Ivey Publishing

Global Strategic Management

Ungson G. R., Wong, Y,1/e (United States, M.E. Sharpe, 2008)
Prepared By Paul W. Beamish, Professor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Global Strategic Management: An Overview

CAMERON AUTO PARTS (A) - REVISED
Harold Crookell, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M015
Publication Date: 1/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 10 pages

This case is about a small American auto parts producer trying to diversify his way out of dependence on the major automakers. A promising new product is developed and the company gets a chance to license it to a Scottish manufacturer. The issue of whether to license or go it alone in international markets is central to the case. (A sequel to this case is available titled Cameron Auto Parts (B) - Revised, case 9B06M016.)

Teaching Note: 8B06M15 (8 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Exports; Licensing; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



LARSON IN NIGERIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, Isaiah A. Litvak, Harry Cheung

Product Number: 9B04M012
Publication Date: 2/3/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 7 pages

The vice-president of international operations must decide whether to continue to operate or abandon the company's Nigerian joint venture. Although the expatriate general manager of the Nigerian operation has delivered a very pessimistic report, Larson's own hunch was to stay in that country. Maintaining the operation was complicated by problems in staffing, complying with a promise to increase the share of local ownership, a joint venture partner with divergent views, and increasing costs of doing business in Nigeria. If Larson decides to maintain the existing operation, the issues of increasing local equity participation (i.e. coping with indigenization) and staffing problems (especially in terms of the joint venture general manager) have to be addressed.

Teaching Note: 8B04M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Subsidiaries; Third World; Government Regulation; Staffing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



JINJIAN GARMENT FACTORY: MOTIVATING GO-SLOW WORKERS
Tieying Huang, Junping Liang, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M033
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 6 pages

Jinjian Garment Factory is a large clothing manufacturer based in Shenzhen with distribution to Hong Kong and overseas. Although Shenzhen had become one of the most advanced garment manufacturing centres in the world, managers in this industry still had few effective ways of dealing with the collective and deliberate slow pace of work by the employees, of motivating workers, and of resolving the problem between seasonal production requirements and retention of skilled workers. However, the owner and managing director of the company must determine the reasons behind the deliberately slow pace of the workers, the pros and cons of the piecework system and the methods he could adopt to motivate the workers effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B04M33 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Productivity; Employee Attitude; Piece Work; Performance Measurement; Work-Force Management; Peking University
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 2:
Analyzing the External Environment

NOTE ON THE CUBAN CIGAR INDUSTRY
Paul W. Beamish, Akash Kapoor

Product Number: 9B03M001
Publication Date: 2/27/2003
Revision Date: 10/21/2009
Length: 20 pages

The cigar industry in Cuba has a mythical aura and renown that give it unparalleled recognition worldwide. The relationship between Cuba and the United States makes the situation in this industry particularly intriguing. Cuban cigars cannot currently be sold in the United States, even though it is the largest premium cigar market in the world. This note provides an opportunity for a structured analysis using Porter's five forces model and to consider several scenarios including the possible lifting of the U.S. embargo and the relaxation of Cuba's land ownership laws.

Teaching Note: 8B03M01 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Government and Business; Internationalization; International Business; Industry Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



AMERICAN FAST FOOD IN KOREA
Paul W. Beamish, Jae C. Jung, Hun-Hee Kim

Product Number: 9B03M016
Publication Date: 4/2/2003
Revision Date: 10/22/2009
Length: 12 pages

A major U.S.-based fast food company with extensive operations around the world was contemplating whether or not they should enter the Korean market. The Korean fast food market was hit badly by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, but the economy was turning around. Thus, fast food demand in Korea was expected to increase. For the industry analysis, this case provides information on various competitors, substitute foods, new entrants, consumers and suppliers. In addition, social issues are included as potential forces.

Teaching Note: 8B03M16 (15 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Industry Analysis; Market Entry; Fast Food; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CORAL DIVERS RESORT
Paul W. Beamish, Kent E. Neupert, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B08M041
Publication Date: 4/18/2008
Revision Date: 11/19/2014
Length: 19 pages

The owner of a small scuba diving operation in the Bahamas is reassessing his strategic direction in the light of declining revenues. Among the changes being considered are shark diving, family diving, exit, and shifting operations to another Caribbean location. These options are not easily combined, nor are they subtle. The case is intended to provide a work-out on the relationship between strategy, organization and performance, and how changes in strategy will dramatically affect the organization. The case also highlights the importance of understanding demographic changes as part of an environmental analysis. (A nine-minute video can be purchased with this case, video 7B08M041.)

