securities and Polaris Securities HK experiences could be duplicated in Singapore, Vietnam and Abu Dhabi.

Teaching Note: 8B08E11 (4 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Leveraging Information Technology; Internationalization; Information Technology Strategy; Computational Finance; CNCCU/Ivey
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Malcolm Munro, Sid L. Huff

Product Number: 9B07A018
Publication Date: 10/1/2007
Length: 14 pages

Anduro Marketing is a Canadian company that sells technical services to companies wanting to improve their search engine website rankings. Though small, Anduro has attracted several major clients in both Canada and the United States, and expects steady profitability and growth. Anduro believes it can generate substantial additional profit by developing and selling a suite of software products that automate its technical service offerings. Anduro's managers must decide whether Anduro is better off staying with its current safe and profitable strategy or if Anduro should instead pursue a riskier but potentially more profitable software sales model. Several tough questions must be answered to determine whether the risk is worth the reward. The Anduro case provides an interesting description of an Internet technical/marketing services business and contrasts this with software sales.

Teaching Note: 8B07A18 (7 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Search Engines; Internet Software; Internet Marketing; Corporate Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Kenneth G. Hardy, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B06A018
Publication Date: 8/30/2006
Revision Date: 9/11/2009
Length: 13 pages

Eat2Eat.com was an Internet-based restaurant reservation service covering a dozen cities in the Asia Pacific region. It was the principal business of Singapore-based Eat2Eat Pte Ltd. It was launched in 2000 by an entrepreneur and former investment banker with US$1 million of his own capital. He quickly established the capabilities and business model, but after five years, the registered user base remained relatively small at about 12,000. He thought the next step for the company was to expand that user base and hoped that the company could change the way people made plans to eat out. Resources - specifically, time and money - were limited, so any promotional efforts would have to be innovative and efficient. The case focuses on entrepreneurial marketing with sub-themes of financing and small enterprise management. It is a story of an entrepreneur who had an idea and enough money to launch it, but then struggles to achieve adequate scale.

Teaching Note: 8B06A18 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: E-Commerce; Startups; Entrepreneurial Finance; Entrepreneurial Marketing; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 16:
Managing Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Multinational Company

James McMaster, Jan Nowak

Product Number: 9B09A008
Publication Date: 5/13/2009
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

This case analysis traces the establishment and subsequent operation of FIJI Water LLC and its bottling subsidiary, Natural Waters of Viti Limited, the first company in Fiji extracting, bottling and marketing, both domestically and internationally, artesian water coming from a virgin ecosystem found on Fiji's main island of Viti Levu. The case reviews the growth and market expansion of this highly successful company with the brand name FIJI Natural Artesian Water (FIJI Water). The company has grown rapidly over the past decade and a half, and now exports bottled water into many countries in the world from its production plant located in the Fiji Islands. In 2008, FIJI Water was the leading imported bottled water brand in the United States. In the context of great marketing success of the FIJI brand, particularly in the U.S. market, the case focuses on how the company has responded to a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, including measuring and reducing its carbon footprint, responsibilities to key stakeholders, and concerns of the Fiji government with regard to taxation and transfer pricing issues. The case provides a compelling illustration of how CSR challenges may jeopardize the sustainability of a clever marketing strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B09A08 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Environment; Corporate Responsibility; Marketing Communication; Transfer Pricing; International Marketing; Greenwashing; Green Marketing; Brand Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Klaus Meyer

Product Number: 9B09M001
Publication Date: 1/9/2009
Revision Date: 5/3/2017
Length: 13 pages

The case outlines the conflicting ethical demands on a Danish pharmaceuticals company, Novo Nordisk, that is operating globally and is aspiring to high standards of corporate social responsibility. A recent report alleges that multinational pharmaceutical companies routinely conduct trials in developing countries under alleged unethical conditions. The company's director reflects on how to respond to a request from a journalist for an interview. This triggers a discussion on the appropriate ethical principles and how to communicate them. As a company emphasizing corporate responsibility, the interaction with the media presents both opportunities and risks to Novo Nordisk. The case focuses on clinical trials that are required to attain regulatory approval in, for example, Europe and North America, and that are conducted at multiple sites around the world, including many emerging economies. Novo Nordisk has implemented numerous procedures to protect its various stakeholders, yet will this satisfy journalists and non-governmental organizations, and how should the company communicate with these stakeholders?

Teaching Note: 8B09M01 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Location Strategy; Ethical Issues; Emerging Markets; Research and Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Niraj Dawar, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06A020
Publication Date: 7/27/2006
Revision Date: 1/9/2008
Length: 24 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - Corporate Social Responsibility Award, 2006 European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) Case Writing Competition. In early 2005, Nestle is in the midst of a decision: whether or not the Fairtrade mark should be applied on Partners' Blend, a new instant coffee product to be marketed in the growing UK 'ethical' coffee segment. Application of the Fairtrade mark on the Partners Blend product means that Nestle must go against its historical position of not offering minimum guaranteed prices to coffee farmers. As part of their deliberations, Nestle executives must consider their coffee sourcing program at large, their corporate social responsibility framework, Nescafe and corporate Nestle branding, the UK market and the potential consumer benefits or backlash that could result from releasing such a product.

Teaching Note: 8B06A20 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: New Products; Corporate Responsibility; Brand Management; Product Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA