Ivey Publishing

Managing a Global Workforce: Challenges and Opportunities in International Human Resource Management

Vance, C.M., Paik, Y.,1/e (United States, M.E. Sharpe, 2006)
Prepared By Paul W. Beamish, Professor
Chapter and Title Chapter Matches: Case Information
Chapter 1:
Introduction and Overview

Tieying Huang, Junping Liang, Paul W. Beamish

Product Number: 9B04M033
Publication Date: 5/14/2004
Revision Date: 10/14/2009
Length: 6 pages

Jinjian Garment Factory is a large clothing manufacturer based in Shenzhen with distribution to Hong Kong and overseas. Although Shenzhen had become one of the most advanced garment manufacturing centres in the world, managers in this industry still had few effective ways of dealing with the collective and deliberate slow pace of work by the employees, of motivating workers, and of resolving the problem between seasonal production requirements and retention of skilled workers. However, the owner and managing director of the company must determine the reasons behind the deliberately slow pace of the workers, the pros and cons of the piecework system and the methods he could adopt to motivate the workers effectively.

Teaching Note: 8B04M33 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Productivity; Employee Attitude; Piece Work; Performance Measurement; Work-Force Management; Peking University
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 2:
Cultural Foundations of International Human Resource Management

Edward D. Arnheiter

Product Number: 9B07D019
Publication Date: 10/10/2007
Length: 13 pages

This case chronicles the creation and transformation of a Singaporean joint venture, Eagle Services Asia (ESA). It describes some early start-up problems, including a forced shutdown by the Civilian Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). The resulting shakeup of the ESA management team provides a fresh start and an opportunity to reinvigorate the company using lean management principles. Managerial decisions play a key role in ESA's success, together with the discipline and training of the workforce. Students will gain an understanding of cultural difficulties associated with international joint ventures, and learn fundamental aspects of lean management including how to create and sustain a lean culture. The case also provides insight into the worldwide aircraft engine business, the engine overhaul process and cultural barriers that may arise when managing operations in foreign countries.

Teaching Note: 8B07D19 (5 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Expatriate Management; Cultural Customs; Organizational Behaviour; Joint Ventures; Management of Change; Human Resources Management
Difficulty: 5 - MBA/Postgraduate

Henry W. Lane

Product Number: 9B05C019
Publication Date: 8/12/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 5 pages

After the U.S. sales manager of a large multinational company emails his supervisor regarding the supply of a new product, the message is forwarded to two others. The final recipient, the president of the Franco-Japanese joint venture partner that is manufacturing the new product, is offended by what he perceives as unfair criticism. The supplemental case, Charles Foster Sends an Email (B), product number 9B05C020, includes the sales manager's response to the president, and the ensuing correspondence from the joint venture. Together, the (A) and (B) cases present a setting for discussing three issues; the relationship between a communication situation and the medium chosen to deliver it, the effects on business relationships when an inappropriate communications medium is chosen and the processes needed to communicate effectively in multicultural business relationships.

Teaching Note: 8B05C19 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Interpersonal Relations; International Business; Management Communication; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Henry W. Lane

Product Number: 9B05C020
Publication Date: 8/12/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 3 pages

After the U.S. sales manager of a large multicultural company emails his supervisor regarding the supply of a new product, the message is forwarded to two others. The final recipient, the president of the Franco-Japanese joint venture partner that is manufacturing the new product, is offended by what he perceives as unfair criticism. The sales manager draws on his recent training in intercultural management to try to salvage the situation. The companion case, Charles Foster Sends and Email(A), product number 9B05C019, includes the complete series of email. Together, the (A) and (B) cases present a setting for discussing three issues: the relationship between a communications situation and the medium chosen to deliver it, the effects on business relationships when an inappropriate communications medium is chosen and the processes needed to communicated effectively in multicultural business relationships.

Teaching Note: 8B05C19 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: International Business; Interpersonal Relations; Management Communication; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 3:
Changes and Challenges in the Global Labor Market

Gerard Seijts, Ann C. Frost, Ken Mark

Product Number: 9B06C005
Publication Date: 4/11/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 23 pages

Having overseen the oftentimes acrimonious merger of Canadian Airlines, witnessed the depression in the airline passenger market in the wake of September 11, 2001, been negatively affected by the war in Iraq and the SARS threat in the spring of 2003, Robert Milton, CEO of Air Canada, had only recently reached 11th hour settlements with Air Canada's major unions. It was these agreements that had saved Air Canada from liquidation. Public critics pointed fingers directly at Milton and his actions to date as a major reason why employees and union leaders alike were so reluctant to commit to the economic health and viability of the airline. Victor Li, owner of Trinity Time Investments Ltd., was poised to buy a controlling stake in Air Canada. The proposal deal would give him veto power over a list of 23 different matters, including hiring the CEO. Should Li be confident in Milton and his management team to lead Air Canada through its next phase? Or would Air Canada be best served if Milton were let go after having brought the airline to this point?