Teaching Note: 8B08M41 (14 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: Strategic Change; Services; Small Business; Industry Analysis; Tourism
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 3:
Formulating Strategy and Developing a Business Model

SAN FRANCISCO COFFEE HOUSE: AN AMERICAN STYLE FRANCHISE IN CROATIA
Ilan Alon, Mirela Alpeza, Aleksandar Erceg

Product Number: 9B08A013
Publication Date: 8/14/2008
Revision Date: 4/20/2010
Length: 10 pages

On their return to Croatia following a six-year visit to the United States, a couple has decided to open their own coffee house, one that is new to Croatia — a California-style coffee house that offers the quality, service, product assortment, ambiance, and efficiency found in sophisticated coffee shops in developed markets, and all for a locally affordable price. The major challenge faced by the couple is how to grow. Specifically, should they consider franchising over organic growth? If so, how should they go about franchising in a country where the market is developing and where franchising is under-regulated, underdeveloped, and misunderstood?

Teaching Note: 8B08A13 (10 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Business Development; Retail Marketing; Corporate Governance; Human Resources Management; Franchising; Brands
Difficulty: 2 - Intro/Undergraduate



STRATEGIZING AT MONARCHIA MATT INTERNATIONAL (MMI)
Michael J. Rouse, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B07M014
Publication Date: 3/16/2007
Revision Date: 8/14/2007
Length: 24 pages

As of late 2004, the chief executive officer (CEO) of New York-based wine distributor Monarchia Matt International (MMI) is looking at his portfolio of wines and wondering what advantage Hungarian wine could provide in becoming a powerful niche player in the highly fragmented and complicated U.S. wine industry. The CEO is cognizant of Hungarian wine's reputation in the United States as an inexpensive, mass-quantity produced and low quality drink. At the same time, the CEO is aware of Hungary's rich wine making tradition and is confident that the country's wine varieties could prove to be a key differentiator and help him grow revenues from $6 million in 2004 to $50 million by 2010. This case serves as an introduction to many of the core course frameworks in strategy, and can be used to cover the following topics: PEST (political, economic, social and technological factors); Porter's five forces; resource-based view of the firm using VRIO framework; value proposition; SWOT; and value frontier.

Teaching Note: 8B07M14 (13 pages)
Industry: Wholesale Trade
Issues: Growth Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Product Mix; Industry Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HONEY CARE AFRICA (A): A DIFFERENT BUSINESS MODEL
Oana Branzei, Mike Valente

Product Number: 9B07M022
Publication Date: 4/2/2007
Revision Date: 4/24/2007
Length: 16 pages

The founding entrepreneur of Honey Care Africa revitalized Kenya’s national honey industry by focusing on small-holder farmers across the country. Central to success was an innovative business model: a synergistic partnership between the development sector, the private sector, and rural communities that drew on the core competencies of each party as well as their complementary roles. This tripartite model was combined with local manufacturing of beehives, effective beekeeping training, a guaranteed market for small-holder farmers through forward contracts, and prompt payments. Four years later, Honey Care had achieved a 68 per cent market share in Kenya and distributed several brands of organic, fair-trade honey internationally, and was a lead distributor of beeswax. The business model had been successfully replicated in neighbouring Tanzania, and there were plans to expand to Uganda and Sudan.

Teaching Note: 8B07M22 (15 pages)
Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
Issues: Competitive Advantage; Sustainable Development; Alliances; Africa
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 4:
Positioning Strategic Choices in a Global Context

THE ASCENDANCE OF AIRASIA: BUILDING A SUCCESSFUL BUDGET AIRLINE IN ASIA
Thomas Lawton, Jonathan Doh

Product Number: 9B08M054
Publication Date: 10/31/2008
Revision Date: 7/21/2010
Length: 16 pages

In September 2001, Tony Fernandes left his job as vice president and head of Warner Music's Southeast Asian operations. He reportedly cashed in his stock options, took out a mortgage on his house, and lined up investors to take control of AirAsia, a struggling Malaysian airline. Three days later, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center. Despite the negative aftermath of the 9-11 attacks, by 2003, AirAsia had demonstrated that the low-fare model epitomized by Southwest and JetBlue in the United States, and by Ryanair and easyJet in Europe, had great potential in the Asian marketplace. Now, Fernandes had to make plans to ensure that AirAsia maintained its momentum while considering the influx of new entrants into the low-fare segment of the airline industry in Asia.

Teaching Note: 8B08M54 (8 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: International Business; Competitive Strategy; Strategic Positioning; Entrepreneurial Business Growth
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



TAMING THE DRAGON: CUMMINS IN CHINA (CONDENSED)
Charles Dhanaraj, Maria Morgan, Jing Li, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B05M034
Publication Date: 9/22/2005
Revision Date: 10/1/2009
Length: 15 pages

This case documents more than 15 years of U.S.-based Cummins, a global leader in diesel and allied technology, and its investment activities in China. While the macro level indicators seem to suggest the possibility to hit $1 billion in revenues in China by 2005, there were several pressing problems that put into question Cummins' ability to realize this target. Students are presented with four specific situations and must develop an appropriate action plan. They are related to the respective streamlining and consolidation of several existing joint ventures, distribution and service, and staffing. The case presents the complexity of managing country level operations and the role of executive leadership of a country manager.

Teaching Note: 8B05M34 (14 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Strategy; International Joint Venture; Country Manager; Global Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



REGAL CARNATION HOTEL, GUAM
Jim Kayalar

Product Number: 9B08M070
Publication Date: 10/20/2008
Length: 13 pages

In the spring of 2007, a vacationer is upset by the poor hotel experience he has had on the island of Guam. At the onset, the reasons for the bad experience seem to point to seemingly minor issues: bad management, poor service and old rooms. The value of the case lies in the analysis of the symptoms and arriving at the root causes of the problem, particularly the profit maximization strategy of the hotel's owners in a mature industry. The case uses a different method of analysis, starting with micro indicators and moving to macro indicators: the analysis of symptoms, arriving at root causes, determining company strategy and finally assessing the company's position using the Product Life Cycle Model.

Teaching Note: 8B08M70 (14 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: Human Resources Management; Marketing Management; Operations Management; Organizational Behaviour; Market Strategy; Strategy Development; Product Life Cycle; Strategic Positioning
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 5:
Leveraging Competitive Advantage Through Global Marketing

GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS
Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9B00A019
Publication Date: 10/19/2000
Revision Date: 5/23/2017
Length: 19 pages

Interbrew had developed into the world's fourth largest brewer by acquiring and managing a large portfolio of national and regional beer brands in markets around the world. Recently, senior management had decided to develop one of their premium beers, Stella Artois, as a global brand. The early stages of Interbrew's global branding strategy and tactics are examined, enabling students to consider these concepts in the context of a fragmented but consolidating industry. It is suitable for use in courses in consumer marketing, international marketing and international business.

Teaching Note: 8B00A19 (10 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Global Product; International Business; International Marketing; Brands
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



NOTE ON INTERNATIONAL LICENSING
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B06M005
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 18 pages

Licensing is a strategy for technology transfer; and an approach to internationalization that requires less time or depth of involvement in foreign markets, compared to exports, joint ventures, and foreign direct investment. This note examines when licensing is employed, risks associated with it, intellectual property rights, costs of licensing, unattractive markets for licensing, and the major elements of the license agreement.

Issues: Technology Transfer; Licensing; Corporate Strategy; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



YUNNAN BAIYAO: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE MEETS PRODUCT/MARKET DIVERSIFICATION
Paul W. Beamish, George Peng

Product Number: 9B06M088
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

In 2003, 3M initiated contact with Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd. to discuss potential cooperation opportunities in the area of transdermal pharmaceutical products. Yunnan Baiyao (YB), was a household brand in China for its unique traditional herbal medicines. In recent years, the company had been engaged in a series of corporate reforms and product/market diversification strategies to respond to the change in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry and competition at a global level. By 2003, YB was already a vertically integrated, product-diversified group company with an ambition to become an international player. The proposed cooperation with 3M was attractive to YB, not only as an opportunity for domestic product diversification, but also for international diversification. YB had been attempting to internationalize its products and an overseas department had been established in 2002 specifically for this purpose. On the other hand, YB had also been considering another option namely, whether to extend its brand to toothpaste and other healthcare products. YB had to make decisions about which of the two options to pursue and whether it was feasible to pursue both.

Teaching Note: 8B06M88 (12 pages)
Industry: Health Care Services
Issues: China; Product Diversification; Internationalization; Brand Extension; Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



THE 2006 WORLD CUP: MOBILE MARKETING AT ADIDAS (A)
Andy Rohm, Fareena Sultan, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B07A016
Publication Date: 10/4/2007
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 14 pages

The manager of Mobile Media for adidas International is debating what to do, given the sparse amount of traffic to date at the adidas FIFA World Cup mobile portal. By February, there had been only 3,000 visits to the mobile site, compared to the one million visits predicted earlier based on the previous success of a Lucas Films Star Wars mobile campaign. Given that the World Cup is a global event viewed by millions of people in person and more than one billion TV viewers worldwide, it represents a global stage for adidas to promote its brand and communicate its continued involvement and leadership in the sport of football. The manager of Mobile Media is worried that the brand's mobile efforts for this major event could fail miserably.