Teaching Note: 8B06C05 (17 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Leadership; Management Succession; Change Management; Labour Relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Henry W. Lane, David T.A. Wesley

Product Number: 9B05C036
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 3 pages

Less than one year after being awarded a contract to develop one of the world's largest offshore petroleum fields, Statoil's future in Iran appeared to be in jeopardy. Statoil was at the center of a corruption investigation that had resulted in the resignations of three of the company's top executives, including its CEO. The issue was alleged bribes paid by Horton Investments, on Statoil's behest, to secure lucrative petroleum development contracts. According to the Iranian government, Statoil used Horton to channel $15 million in secret bribes to unnamed government officials. Statoil's country manager, who had considerable experience in the region and was unaware of the secret deals, is left with the difficult task of trying to salvage the operation and rebuild the social capital he had established between Statoil and its Iranian counterparts.

Teaching Note: 8B05C36 (5 pages)
Industry: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
Issues: Management Behaviour; Ethical Issues; Energy; International Management; Northeastern
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Allen Morrison, J. Stewart Black

Product Number: 9A98C003
Publication Date: 3/20/1998
Revision Date: 1/25/2010
Length: 14 pages

The general manager of a beverage company must decide what to do about the declining performance of its' Vietnam-based operation. Employees seem unmotivated and lackadaisical about their work and these same workers blame the weather for the poor results.

Teaching Note: 8A98C03 (9 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Labour Relations; Employee Attitude; Management in a Global Environment; Employment Equity
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 4:
The Key Role of International HRM in Successful MNC Strategy

Mikhail Grachev, Peggy C. Smith, Mariya A. Bobina

Product Number: 9B03C008
Publication Date: 2/27/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 14 pages

GTI is Global Traffic Inc., a U.S.-based sign manufacturer. The vice-president of the company is asked to recommend a human resources strategy for possible entry in the Russian market. He must develop a plan for expatriate assignment, the selection and compensation of personnel and the training needs, as well as outline the organizational culture.

Teaching Note: 8B03C08 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Expatriate Management; Compensation; Management Training; Cross Cultural Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 5:
Global Human Resource Planning

Kathleen E. Slaughter, Jeffrey Gandz, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B07C027
Publication Date: 6/4/2007
Revision Date: 5/24/2007
Length: 18 pages

This case examines the life, career and leadership style of John Meredith, the group managing director of Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH). Meredith established the company in 1972 based on his vision for more efficient global trade. Under his leadership, the company grew to become the world's largest container port operator. The company grew from owning and managing a single container port to owning and managing 45 container ports by May 2007. This case also examines the importance of leadership at all levels of organizations. When a company grows quickly and sets up operations around the world, it must constantly train new leaders. However, HPH had difficulty finding and training enough leaders who were willing to lead the company's new port operations in far-off destinations. The case examines HPH's actions thus far and asks what other measures may be appropriate in the future.

Teaching Note: 8B07C27 (7 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: Management in a Global Environment; Management Development; Leadership
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Alison Konrad, Jordan Mitchell

Product Number: 9B06C014
Publication Date: 1/30/2007
Revision Date: 9/16/2009
Length: 19 pages

Kirsti Paakkanen has achieved a celebrity status in Finland for her enigmatic leadership of the Finnish design company Marimekko. Purchasing the company in a state of near bankruptcy in 1991, Paakkanen took several actions to restore profitability and realize growth. As of 2006, the company has sales of $64 million (of which 80 per cent are from Finland) and net profits of $8.4 million. Over the last few years, Paakkanen and her team have focused on growing international sales. Recently, the company has opened concept shops in Japan, United Arab Emirates, Iceland, Sweden and the United States owned by foreign partners. In light of the international expansion, Paakkanen is wondering if any changes to Marimekko's personnel policies and/or organization structure are necessary.