Teaching Note: 8B07A16 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; International Marketing; Telecommunication Technology; Marketing Communication; Marketing Channels; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 6:
Leveraging Competitive Advantage Through Global Sourcing

MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (A)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M010
Publication Date: 2/21/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 14 pages

On July 30, 2007 the senior executive team of Mattel under the leadership of Bob Eckert, chief executive officer, received reports that the surface paint on the Sarge Cars, made in China, contained lead in excess of U.S. federal regulations. It was certainly not good news for Mattel, which was about to recall 967,000 other Chinese-made children's character toys because of excess lead in the paint. Not surprisingly, the decision ahead was not only about whether to recall the Sarge Cars and other toys that might be unsafe, but also how to deal with the recall situation. The (A) case details the events leading up to the recall and highlights the difficulties a multinational enterprise faces in managing global operations. Use with Ivey case 9B08M011, Mattel and the Toy Recalls (B).

Teaching Note: 8B08M10 (28 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MATTEL AND THE TOY RECALLS (B)
Hari Bapuji, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M011
Publication Date: 2/25/2008
Revision Date: 9/15/2014
Length: 9 pages

This case, which outlines the product recall, is a supplement to Mattel and the Toy Recalls (A).

Teaching Note: 8B08M11 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Supply Chain Management; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Product Quality; Product Recall; Multinational Enterprise Stakeholders; the United States and China
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



COLOPLAST A/S - ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES IN OFFSHORING
Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

Product Number: 9B08M031
Publication Date: 7/25/2008
Length: 16 pages

Coloplast's future global manufacturing strategy was based on relocation of volume production of mature product lines to low cost countries like Hungary and China, whereas most creative and innovative activities (pilot production, ramp-up and range care) were retained in Denmark. The large scale project of offshoring, first volume production and later perhaps other activities, to Tatabanya, Hungary constituted a major shift in the operational strategy for Coloplast, which resulted in a series of organizational and managerial challenges. An important feature of the case is the surprise to the management team of how challenging it was to globalize the operations despite Coloplast's international experience operating a network of subsidiaries in more than 26 countries. The management team learned how important it is to have the structure, the organization and the mindset in place when offshoring production. Sourcing internationally is very different from selling internationally as it involves the entire organization. The learning process of the management team and the challenges they faced is unfolded in this case.

Teaching Note: 8B08M31 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Operations Management; Human Resources Management; Centralization; Management Science and Info. Systems; Management Information Systems; Organizational Behaviour; International Management; Change Management; Value Chain
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 7:
Leveraging Competitive Advantage Through Strategic Alliances

NORA-SAKARI: A PROPOSED JV IN MALAYSIA (REVISED)
Paul W. Beamish, R. Azimah Ainuddin

Product Number: 9B06M006
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Revision Date: 5/23/2012
Length: 16 pages

This case presents the perspective of a Malaysian company, Nora Bhd, which was in the process of trying to establish a telecommunications joint venture with a Finnish firm, Sakari Oy. Negotiations have broken down between the firms, and students are asked to try to restructure a win-win deal. The case examines some of the most common issues involved in partner selection and design in international joint ventures.

Teaching Note: 8B06M06 (12 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Third World; Negotiation; Joint Ventures; Finland; Malaysia
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MAJESTICA HOTEL IN SHANGHAI?
Paul W. Beamish, Jane W. Lu

Product Number: 9B05M035
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 14 pages

Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.

Teaching Note: 8B05M35 (8 pages)
Industry: Accommodation & Food Services
Issues: China; Market Entry; Negotiation; Control Systems; Corporate Culture
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ELI LILLY IN INDIA: RETHINKING THE JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
Charles Dhanaraj, Paul W. Beamish, Nikhil Celly

Product Number: 9B04M016
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 3/13/2017
Length: 18 pages

Eli Lilly and Company is a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company. The new president of intercontinental operations is re-evaluating all of the company's divisions, including the joint venture with Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, one of India's largest pharmaceutical companies. This joint venture has run smoothly for a number of years despite their differences in focus, but recently Ranbaxy was experiencing cash flow difficulties due to its network of international sales. In addition, the Indian government was changing regulations for businesses in India, and joining the World Trade Organization would have an effect on India's chemical and drug regulations. The president must determine if this international joint venture still fits Eli Lilly's strategic objectives.

Teaching Note: 8B04M16 (18 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Joint Ventures; Emerging Markets; International Management; Strategic Alliances
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 8:
Leveraging Competitive Advantage Through Innovation

RESEARCH IN MOTION: MANAGING EXPLOSIVE GROWTH
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Daina Mazutis

Product Number: 9B08M046
Publication Date: 5/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/24/2017
Length: 19 pages

Research in Motion (RIM) is a high technology firm that is experiencing explosive sales growth. David Yach, chief technology officer for software at RIM, has received notice of an impending meeting with the co-chief executive officer regarding his research and development (R&D) expenditures. Although RIM, makers of the very popular BlackBerry, spent almost $360 million in R&D in 2007, this number was low compared to its largest competitors, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of sales (e.g. Nokia spent $8.2 billion on R&D). This is problematic as it foreshadows the question of whether or not RIM is well positioned to continue to meet expectations, deliver award-winning products and services and maintain its lead in the smartphone market. Furthermore, in the very dynamic mobile telecommunications industry, investment analysts often look to a firm's commitment to R&D as a signal that product sales growth will be sustainable. Just to maintain the status quo, Yach will have to hire 1,400 software engineers in 2008 and is considering a number of alternative paths to managing the expansion. The options include: (1) doing what they are doing now, only more of it, (2) building on their existing and satellite R&D locations, (3) growing through acquisition or (4) going global.

Teaching Note: 8B08M46 (19 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Telecommunication Technology; Change Management; Globalization; Staffing; Growth Strategy
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DEPOSITA - WHETHER TO DOMINATE THE VALUE CHAIN OR NOT
Helena Barnard

Product Number: 9B08M072
Publication Date: 10/24/2008
Length: 13 pages

Post-Apartheid South Africa has been characterized by high levels of crime, but also by sustained increases in the income levels of the previously disadvantaged black community. Cash is the preferred method of payment for new entrants into an economy, but it is also an attractive target for criminals. Deposita has seized the business opportunity presented by this tension, and developed an automated banking machine, basically an ATM in reverse. As soon as businesses feed their cash into the machine on their premises, information about the deposit is relayed via a cellphone network to the Deposita database. With the realization that Deposita offers a cash management system that not only eliminates the time, cost and inaccuracies of manual cash counting, but also gives businesses remote visibility into the movement of cash, interest in Deposita grew rapidly, both within South Africa and internationally. The case highlights the systemic nature of innovation, technology-enabled innovation at the base of the pyramid, hyper-mediation, and the tension between product and geographic expansion as the owners of Deposita redirect their strategic focus to the entire cash value chain in South Africa or to international markets or both.

Teaching Note: 8B08M72 (5 pages)
Issues: Innovation; Expansion; Home Country Advantages; Expansion Option; Hypermediation; Product versus Geographic Expansion; GIBS
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate



TIME WARNER INC. AND THE ORC PATENTS
Paul W. Beamish, John Adamson

Product Number: 9B01M059
Publication Date: 1/29/2002
Revision Date: 8/28/2009
Length: 16 pages

Optical Recording Corporation (ORC) secured the rights to a technology known as digital optical audio recording. During the time it took to negotiate the final transfer of the technology ownership, it was rumored that some major electronics manufacturers were developing compact disc (CD) players that recorded digital optical audio signals. A patent lawyer advised ORC that the compact disc players and compact discs recently released by these companies might be infringing the claims of ORC's newly acquired patents. Based on this information, the company proceeded to successfully negotiate licensing agreements with the two largest CD manufacturers, Sony of Japan, and Philips of the Netherlands The third largest manufacturer, WEA Manufacturing, a subsidiary of Time Warner Inc., maintained a position of non-infringement and invalid patents. With the U.S. patent expiry date looming, ORC decided to sue Time Warner for patent infringement. When the defense counsel presented testimony that questioned the integrity of the licensing agreement, ORC's president realized that the entire licensing program was in jeopardy and must decide whether he should accept a settlement or proceed with the lawsuit.