Teaching Note: 8B06C14 (12 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Succession Planning; Women in Management; Organizational Structure; Internationalization
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 6:
Global Staffing

Jean-Louis Schaan, Nigel Goodwin

Product Number: 9B05C035
Publication Date: 11/28/2005
Revision Date: 9/28/2009
Length: 13 pages

The human resources manager for logistics and supply chain management at BAX China must consider her company's high rate of staff turnover. In her monthly report to the managing director, the turnover had reached 12 per cent in the first eight months of the year. The human resources manager must evaluate the company's current methods of dealing with turnover and consider what additional action should be taken. Logistics was a complex and rapidly growing industry, particularly in mainland China. Many multinational and domestic service providers were entering the marketing and expanding their operations; however, these companies had to respond to complex operational challenges and escalating customer demands. The resulting demand for skilled workers led to high turnover rates across the industry and at all organizational levels, and created margin pressure and other management challenges. The case offers a uniquely Chinese perspective on workforce recruitment, management and retention. The industry and the broader economy were growing rapidly. Skilled workers were in short supply because logistics was a new and developing discipline in the former command economy. Also, in the human resources manager's opinion, cultural attitudes resulted in low loyalty among the workers.

Teaching Note: 8B05C35 (9 pages)
Industry: Transportation and Warehousing
Issues: China; Employee Retention; Recruiting; Compensation; Nanyang
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 7:
Global Workforce Training and Development

Paul W. Beamish, Anthony Goerzen

Product Number: 9A98M034
Publication Date: 10/30/1998
Revision Date: 9/19/2017
Length: 11 pages

A year had elapsed since Mabuchi Motor Co., Ltd. of Japan, the world's most successful producer of small electric motors, had implemented a new management training program at one of its foreign operations in China. The program had two objectives. First, it was intended to enable the corporation to maintain its strategy of cost minimization by making it possible to reduce Japanese expatriate levels by improving the management skills of local managers in foreign subsidiaries. Second, by overcoming the shortage of qualified Japanese managers, the program would also allow the continued aggressive expansion of production that had become a cornerstone of corporate strategy. The teaching purpose is to illustrate the difficulties associated with transferring a management style and corporate culture into a different national culture.

Teaching Note: 8A98M34 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Organizational Change; Corporate Culture; Management Training; Subsidiaries
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Joerg Dietz, Michelle Goffin, Alan Marr

Product Number: 9B02C042
Publication Date: 11/29/2002
Revision Date: 11/9/2009
Length: 10 pages

An orphanage and foster care home for young children in Guyana was staffed by women who were paid a small monthly stipend. The facility was in poor physical state, the 54-hour workweek was exhausting and absenteeism was rampant. The new director tried to turn the facility around by repairing the building, improving the working conditions and seeking staff input. On the country's national holiday, however, none of the staff reported for work. The director considered her options: resignation, asking for additional resources, giving the staff more responsibility or disciplining the staff. Supplement case Red Cross Children's Home: Building Capabilities in Guyana (B), product 9B02C047 describes the actions taken by the director and their outcome. In supplemental case Red Cross Children's Home: Building Capabilities in Guyana (C), product 9B02C048, the former director visits the children's home after an absence of nearly two years and reflects on her management efforts. A 22 minute video is available, product 7B02C042 and a PowerPoint slide presentation, product 5B02C42.

Teaching Note: 8B02C42 (10 pages)
Industry: Social Advocacy Organizations
Issues: International Business; Non-Profit Organization; Organizational Change
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 8:
Managing International Assignments

Paul W. Beamish, Isaiah A. Litvak, Harry Cheung

Product Number: 9B04M012
Publication Date: 2/3/2004
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 7 pages

The vice-president of international operations must decide whether to continue to operate or abandon the company's Nigerian joint venture. Although the expatriate general manager of the Nigerian operation has delivered a very pessimistic report, Larson's own hunch was to stay in that country. Maintaining the operation was complicated by problems in staffing, complying with a promise to increase the share of local ownership, a joint venture partner with divergent views, and increasing costs of doing business in Nigeria. If Larson decides to maintain the existing operation, the issues of increasing local equity participation (i.e. coping with indigenization) and staffing problems (especially in terms of the joint venture general manager) have to be addressed.

Teaching Note: 8B04M12 (11 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Subsidiaries; Third World; Government Regulation; Staffing
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Hemant Merchant

Product Number: 9B04C010
Publication Date: 8/18/2004
Revision Date: 10/6/2009
Length: 15 pages

A recent MBA graduate describes the joys and frustrations of an expatriate life - both at personal and professional levels - as experienced by a young, single woman. She has been living in Bangkok for three years and is slowly adjusting to the local way of life when she receives a job offer that will relocate her back to her home in Hawaii. Reaching a decision, however, is not easy given career-related uncertainties in both countries as well as the array of conflicting emotions that confront her. She must decide how to sort through these issues. Should she remain in Bangkok or return home? Her decision is complicated by the fact that she had not entertained the idea of returning to the United States.