Teaching Note: 8B01M59 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Business Law; Intellectual Capital; Licensing; Patents
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 9:
Implementing Strategy Using Structures and Processes

ING INSURANCE ASIA/PACIFIC
Rod E. White, Paul W. Beamish, Andreas Schotter

Product Number: 9B06M083
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Length: 15 pages

The new chief executive officer (CEO) of ING Insurance Asia/Pacific wants to improve the regional operation of the company. ING Group was a global financial services company of Dutch origin with more than 150 years of experience. As part of ING International, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific was responsible for life insurance and asset/wealth management activities throughout the region. The company was doing well, but the new CEO believed that there were still important strategic and operational improvements possible. This case can be used to discuss the local versus regional or global management issue and will yield best results if the class has already been introduced to different strategic and organizational alternatives in the international business context.

Teaching Note: 8B06M83 (12 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Subsidiaries; Organization; Leadership; International Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



CARREFOUR CHINA, BUILDING A GREENER STORE
Andreas Schotter, Paul W. Beamish, Robert Klassen

Product Number: 9B08M048
Publication Date: 5/9/2008
Revision Date: 9/24/2018
Length: 19 pages

Carrefour, the second largest retailer in the world, had just announced that it would open its first Green Store in Beijing before the 2008 Olympic Games. David Monaco, asset and construction director of Carrefour China, had little experience with green building, and was struggling with how to translate that announcement into specifications for store design and operations. Monaco has to evaluate the situation carefully both from ecological and economic perspectives. In addition, he must take the regulatory and infrastructure situation in China into account, where no official green building standard exists and only few suppliers of energy saving equipment operate. He had already collected energy and cost data from several suppliers, and wondered how this could be used to decide among environmental technology options. Given that at least 150 additional company stores were scheduled for opening or renovation during the next three years in China, the project would have long term implications for Carrefour.

Teaching Note: 8B08M48 (13 pages)
Industry: Retail Trade
Issues: China; Strategy Implementation; Emerging Markets; Environmental Business Management; Operations Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



VICTORIA HEAVY EQUIPMENT LIMITED
Tom A. Poynter, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M037
Publication Date: 4/15/2008
Revision Date: 5/18/2017
Length: 12 pages

Victoria Heavy Equipment (Victoria) was a family owned and managed firm which had been led by an ambitious, entrepreneurial chief executive officer who now wanted to take a less active role in the business. Victoria had been through two reorganizations in recent years, which contributed to organizational and strategic issues which would need to be addressed by a new president.

Teaching Note: 8B08M37 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Growth Strategy; Organizational Structure; Leadership; Decentralization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SELKIRK GROUP IN ASIA (CONDENSED)
Paul W. Beamish, Lambros Karavis

Product Number: 9B02M041
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 12/3/2009
Length: 10 pages

Selkirk Group is a family-owned brick manufacturer which has built an export business to Japan and other Asian markets from zero to 10% of its volume in seven years. The managing director of the company raises the question of whether it is time to change their regional export strategy and organizational structure in light of the Asian economic crisis and the reasons for their competitive success in both Australia and Asia.

Teaching Note: 8A99M03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Exports; Organizational Structure; International Marketing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 10:
Implementing Strategy by Cultivating a Global Mindset

ARLA FOODS AND THE CARTOON CRISIS (A)
Henry W. Lane, Mikael Sondergaard, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B08M005
Publication Date: 1/31/2008
Revision Date: 2/26/2010
Length: 12 pages

After a Danish newspaper publishes cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad, consumers across the Middle East decide to boycott Danish goods. Arla Foods (Arla) is one of Europe's largest dairy companies. Suddenly, it finds itself caught in the middle of a crisis that appears to be beyond its control. Prior to the boycott, the Middle East was Arla's fastest growing region and represented an important component of the company's long-term growth strategy. As the largest Danish company in the region, it stands to lose up to $550 million in annual revenues. Students are asked to take the role of the communication director for Arla, who, along with other members of the newly formed Crisis and Communication Group, must decide on a course of action to deal with the crisis. The case addresses a variety of topics, including culture and religion, international management, risk management, crisis communications, and managing in a boycott situation. It also creates an opportunity to discuss doing business in the Middle East and management in an Islamic context.