Teaching Note: 8B04C10 (15 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Women in Management; Expatriate Management; Emerging Markets; Global Manager
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James A. Erskine, Ebrahim El Kalza

Product Number: 9B04C013
Publication Date: 6/24/2004
Revision Date: 10/7/2009
Length: 11 pages

A summer assignment is turning into a nightmare for an intern at a large consulting firm. He has just receive his third reprimand from his boss, and is concerned how this relationship is distracting him from the project he needs to complete and how it could hurt his chances of obtaining full-time employment. He must decide how he can salvage the relationship with his boss and whether this organization is the best fit for him.

Teaching Note: 8B04C13 (6 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Interpersonal Skills; Intercultural Relations; Management Style; Consulting
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 9:
Global Workforce Performance Management

Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

Product Number: 9B07C040
Publication Date: 10/30/2007
Length: 18 pages

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

Teaching Note: 8B07C40 (16 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: International Management; Expatriate Management; Trade Unions; Management Training; Emerging Markets; Performance Evaluation; Recruiting; Subsidiaries; Career Development; Employee Selection
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James A. Erskine, Fyodor Suzdalev

Product Number: 9B04C011
Publication Date: 6/24/2004
Revision Date: 10/6/2009
Length: 13 pages

A supervisor at a telesales office has received very low ratings on an employee survey and the marketing manager is concerned that this team leader is not performing well. The marketing manager must decide what actions are needed to improve the leadership skills of this supervisor.

Teaching Note: 8B04C11 (4 pages)
Industry: Administrative, Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
Issues: Human Resources Management; Contracting; Performance Evaluation; Leadership
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Ann C. Frost

Product Number: 9B00C017
Publication Date: 9/22/2000
Revision Date: 1/7/2010
Length: 5 pages

Target Micronics is one of five international companies that supplies integrated circuits to China. An unsatisfactory internal audit rating prompts Target Micronic's China's director of finance to formulate a plan to create and implement a new accounting system. To do so required people with the right skills to design, implement and operate it, but the office was chronically understaffed, turnover rates were high and morale was low. The director had no hope of attracting the people she needed given the current situation. She needs to resolve the problems created by a system that has outlived its usefulness before an external audit, scheduled to happen in nine months.

Teaching Note: 8B00C17 (4 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: China; Growth; Staffing; System Design; Performance Evaluation
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Paul W. Beamish, Donna Everatt

Product Number: 9B00M003
Publication Date: 3/29/2000
Revision Date: 1/8/2010
Length: 13 pages

AWARD WINNING CASE - This case was one of the winning cases in the 2001 Regional Asia-Pacific Case Writing Competition. The newly hired director of human resources for a large golf and country club near Beijing, China has just presented her human resources plan to the company founder. At issue is whether this plan - in terms of recruiting, training and development, rewards and benefits - was directionally correct and implementable.

Teaching Note: 8B00M03 (8 pages)
Industry: Arts, Entertainment, Sports and Recreation
Issues: China; Performance Evaluation; Human Resources Management; Management Training; Work-Force Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 10:
Compensation for a Global Workforce

Edward Akhentoolove Corbin, Betty Jane Punnett

Product Number: 9B04C053
Publication Date: 4/11/2005
Revision Date: 10/9/2009
Length: 9 pages

The merger of the Caribbean holdings of Barclays Bank Plc. and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is going ahead, and the reality of integration of very diverse systems and procedures has to be faced. The case deals with understanding the current situation in terms of existing policies and designing policies that would be acceptable to employees from both banks in the organization - FirstCaribbean International Bank - which would be created by the merger. A critical aspect of the merger is the harmonization of compensation and benefits that must be resolved as a matter of priority. This case may be taught on a stand alone basis, or in combination with any of four additional cases that deal with various functional issues: 1) General Management - CIBC and Barclays: Should Their Operations be Merged, product 9B04M067. 2) Information Systems - Information Systems at FirstCaribbean: Choosing a Standard Operating Environment, product 9B04E032. 3) Accounting and Finance: CIBC Barclays: Accounting for Their Merger, product 9B04B022 4) Technical note: Note on Banking in the Caribbean, product 9B05M015.