Teaching Note: 8B08M05 (16 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Boycott; Crisis Management; Women in Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTINATIONAL PERSONNEL SELECTION SYSTEM
Diana E. Krause, Reiner Piske

Product Number: 9B07C041
Publication Date: 1/4/2008
Length: 17 pages

The owner of a company with production plants in various regions in the world wants to standardize the methods of personnel selection for the Asian-Pacific region (APAC). A new system of personnel selection has to be developed for middle management positions in APAC. The owner delegates this task to a cross-functional, multinational project team that operates in Hong Kong headed by a human resources (HR) executive and expatriate from Germany. In terms of the new personnel selection system, he has two opposing goals in mind: the new personnel selection system should be highly specific for a particular country and simultaneously valid for different countries. A series of issues must be resolved in order for the project to be successful. Some of these issues are related to the personnel selection system; the job requirements to be assessed, the modules it must include, the stages and methods of each module, and the implementation of the system across countries in APAC. Other issues are interpersonal, such as the cultural differences and the heterogeneous perspectives that exist among the team members, and a conflict between the HR executive and the owner.

Teaching Note: 8B07C41 (9 pages)
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Aptitude Diagnostics; International Personnel Selection; Teamwork
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN? AN EXERCISE TO ASSESS YOUR EXPOSURE TO THE REST OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLES
Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B08M069
Publication Date: 8/26/2008
Length: 11 pages

This team-building and familiarization activity can be used in the initial class or session of an international management program. It assesses one's exposure to the rest of the world's peoples. A series of worksheets require the respondents to check off the number and names of countries they have visited and the corresponding percentage of world population which each country represents. By summing a classes' collective exposure to the world's people, the result will inevitably be the recognition that together they have seen much, even if individually some have seen little. The teaching note provides assignments and discussion questions which look at: why there is such a high variability in individual profiles; the implications of each profile for one's business career; and, what it would take for the respondent to change his/her profile.

Teaching Note: 8B08M69 (6 pages)
Issues: Intercultural Relations; Internationalization; Team Building; Career Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA


Chapter 11:
Implementing Strategy Using Financial Performance Measures

MICROFINANCE AND THE KIPSIGIS OF SOUTHWEST KENYA
Glenn Brophey, Robin Wiszowaty

Product Number: 9B08M059
Publication Date: 9/29/2008
Length: 16 pages

A group of business students and their professor travel to rural Kenya to work with Free The Children (FTC), an in-situ, non-governmental organization (NGO) that is focused on generational social change through education for children. This Canadian NGO has had considerable success in meeting this original objective and now sees health care and economic development concerns as being the next barriers to expansion of its educational thrust for the local population. The business group has focused on microcredit for hardcore poor mothers (mommas) as a means to economic development, as this approach has proven successful with similar populations in other parts of the world. At the level of the momma, the charitable NGO is considering loans or grants to implement some joint liability financing. The business students have been asked to gather the data, consider the implications of their analysis and make a recommendation as to which financial structure will be more effective to the NGO's management group within Kenya. The students also have been asked to create an action plan for implementation of their recommendation that considers the broader context of the organization's overall activities in Kenya.

Teaching Note: 8B08M59 (8 pages)
Issues: Decision Making; Organizational Behaviour; Social Agency Management; Strategic Decision Making; Social Entrepreneurship
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



MTR CORPORATION LIMITED: MEASURING THE COST OF CAPITAL
Larry Wynant, Stephen R. Foerster, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B07N001
Publication Date: 3/16/2007
Revision Date: 11/18/2013
Length: 11 pages

Two MTR Corporation (MTRC) managers are participating in a week-long program in financial management. For their next class, they need to calculate the cost of capital for MTRC. First, they will review the concepts of investor expectations and cost of capital. Then, they must calculate the cost of capital by using the financial statements provided to them by the instructor. The two managers discuss their understanding of these concepts as they prepare their assignment, which is due in two hours.

Teaching Note: 8B07N01 (10 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Capital Structure; Capital Expenditure Analysis; Cost of Capital; Capital Budgeting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



FIRSTCARIBBEAN: THE PROPOSED MERGER
Stephen Sapp

Product Number: 9B06N004
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/23/2009
Length: 18 pages

This case provides students with an abridged version of the Offering Circular provided to investors for the proposed merger of the Caribbean operations of two international banks. Taking the perspective of an investment advisor, students are asked to evaluate the proposed merger and make a recommendation to the existing shareholders regarding how they should manage this investment going forward (i.e. sell or hold the shares in the new company). Students will discuss several of the issues involved in valuing international companies using somewhat limited data and puts them in the position of assessing the value of the proposal to existing shareholders.