Teaching Note: 8B04C53 (6 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Consolidations and Mergers; Benefits Policy; Compensation; Change Management; University of West Indies
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Donald W. Barclay, Ponlerd Chiemchanya

Product Number: 9B06A037
Publication Date: 1/9/2007
Revision Date: 9/14/2009
Length: 13 pages

A recent MBA graduate was about to return to the family business, Biomed Co., Ltd. as its general manager. Biomed's parent company, Thai Drugs Co., Ltd. has just revised Biomed's market strategy, a change that created the need to align the sales compensation system to fit with the new strategy. The new general manager was charged with this responsibility. Students will work through the path from strategy to a powerful sales compensation plan that will support the strategy and encourage to execute the role of the salesforce within this strategy.

Teaching Note: 8B06A37 (13 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Human Resources Management; Compensation; Managing Implementation; Sales Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Cecilia Gurgel do Amaral, Marlei Pozzebon

Product Number: 9B06M003
Publication Date: 2/6/2006
Revision Date: 9/17/2009
Length: 13 pages

This case describes the history of a non-traditional business group, Semco, starting from the 1980s, when Ricardo Semler assumed responsibility for the company and triggered a genuine revolution in terms of management practices. Since then, Semco's workforce has grown from 90 to 2,500 employees and its annual turnover climbed from US$4 million to US$160 million in 2001. The secret for transforming a conventional workplace into an unconventional hive was given: giving up control.

Teaching Note: 8B06M03 (7 pages)
Issues: Construction; Arts Administration; Bonuses; Corporate Responsibility
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Chapter 11:
Global Employee Relations

James A. Erskine, Unnat Kohli

Product Number: 9B07C033
Publication Date: 10/4/2007
Length: 11 pages

Prashant Lakhera, senior analyst at Credit Rating Agency Limited (CRA), has been working with Deepak Ghosh, project manager of the Construction Development Board, on a report that needs to be submitted within the next few days. Because Ghosh had been acting inappropriately in front of clients, Lakhera and Gagan Vedi, the other analyst working on the report, was concerned about how this might damage the image of CRA. Shortly before the report was due, Lakhera asked Ghosh for his contribution to the report. Ghosh indicated that he did not care and he walked away from the team. Now Lakhera had to decide what to do about the urgent deadline for the report.

Teaching Note: 8B07C33 (3 pages)
Industry: Finance and Insurance
Issues: Interpersonal Skills; Conflict Resolution; Interpersonal Relations; Crisis Management
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James A. Erskine, Leslie Ly

Product Number: 9B03C021
Publication Date: 5/1/2003
Revision Date: 10/17/2009
Length: 6 pages

Document Reproductions is a leading provider of outsourced content management and customer communication solutions. A scanner operator with the company has found out about a dispute between two co-workers while at work. One of the co-workers involved is her husband and she is concerned that this may cause him to lose his job. She must decide whether to tell the manager of operations what happened or persuade another co-worker who witnessed the incident to come forward.

Teaching Note: 8B03C21 (5 pages)
Industry: Other Services
Issues: Cross Cultural Management; Employee Relations; Conflict Resolution; Interpersonal Relations
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

James A. Erskine, Fabian Marks

Product Number: 9B00C015
Publication Date: 8/29/2000
Revision Date: 1/7/2010
Length: 13 pages

The newly-hired group product manager of Caribbean Foods Limited (a wholly owned subsidiary of Intasco Ltd, USA, and importer of Intasco's food, bakery and pet food products) was frustrated after just six weeks in his position. He felt his creativity was being stifled and that there was no way to please his new boss; he was beginning to doubt himself. He began to consider his alternatives: Should he try to work things out? Should he change his style and just work with the system to fit into the culture of the company? Should he resign?

Teaching Note: 8B00C15 (6 pages)
Industry: Manufacturing
Issues: Employee Relations; Interpersonal Relations; Conflict Resolution; Career Development
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA

Ann C. Frost, Daniel D. Campbell

Product Number: 9A97C001
Publication Date: 3/20/1997
Revision Date: 2/2/2010
Length: 9 pages

Management must decide what action to take with a small telemarketing operation that is about to vote on union representation. If employees vote in favor of a union, the operation would become the first business unit to be represented by a union. Closure of the plant is an option to be considered. The mostly Hispanic workforce becomes an additional consideration in the (B) case, 9A97C002.

Teaching Note: 8A97C01 (5 pages)
Industry: Information, Media & Telecommunications
Issues: Industrial Relations; Employee Relations; Unionization; Labour Unions
Difficulty: 4 - Undergraduate/MBA