Teaching Note: 8B06N04 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Valuation; Mergers & Acquisitions; Investment Analysis; International Business
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



SCOTTS MIRACLE-GRO: THE SPREADER SOURCING DECISION
John Gray, Michael Leiblein, Shyam Karunakaran

Product Number: 9B08M078
Publication Date: 11/14/2008
Revision Date: 6/22/2009
Length: 11 pages

The Scotts Miracle-Gro company is the world's largest marketer of branded consumer lawn and garden products, with a full range of products for professional horticulture as well. Headquartered in Marysville, Ohio, the company is a market leader in a number of consumer lawn and garden and professional horticultural products. The case describes a series of decisions regarding the ownership and organization of the assets used to manufacture fertilizer spreaders. This case is intended to illustrate the application of and tradeoffs between financial, strategic and operations perspectives in a relatively straightforward manufacturing make-buy decision. The case involves a well-known, easily-described product that most students would assume is made overseas. Sufficient information is provided to roughly estimate the direct financial cost associated with internal (domestic) production, offshore (non-domestic) production and outsourced production. In addition, information is included that may be used to estimate potential transaction costs as well as costs associated with foreign exchange risk.

Teaching Note: 8B08M78 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Human Resources Management; Outsourcing; Globalization; Operations Management; Supply Chain Management; Operations Strategy
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate


Chapter 12:
Intergration and Emerging Issues in Global Strategic Management

CIBC-BARCLAYS: SHOULD THEIR CARIBBEAN OPERATIONS BE MERGED?
Don Wood, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M067
Publication Date: 1/10/2005
Revision Date: 9/21/2011
Length: 17 pages

At the end of 2001, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Barclays Bank PLC were in advanced negotiations regarding the potential merger of their respective retail, corporate and offshore banking operations in the Caribbean. Some members of each board wondered whether this was the best direction to take. Would the combined company be able to deliver superior returns? Would it be possible to integrate, within budget, companies that had competed with each other in the region for decades? Would either firm be better off divesting regional operations instead? Should the two firms just continue to go-it-alone with emphasis on continual improvement? A decision needed to be made within the coming week. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis or in combination with any of the six additional Cross-Enterprise cases that deal with the various functional issues associated with the actual merger: Accounting and Finance - CIBC-Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022, Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032, Marketing and Branding - FirstCaribbean International Bank: The Marketing and Branding Challenges of a Start-up, product 9B05A012, Human Resources - Harmonization of Compensation and Benefits for FirstCaribbean International Bank, product 9B04C053, Finance - FirstCaribbean Merger: The Proposed Merger, product 9B06N004, and technical note - Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04M67 (8 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Emerging Markets; Mergers & Acquisitions; Integration; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL BANKS IN TANZANIA
Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

Product Number: 9B07C040
Publication Date: 10/30/2007
Length: 18 pages

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C40 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: International Management; Expatriate Management; Trade Unions; Management Training; Emerging Markets; Performance Evaluation; Recruiting; Subsidiaries; Career Development; Employee Selection
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



ECCO A/S - GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Bo Bernhard Nielsen, Torben Pedersen, Jacob Pyndt

Product Number: 9B08M014
Publication Date: 5/29/2008
Revision Date: 5/10/2017
Length: 21 pages

ECCO A/S (ECCO) had been very successful in the footwear industry by focusing on production technology and assuring quality by maintaining full control of the entire value chain from cow to shoe. As ECCO grew and faced increased international competition, various value chain activities, primarily production and tanning, were offshored to low-cost countries. The fully integrated value chain tied up significant capital and management attention in tanneries and production facilities, which could have been used to strengthen the branding and marketing of ECCO's shoes. Moreover, an increasingly complex and dispersed global value chain configuration posed organizational and managerial challenges regarding coordination, communication and logistics. This case examines the financial, organizational and managerial challenges of maintaining a highly integrated global value chain and asks students to determine the appropriateness of this set-up in the context of an increasingly market-oriented industry. It is suitable for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in international corporate strategy, international management, international marketing, supply-chain management, cross-border strategic management and international business studies in general.

Teaching Note: 8B08M14 (15 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Marketing Management; Operations Management; Global Strategy; Vertical Integration; Value Chain; Competitor Analysis
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA



HUXLEY MAQUILADORA
Paul W. Beamish, Jae C. Jung, Joyce Miller

Product Number: 9B02M033
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 6/28/2011
Length: 14 pages

A senior manager in a U.S. manufacturing firm must make a recommendation about whether 57 labour intensive jobs should be moved from the existing California plant to a new facility in a Mexican maquiladora. If the Mexican opportunity is pursued, decisions are also required regarding the entry mode (subcontracting, shelter operator or wholly-owned subsidiary) and location (border or interior).

Teaching Note: 8B02M33 (7 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Corporate Strategy; Plant Location; Third World; Subsidiaries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA